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Encyclopedia > Ice cream
Strawberry ice cream
Strawberry ice cream
Caramel ice cream
Caramel ice cream

Ice cream or ice-cream (originally iced cream) is a frozen dessert made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, combined with flavorings and sweeteners, such as sugar. This mixture is stirred slowly while cooling to prevent large ice crystals from forming, which results in a smoothly textured ice cream. Similar frozen desserts have been developed substituting non-dairy ingredients (soy cream, soy milk, rice milk) for the milk and cream.[1][2] Although the term "ice cream" is sometimes used to mean frozen desserts and snacks in general, it is usually legally reserved for frozen desserts and snacks made with a high percentage of milk fat. Frozen custard, frozen yogurt, sorbet, gelato, and other similar products are sometimes informally called ice cream, but governments generally regulate the commercial use of these terms based on quantities of ingredients.[3] Ice cream is generally served as a chilled product. It may also be found in dishes where the coldness of the ice cream is used as a temperature contrast, for example, as a topping on warm desserts, or even in fried ice cream. Some commercial institutions such as creameries specialize in serving ice cream and products that are related. This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about the distributed compiler. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 958 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 958 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A piece of caramel confectionery. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Cans of cream. ... Flavouring (or flavoring) is a product which is added to food in order to change or augment its taste. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sugar substitute. ... This article is about water ice. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Greek Café Frappé prepared with soy milk, topped with additional cinnamon 1 l (2. ... Rice milk is a kind of grain milk processed from rice. ... A glass of cows milk Milk most often means the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals. ... Chocolate frozen custard Frozen custard is a type of cold dessert similar to ice cream, made with eggs in addition to cream and sugar. ... french fry frozen yogurt Frozen yogurt (also frozen yoghurt, Froyo[1] or frogurt) is a frozen dessert made from or containing yogurt or dairy analogues. ... A bowl of mango sorbet Sorbet (or sorbetto, sorbeto) is a frozen dessert made from iced fruit puree and other ingredients. ... Italian Gelato, with two tower shaped biscuits. ... Fried ice cream served at a Thai restaurant in the United States. ... A Creamery is an establishment where dairy products are prepared or sold. ...


These ingredients, along with air incorporated during the stirring process, make up ice cream. Generally, less expensive ice creams contain lower-quality ingredients (for example, natural vanilla may be replaced by artificial vanillin), and more air is incorporated, sometimes as much as 50% of the final volume. Artisan-produced ice creams often contain very little air, although some is necessary to produce the characteristic creamy texture of the product. Generally speaking, the finest ice creams have between 3% and 15% air. Because most ice cream is sold by volume, it is economically advantageous for producers to reduce the density of the product in order to cut costs. Ice cream can also be hand-packed and sold by weight. The use of stabilizers rather than cream and the incorporation of air also decrease the fat and energy content of less expensive ice creams, making them more appealing to those on diets. For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... Vanillin, methyl vanillin, or 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C8H8O3. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Measuring body weight on a scale Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a regulated fashion to achieve a particular objective. ...


Ice cream comes in a wide variety of flavors, often with additives such as chocolate flakes or chips, ribbons of sauce such as caramel or chocolate, nuts, fruit, and small candies/sweets. Some of the most popular ice cream flavors are vanilla, chocolate, strawberry, and Neapolitan (a combination of the three). Many people also enjoy ice cream sundaes, which often have ice cream, hot fudge, nuts, whipped cream, maraschino cherries or a variety of other toppings. Other toppings include cookie crumbs, butterscotch, sprinkles, banana sauce, marshmallows or different varieties of candy. For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Candy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... Block of Neapolitan ice cream. ... Strawberry Sundae In the United States, one of the most familiar ice cream desserts is the ice cream sundae. ... Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-fat layer skimmed from the top of raw milk before homogenization. ... A close up of a Maraschino cherry A maraschino cherry is a preserved, sweetened cherry, typically made from light-colored sweet cherries, such as the Royal Ann, Rainier, or Gold varieties. ... For the singer/beatboxer who appeared on Americas Got Talent, see Butterscotch (performer). ... Chocolate sprinkles In the Netherlands chocolate sprinkles – hagelslag – are commonly used as a sandwich topping Birthday cupcakes with colored sprinkles Sprinkles are very small pieces of confectionary used as a decoration or to add texture to desserts – typically cakes or cupcakes, cookies, doughnuts, ice cream, and some puddings. ... Banana sauce is a spicy sauce made primarily from bananas and spices. ...

Contents

Production

Before the development of modern refrigeration, ice cream was a luxury item reserved for special occasions. Making ice cream was quite laborious. Ice was cut from lakes and ponds during the winter and stored in large heaps, in holes in the ground, or in wood-frame ice houses, insulated by straw. Many farmers and plantation owners, including U.S. Presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, cut and stored ice in the winter for use in the summer. Frederic Tudor of Boston turned ice harvesting and shipping into big business, cutting ice in New England and shipping it around the world. An ancient ice house, called a yakhchal, built in Kerman, Iran during the middle ages, for storing ice during summers. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Frederic Tudor (September 4, 1783 - February 6, 1864) was Bostons Ice King, the founder of the Tudor Ice Company, and a merchant who made a fortune shipping ice to the Caribbean, Europe, and even as far away as India from sources of fresh water in New England. ...


Ice cream was made by hand in a large bowl placed inside a tub filled with ice and salt. This was called the pot-freezer method. French confectioners refined the pot-freezer method, making ice cream in a sorbtierre (a covered pail with a handle attached to the lid). In the pot-freezer method, the temperature of the ingredients is reduced by the mixture of crushed ice and salt. The salt water is cooled by the ice, and the action of the salt on the ice causes it to (partially) melt, absorbing latent heat and bringing the mixture below the freezing point of pure water. The immersed container can also make better thermal contact with the salty water and ice mixture than it could with ice alone. For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... In thermochemistry, latent heat is the amount of energy in the form of heat released or absorbed by a substance during evaporation. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


The hand-cranked churn, which also uses ice and salt for cooling, replaced the pot-freezer method. The exact origin of the hand-cranked freezer is unknown, but the first U.S. patent for one was #3254 issued to Nancy Johnson on September 9, 1843. The hand-cranked churn produced smoother ice cream than the pot freezer and did it quicker. Many inventors patented improvements on Johnson's design. is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In Europe and early America, ice cream was made and sold by small businesses, mostly confectioners and caterers. Jacob Fussell of Baltimore, Maryland was the first to manufacture ice cream on a large scale. Fussell bought fresh dairy products from farmers in York County, Pennsylvania, and sold them in Baltimore. An unstable demand for his dairy products often left him with a surplus of cream, which he made into ice cream. He built his first ice-cream factory in Seven Valleys, Pennsylvania, in 1851. Two years later he moved his factory to Baltimore. Later he opened factories in several other cities and taught the business to others, who operated their own plants. Mass production reduced the cost of ice cream and added to its popularity. Baltimore redirects here. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N...

An electric ice cream maker
An electric ice cream maker

The development of industrial refrigeration by German engineer Carl von Linde during the 1870s eliminated the need to cut and store natural ice and when the continuous-process freezer was perfected in 1926, it allowed commercial mass production of ice cream and the birth of the modern ice cream industry. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2222x2172, 1541 KB) Photo of Gaggia ice cream maker taken by ElinorD in February 2007. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2222x2172, 1541 KB) Photo of Gaggia ice cream maker taken by ElinorD in February 2007. ... Fridge redirects here. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde (born 11 June 1842 in Berndorf (Oberfranken); died 16 November 1934 in Munich) was a German engineer who developed the basics of modern refrigeration technology. ...


The most common method for producing ice cream at home is to use an ice cream maker, in modern times generally an electrical device that churns the ice cream mixture while cooled inside a household freezer, or using a solution of pre-frozen salt and water, which gradually melts while the ice cream freezes. Some more expensive models have an inbuilt freezing element. A newer method of making home-made ice cream is to add liquid nitrogen to the mixture while stirring it using a spoon or spatula. Some ice cream recipes call for making a custard, folding in whipped cream, and immediately freezing the mixture. An ice cream maker An ice cream maker or ice cream freezer is a machine used to make homemade ice cream. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


Commercial delivery

A bicycle-based ice cream vendor
A bicycle-based ice cream vendor

Ice cream can be mass-produced and thus is widely available in developed parts of the world. Ice cream can be purchased in large cartons (vats and squrounds) from supermarkets and grocery stores, in smaller quantities from ice cream shops, convenience stores, and milk bars, and in individual servings from small carts or vans at public events. In Turkey and Australia, ice cream is sometimes sold to beach-goers from small powerboats equipped with chest freezers. Some ice cream distributors sell ice cream products from traveling refrigerated vans or carts (commonly referred to in the US as "ice cream trucks"), sometimes equipped with speakers playing children's music. Traditionally ice cream vans in the United Kingdom make a music box noise rather than actual music. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2313 KB) Ice cream seller bike (sepeda es krim), Pelabuhan Ratu Indonesia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2313 KB) Ice cream seller bike (sepeda es krim), Pelabuhan Ratu Indonesia. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... French milk carton Carton is the name of certain types of containers typically made from paperboard which is also sometimes known as cardboard. // In art history, the carton (pronounced the French way) was a drawing on ordinary cardboard, used as life-size design for the manufacture in an atelier of... Squround is a portmanteau for square round (cartons), referring to a hybrid between a square and a round carton. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


History

Ancient civilizations had saved ice for cold foods for thousands of years. Mesopotamia has the earliest icehouses in existence, 4,000 years ago, beside the Euphrates River, where the wealthy stored items to keep them cold. The pharaohs of Egypt had ice shipped to them. In the fifth century BC, ancient Greeks sold snow cones mixed with honey and fruit in the markets of Athens.[citation needed] Persians, having mastered the storage of ice, ate ice cream well into summer. Roman emperor Nero (37–68) had ice brought from the mountains and combined with fruit toppings. Today's ice treats likely originated with these early ice delicacies.[4] Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ...


Persia

Bastani, Persian rosewater ice cream, is typically served between wafers as an ice cream sandwich.
Bastani, Persian rosewater ice cream, is typically served between wafers as an ice cream sandwich.

Many myths surround ice cream and its true origin. Many believe that it evolved from cooled wines and flavored Ices around, and might have come from Persia. These Iced wines were popular with Alexander the Great and later with Roman high society. In 62 AD, the Roman emperor Nero sent slaves to the Apennine mountains to collect snow to be flavored with honey and nuts. The Persians mastered the technique of storing ice inside giant naturally-cooled refrigerators known as yakhchals. These structures kept ice brought in from the winter, or from nearby mountains, well into the summer. They worked by using tall windcatchers that kept the sub-level storage space at frigid temperatures. Image File history File linksMetadata Bastani. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bastani. ... Rosewater or rose syrup (Persian: Golâb Turkish: Gül suyu) is the hydrosol portion of the distillate of rose petals. ... Yakh-chal A yakh-chāl is an ancient natural refrigerator. ... A windcatcher (Badgir; بادگیر) is a traditional Persian architectural device used for many centuries to create natural ventilation in buildings. ...


In 400 BC, Persians invented a special chilled pudding-like dish, made of rosewater and vermicelli which was served to royalty during summers. The ice was mixed with saffron, fruits, and various other flavors. The treat, widely made in Iran today, is called "faloodeh", and is made from starch (usually wheat), spun in a sieve-like machine which produces threads or drops of the batter, which are boiled in water. The mix is then frozen, and mixed with rosewater and lemons, before serving.[1][2][verification needed] Persia redirects here. ... Rosewater or rose syrup (Persian: Golâb Turkish: Gül suyu) is the hydrosol portion of the distillate of rose petals. ... Vermicelli (Italian: ver-mih-CHEL-lee, lit. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... Persian ice cream made of frozen noodles which are usually eaten with lime juice. ...


Arabia

Ice cream was the favorite dessert for the caliphs of Baghdad. The Arabs were the first to add sugar to ice cream, and were also the first to make ice cream commercially, having factories in the 10th century. It was sold in the markets of all Arab cities in the past.[5] It was made of a chilled syrup or milk with fruits and some nuts. Ice cream was introduced to the west by Arabs, through Sicily.[3] Not to be confused with Desert. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


China

An ice cream vendor in Vienna, Austria, July 2005
The Brooklyn Ice Cream Factory serves ice cream in New York City
The Brooklyn Ice Cream Factory serves ice cream in New York City

According to Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat in her History of Food, "the Chinese may be credited with inventing a device to make sorbets and ice cream. They poured a mixture of snow and saltpetre over the exteriors of containers filled with syrup, for, in the same way as salt raises the boiling-point of water, it lowers the freezing-point to below zero."[6] The Chinese put sugar in the ice and sold it as food during the summer. During the Song Dynasty, people began putting fruit juice in the water used to create the ice; milk began to be used in the Yuan Dynasty, as the nomadic Mongols introduced milk to China, where milk was not widely used in cuisine. Milk and dairy products in general remain rare in Chinese cuisine.[citations needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1321 KB)An Italian ice cream vendor in Vienna, Austria. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1321 KB)An Italian ice cream vendor in Vienna, Austria. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (984x1696, 373 KB) Summary The Brooklyn Ice Cream Factory in New York City. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (984x1696, 373 KB) Summary The Brooklyn Ice Cream Factory in New York City. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ...


India

As early as the sixteenth century, the Mughal emperors used relays of horsemen to bring ice from the Hindu Kush to Delhi where it was used in fruit sorbets.[7] Kulfi is a type of ice cream which is very closely related to the Persian ice cream and is still sold by road side vendors and in restaurants. The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Kulfi is a popular South Asian dessert made with boiled milk. ...


The West

Popular folklore asserts that Marco Polo saw ice cream being made on his trip to China and took the recipe home to Italy with him on his return.[8] However, in his writings Marco Polo never claimed to have introduced ice cream to the west.[9] Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ...


The Roman emperor Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus appreciated a sort of local ice cream during the 37-68 AD.


When Italian duchess Catherine de' Medici married the duc d’Orléans in 1533, she is said to have brought with her Italian chefs who had recipes for flavored ices or sorbets and introduced them in France.[10] One hundred years later Charles I of England was supposedly so impressed by the "frozen snow" that he offered his own ice cream maker a lifetime pension in return for keeping the formula secret, so that ice cream could be a royal prerogative.[11] There is, however, no historical evidence to support these legends, which first appeared during the 19th century. Catherine de Medici (April 13, 1519 – January 5, 1589) was born in Florence, Italy, as Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ice cream made with a milk mixture was first recorded in Europe in Italy.[10] (See History of Ice Cream for more.)


The first recipe for flavored ices in French appears in 1674, in Nicholas Lemery’s Recueil de curiositéz rares et nouvelles de plus admirables effets de la nature.[10]


Recipes for sorbetti saw publication in the 1694 edition of Antonio Latini's Lo Scalco alla Moderna (The Modern Steward).[10]


Recipes for flavored ices begin to appear in François Massialot's Nouvelle Instruction pour les Confitures, les Liqueurs, et les Fruits starting with the 1692 edition. Massialot's recipes result in a coarse, pebbly texture. However, Latini claims that the results of his recipes should have the fine consistency of sugar and snow.[10]


America

The first ice cream invented in the Americas, the sorbet, was invented by native indigenous in Ibarra, Ecuador during Incan occupation. The natives made the handmade ice cream, by taking ice from the top of Imbabura Volcano using a large bronze pan, and juices added from various fruit (eg taxo).[citation needed] A bowl of mango sorbet Sorbet (or sorbetto, sorbeto) is a frozen dessert made from iced fruit puree and other ingredients. ... Ibarra can mean several things: Ibarra is the capital of the province of Imbabura in Ecuador. ... Imbabura is an inactive stratovolcano in northern Ecuador. ...


Modern ice cream

In the 18th century cream, milk, and egg yolks began to feature in the recipes of previously dairy-free flavored ices, resulting in ice cream in the modern sense of the word. The 1751 edition of The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy by Hannah Glasse features a recipe for raspberry cream ice. 1768 saw the publication of L'Art de Bien Faire les Glaces d'Office by M. Emy, a cookbook devoted entirely to recipes for flavored ices and ice cream.[10] Written in 1747, Hannah Glasses (1708-1770) The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy represents one of the most important references for culinary practice in England and the American colonies during the latter half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. ... Hannah Glasse was a housewife in the 1700s. ...


Ice cream was introduced to the United States by colonists who brought their ice cream recipes with them. Confectioners, many of whom were Europeans, sold ice cream at their shops in New York and other cities during the colonial era. Ben Franklin, George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson were known to have regularly eaten and served ice cream. First Lady Dolley Madison is also closely associated with the early history of ice cream in the United States. Portrait of Benjamin Franklin Dr. Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706–April 17, 1790) was an American journalist, publisher, author, philanthropist, abolitionist, public servant, scientist, librarian, diplomat, and inventor. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... This article is about the use of the term first lady internationally. ... This article is about a U.S. First Lady (the wife of James Madison). ...


Around 1832, Augustus Jackson, an African American confectioner, not only created multiple ice cream recipes, but he also invented a superior technique to manufacture ice cream. [4]


In 1843, Nancy Johnson of Philadelphia was issued the first U.S. patent for a small-scale handcranked ice cream freezer. The invention of the ice cream soda gave Americans a new treat, adding to ice cream's popularity. This cold treat was probably invented by Robert Green in 1874, although there is no conclusive evidence to prove his claim. A lime spider The ice cream soda is a treat made, typically, by mixing ice cream with either a soft drink (commonly root beer) or flavored syrup and carbonated water, often with some special technique to encourage the partial slushing of the ice cream itself. ...


The ice cream sundae originated in the late 19th century. Several men claimed to have created the first sundae, but there is no conclusive evidence to back up any of their stories. Some sources say that the sundae was invented to circumvent blue laws, which forbade serving sodas on Sunday. Towns claiming to be the birthplace of the sundae include Buffalo, New York; Two Rivers, Wisconsin; Ithaca, New York; and Evanston, Illinois. Both the ice cream cone and banana split became popular in the early 20th century. Several food vendors claimed to have invented the ice cream cone at the 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis, MO, and reliable evidence proves that the ice cream cone was popularized at the fair. However, Europeans were eating cones long before 1904. [5] [6] Strawberry Sundae In the United States, one of the most familiar ice cream desserts is the ice cream sundae. ... This article is about laws created to enforce moral standards. ... A stack of sugar ice cream cones An ice cream cone or cornet is a cone-shaped pastry, usually made of a wafer similar in texture to a waffle, in which ice cream is served, allowing it to be eaten without a bowl or spoon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


20th century

The history of ice cream in the 20th century is one of great change and increases in availability and popularity. In the United States in the early 20th century, the ice cream soda was a popular treat at the soda shop, the soda fountain, and the ice cream parlor. During American Prohibition the soda fountain to some extent replaced the outlawed alcohol establishments, including bars and saloons. A lime spider The ice cream soda is a treat made, typically, by mixing ice cream with either a soft drink (commonly root beer) or flavored syrup and carbonated water, often with some special technique to encourage the partial slushing of the ice cream itself. ... Zaharakos Confectionery in Columbus, Indiana Soda shop is a business akin to an ice cream parlor and a drugstore soda fountain. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Ice cream became popular throughout the world in the second half of the 20th century after cheap refrigeration became common. There was an explosion of ice cream stores and of flavors and types. Vendors often competed on the basis of variety. Howard Johnson's restaurants advertised "a world of 28 flavors." Baskin-Robbins made its 31 flavors ("one for every day of the month") the cornerstone of its marketing strategy. The company now boasts that it has developed over 1000 varieties. Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ... The current logo for Howard Johnsons motor lodges. ... External links Baskin-Robbins official site. ...

George and Davis' Ice Cream Cafe on Little Clarendon Street, Oxford.
George and Davis' Ice Cream Cafe on Little Clarendon Street, Oxford.

One important development in the 20th century was the introduction of soft ice cream. A chemical research team in Britain (of which a young Margaret Thatcher was a member)[12][13] discovered a method of doubling the amount of air in ice cream, which allowed manufacturers to use less of the actual ingredients, thereby reducing costs. This ice cream was also very popular amongst consumers who preferred the lighter texture, and most major ice cream brands now use this manufacturing process. It also made possible the soft ice cream machine in which a cone is filled beneath a spigot on order. In the United States, Dairy Queen, Carvel, and Tastee Freez pioneered in establishing chains of soft-serve ice cream outlets. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (822x710, 169 KB) Picture of George & Davis Ice Cream Cafe on Little Clarendon Street, Oxford. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (822x710, 169 KB) Picture of George & Davis Ice Cream Cafe on Little Clarendon Street, Oxford. ... Little Clarendon Street, looking East. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Soft ice cream was invented by A chemical research team in Britain (of which a young Margaret Thatcher was a member) discovered a method of doubling the amount of air in ice cream, which allowed manufacturers to use less of the actual ingredients, thereby reducing costs. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... Spigot redirects here. ...


The 1980s saw a return of the older, thicker ice creams being sold as "premium" and "superpremium" varieties. Ben and Jerry's, Beechdean, and Häagen-Dazs fall into this category. Ben and Jerrys factory in Waterbury, Vermont Ben and Jerrys is a brand of ice cream, frozen yogurt, sorbet, and novelty products, manufactured by Ben & Jerrys Homemade, Inc. ... Logo A Häagen-Dazs shop in Fashion Show Mall on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. ...


Other frozen desserts

Snow cones, made from balls of crushed ice topped with sweet syrup served in a paper cone, are consumed in many parts of the world. The most common places to find snow cones in the United States are at amusement parks. Snow cone with cherry syrup A snow cone is a dessert item usually made of compacted shaved ice flavored with a brightly colored sugary syrup, usually fruit-flavored. ... Theme park redirects here. ...


A popular springtime treat in maple-growing areas is maple toffee, where maple syrup boiled to a concentrated state is poured over fresh snow congealing in a toffee-like mass, and then eaten from a wooden stick used to pick it up from the snow. For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... English Toffee (the chewy sort) in cellophane wrapping Toffee is a confection made by boiling molasses or sugar along with butter, milk and occasionally flour. ... Bottled maple syrup produced in Quebec. ...


Ice creams and sorbets are frozen while being stirred or agitated, resulting in a light texture. Some ice pops are quiescently frozen — frozen at rest without stirring whilst others are frozen in an ice cream freezer (slush frozen) to give a smoother, softer texture. A green ice pop An ice pop is a frozen water dessert on a stick that is colored and flavored. ...


Ice cream throughout the world

Australia and New Zealand

An ice cream van at Batemans Bay, New South Wales, Australia
An ice cream van at Batemans Bay, New South Wales, Australia

Per capita, Australians and New Zealanders are among the leading ice cream consumers in the world, eating 18 litres and 20 litres each per year respectively, behind the United States of America where people eat 23 litres each per year.[14] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 692 KB) Summary An icecream van at Batemans Bay, New South Wales, Australia, January 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 692 KB) Summary An icecream van at Batemans Bay, New South Wales, Australia, January 2006. ... Batemans Bay (postcode: 2536, ) is a town and a bay in the South Coast region of the state of New South Wales, Australia. ...


Finland

The first ice cream manufacturer in Finland were the Italian Magi family, who opened the Helsingin jäätelötehdas in 1922 and Suomen Eskimo Oy. Other manufacturers soon spawned, like Pietarsaaren jäätelötehdas (1928-2002).


Finland's first ice cream bar opened at the Lasipalatsi in 1936, and at the same time another manufacturer, Maanviljelijäin Maitokeskus started their production. The Lasipalatsi as seen from Mannerheimintie. ...


Today, the two largest ice cream manufacturers are Ingman and Nestlé (who bought Valiojäätelö). Finland is also the leading consumer of ice cream in Europe, with 13.7 liters per person in 2003.[15] Incorporated in 1907, the Ingman Group is one of the largest food manufacturers in Scandinavia, holding a leading position in the dairy sector in Finland, Sweden and the Baltic Countries. ... This article is about the company. ... Valio is one of the biggest companies in Finland and mostly produces dairy products such as ice cream, butter, yoghurt and milk. ...


France

In 1651 Francesco dei Coltelli opened an ice cream café in Paris and the product became so popular that during the next 50 years another 250 icecafés opened in Paris. Some "French Style" ice creams are made with butter in place of cream. This article is about the capital of France. ...


Germany

Italian ice-cream parlours (Eisdielen) have been popular in Germany since the 1920s, when many Italians immigrated and set up business. As in Italy itself, ice cream is considered a traditional dessert and the ice-cream at an Eisdiele is still mostly hand-made.


Greece

Although ice cream in its modern form is a relatively new invention, ice treats have been enjoyed since ancient times. During the 5th century BC, ancient Greeks ate snow mixed with honey and fruit in the markets of Athens. The father of modern medicine, Hippocrates, encouraged his ancient Greek patients to eat ice "as it livens the lifejuices and increases the well-being."[16] In the 4th century BC, it was well known that a favorite treat of Alexander the Great was snow ice mixed with honey and nectar.[17] In modern times Greek ice cream recipes have some unique flavors such as Pagoto Kaimaki, (Greek: Παγωτό Καϊμάκι), made from mastic-resin which gives it an almost chewy texture, and salepi, used as a thickening agent to increase resistance to melting; both give the ice cream a unique taste; Olive Oil Ice Cream with figs; Pagoto Kataifi Chocolate, (Greek: Παγωτό Καταΐφι-κακάο), made from the shredded filo dough pastry that resembles angel's hair pasta or vermicelli; and Mavrodaphne Ice Cream, (Greek: Μαυροδάφνη Παγωτό), made from a Greek dessert wine. Fruity Greek Sweets of the Spoon are usually served as toppings with Greek-inspired ice cream flavors. For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... Binomial name L. Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 3–4 m tall, mainly cultivated for its aromatic resin on the Greek island of Chios,[1]. It is native throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Iberia at the east through southern France and... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis - Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina - Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica - Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus microcarpa - Chinese Banyan Ficus nota Ficus obtusifolia Ficus palmata... Vermicelli (Italian: ver-mih-CHEL-lee, lit. ... Greek Sweets of the Spoon Sweets of the Spoon (Greek: Γλυκό Του Κουταλιού) is a Greek traditional homemade fruit confectionery called spoon sweets, fruits stewed down with sugar to a desired consistency and available in a wide range of flavors. ...


Italy

Italian ice cream in Rome
Italian ice cream in Rome

Ice cream is a traditional dessert in Italy. Much is still hand-made by individual gelateria (look for the sign 'produzione propria', meaning 'our own make' in the ice cream shops). Italian ice cream or gelato is made from whole milk, eggs, sugar, and natural flavorings. Gelato typically contains 7-8% fat, less than ice cream's minimum of 10%. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1290x1188, 390 KB) Ice cream in a shop in the centre of Rome File links The following pages link to this file: Ice cream User:Alejo2083 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1290x1188, 390 KB) Ice cream in a shop in the centre of Rome File links The following pages link to this file: Ice cream User:Alejo2083 ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Italian Gelato, with two tower shaped biscuits. ...


Before the cone became popular for serving ice cream, in English speaking countries, Italian street vendors would serve the ice cream in a small glass dish referred to as a "penny lick" or wrapped in waxed paper and known as a hokey-pokey (possibly a corruption of the Italian "ecco un poco" - "here is a little").[18] A penny lick was a small glass for serving ice cream from the mid 19th century to the early 20th century. ... Hokey pokey is a flavour of ice cream sold in New Zealand; according to the New Zealand Ice Cream Manufacturers Association [1], it is the nations second most popular ice cream flavour, after vanilla. ...


Some of the most known ice cream machine makers are Italian companies Carpigiani, Crm-Telme, Corema-Telme, Technogel, Cattabriga, Matrix, Promag. Carpigiani, Italian industry, specialised in producing ice cream machines located near Bologna. ...


Japan

Mochi ice cream sold in Japan
Mochi ice cream sold in Japan
Japanese green tea ice cream with anko sauce
Japanese green tea ice cream with anko sauce

Ice cream is a popular dessert in Japan also, with almost two in five adults eating some at least once a week, according to a recent survey.[19] Since 1999, the Japanese Ice Cream Association has been publishing the Ice Cream White Paper once a year, and the four most popular ice cream flavors in Japan has not changed (including their orders) since 1999 according the Paper.[20] The top four flavors are vanilla, chocolate, matcha (powdered green tea) and strawberry. Other notable popular flavors are milk, caramel and azuki (Red Bean) also according the Paper.[20] Azuki is particularly favored by people in their 50s and older.[20] While matcha is a truly Japanese flavor favored by Japanese and well-known among non-Japanese outside of Japan, plum and ginger, tastes often presented as Japanese flavors outside of Japan, did not make the cut in the top 17 favorite flavor list in 2006.[20] In Japan, a soft serve ice cream is called softcream which is also very popular. As a seasonal treat during the cherry blossom season, ice cream is available that is actually flavored with cherry blossoms. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixels, file size: 1. ... Rice Cake Pounding mochi in an usu Making mochi with a modern piece of equipment Mochi (Japanese ) is the Japanese variant of Chinese rice cake, which, like its Chinese origin, is made of glutinous rice, pounded into paste and molded into shape; however, unlike the Chinese variety, it is molded... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixels, file size: 1. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Japanese name Kanji: Korean name Hangul: Red bean paste or Azuki bean paste is a sweet, dark red bean paste originating in China. ... A white paper is an authoritative report. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... Matcha IPA: ) is a fine, powdered green tea used particularly in Japanese tea ceremony, as well as to dye and flavour foods such as mochi and soba noodles, green tea ice cream and a variety of wagashi (Japanese confectionery). ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... A glass of cows milk. ... A piece of caramel confectionery. ... Binomial name Vigna angularis (Willd. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Soft_serve and Soft_ice_cream (Discuss) Softcream ) is principally a soft kind of ice cream which is popular in Japan. ...


United Kingdom

Ice cream van in the UK
Ice cream van in the UK

The first British recipe for ice cream was published in Mrs. Mary Eales's Receipts in 1718. The recipe did not include a process for making the ice smooth and it must have been coarse with ice crystals. Ice Cream Van, taken summer 2003 in London by C Ford File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ice Cream Van, taken summer 2003 in London by C Ford File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Vintage Ice Cream Truck in Harper Woods, Michigan, USA. An ice cream van (British) or ice cream truck (American) is a commercial vehicle which serves as a travelling retail outlet for ice cream, usually during the summer. ... Mrs. ...


Ice cream remained an expensive and rare treat in the UK, until large quantities of ice began to be imported from Norway and the US in the mid Victorian era. A Swiss-Italian businessman, Carlo Gatti, opened the first ice cream stall outside Charing Cross station in 1851, selling scoops of ice cream in shells for one penny. [7] The penny lick soon became popular, remaining on sale until banned in 1926,[citation needed] by which time it had been replaced by the ice cream cone. Carlo Gatti Carlo Gatti (1817-1878) was a Swiss entrepreneur in the Victorian era. ... Charing Cross railway station. ... A penny lick was a small glass for serving ice cream from the mid 19th century to the early 20th century. ... A stack of sugar ice cream cones An ice cream cone or cornet is a cone-shaped pastry, usually made of a wafer similar in texture to a waffle, in which ice cream is served, allowing it to be eaten without a bowl or spoon. ...


In the United Kingdom today, much of the lower-priced ice cream sold, including that from some ice cream vans, has little milk or milk solids content, being made with vegetable oil, usually hydrogenated palm kernel oil. Ice cream sold as dairy ice cream must contain milk fat, and many companies make sure that dairy is prominently displayed on their packaging or businesses. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ...


The Ice Cream Alliance Ltd, a trade association for the UK ice-cream industry, says that: "It is necessary for a manufacturer to be aware of the compositional requirements of the country in which he intends to sell his ice cream. In the UK this is a minimum of 5% fat and a minimum of 2.5% milk protein. There is also an Italian ice cream dessert known as Tartufo. (Schedule 8, the Food Labelling Regulations 1996).[21]


In the United Kingdom, per capita consumption of ice cream is only 6 litres per year.[citation needed]


Ice cream cone

Strawberry ice cream in a cone.
Strawberry ice cream in a cone.
Main article: Ice-cream cone

Mrs Marshall's Cookery Book, published in 1888, endorsed serving ice cream in cones, but the idea definitely predated that. Agnes Marshall was a celebrated cookery writer of her day and helped to popularise ice cream. She patented and manufactured an ice cream maker and was the first person to suggest using liquefied gases to freeze ice cream after seeing a demonstration at the Royal Institution. Image File history File linksMetadata StrawberryIce. ... Image File history File linksMetadata StrawberryIce. ... A stack of sugar ice cream cones An ice cream cone or cornet is a cone-shaped pastry, usually made of a wafer similar in texture to a waffle, in which ice cream is served, allowing it to be eaten without a bowl or spoon. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A list of some prominent writers on food, cooking, dining, and cultural history related to food. ... The Royal Institution of Great Britain was set up in 1799 by the leading British scientists of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea, for diffusing the knowledge, and facilitating the general introduction, of useful mechanical inventions and improvements; and for...


Reliable evidence proves that ice cream cones were served in the 19th century, and their popularity increased greatly during the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904. According to legend, at the World's Fair an ice cream seller had run out of the cardboard dishes used to put ice cream scoops in, so could not sell any more produce. Next door to the ice cream booth was a Syrian waffle booth, unsuccessful due to intense heat; the waffle maker offered to make cones by rolling up his waffles and the new product sold well, and was widely copied by other vendors. [8] [9] Entrance to Creation Exhibit on the Pike Map of the St. ... This article is about the food item. ...


Using liquid nitrogen

Using liquid nitrogen to freeze ice cream is an old idea and has been used for many years to harden ice cream. However, the use of liquid nitrogen in the primary freezing of ice cream, that is to effect the transition from the liquid to the frozen state without the use of a conventional ice cream freezer, has only recently started to see commercialization. Some commercial innovations have been documented in the National Cryogenic Society Magazine "Cold Facts" [10]. The most noted brands are Dippin' Dots [11], Blue Sky Creamery [12] and Sub Zero Cryo Creamery [13]. The preparation results in a column of white condensed water vapor cloud, reminiscent of popular depictions of witches' cauldrons. The ice cream, dangerous to eat while still "steaming," is allowed to rest until the liquid nitrogen is completely vaporized. Sometimes ice cream is frozen to the sides of the container, and must be allowed to thaw. General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Dippin Dots Flavored Ice Cream Amusement park stand, Valleyfair Dippin Dots store entrance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ...


Making ice cream with liquid nitrogen has advantages over conventional freezing. Due to the rapid freezing, the crystal grains are smaller, giving the ice cream a creamier texture, and allowing one to get the same texture by using less milkfat. However, such ice crystals will grow very quickly via the processes of recrystallization thus obviating the original benefits unless steps are taking to inhibit ice crystal growth. For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ...


Ice cream alternatives

The following is a partial list of ice-cream-like frozen desserts and snacks:

Raspberry sherbet.
Raspberry sherbet.
  • Ice milk: less than 10% milk fat and lower sweetening content, once marketed as "ice milk" but now sold as low-fat ice cream in the United States.
  • Frozen custard: at least 10% milk fat and at least 1.4% egg yolk and much less air beaten into it, similar to Gelato, fairly rare. Known in Italy as Semifreddo.
  • Frozen yogurt: a low fat or fat free alternative made with yogurt
  • Mellorine: non-dairy, with vegetable fat substituted for milk fat
  • Gelato: an Italian frozen dessert having a lower milk fat content than ice cream and stabilized with ingredients such as eggs.
  • Sherbet: 1-2% milk fat and sweeter than ice cream.
  • Sorbet: fruit puree and no milk products
  • Ice pop (or lolly): frozen fruit puree, fruit juice, or flavored sugar water on a stick or in a flexible plastic sleeve.
  • Kulfi: Believed to have been introduced to South Asia by the Mughal conquest in the 16th century; its origins trace back to the cold snacks and desserts of Arab and Mediterranean cultures.[22]
  • Dondurma: Turkish ice cream, made of salep and mastic resin
  • Ais kacang: a dessert in Malaysia and Singapore made from shaved ice, syrup, boiled red bean and topped with chocolate sauce and evaporated milk.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1299x1697, 176 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ice cream Sherbet (U.S.) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1299x1697, 176 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ice cream Sherbet (U.S.) ... Sherbet (Etymology: Turkish & Persian; Turkish serbet, from Persian & Urdu sharbat, from Arabic sharba drink) (British and American English) or Sherbert (Australian English and New Zealand English, also a variant used in American English) historically was a cool effervescent or iced fruit soft drink. ... Ice milk is a frozen dessert with less than 10% milk fat and the same sweetener content as ice cream. ... Chocolate frozen custard Frozen custard is a type of cold dessert similar to ice cream, made with eggs in addition to cream and sugar. ... Semifreddo is an Italian word that refers to a class of semi-frozen desserts, typically ice-cream cakes, semi-frozen custards, and certain fruit tarts. ... french fry frozen yogurt Frozen yogurt (also frozen yoghurt, Froyo[1] or frogurt) is a frozen dessert made from or containing yogurt or dairy analogues. ... Mellorine is a non-dairy alternative to ice cream, wherein other fats are used instead of milk fat. ... Italian Gelato, with two tower shaped biscuits. ... Sherbet (in American English) is a frozen dessert made from iced sweetened fruit juice or puree. ... A bowl of mango sorbet Sorbet (or sorbetto, sorbeto) is a frozen dessert made from iced fruit puree and other ingredients. ... A green ice pop An ice pop is a frozen water dessert on a stick that is colored and flavored. ... Kulfi is a popular South Asian dessert made with boiled milk. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... A shopkeeper holds a large mass of salepi dondurma. ... Salep is a flour made from grinding the dried tubers of various species of orchid, which contain a nutritious starch-like polysaccharide called bassorin. ... Binomial name L. Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 3–4 m tall, mainly cultivated for its aromatic resin on the Greek island of Chios,[1]. It is native throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Iberia at the east through southern France and... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ice kacang Ice kacang or Ais kacang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally red bean ice), is a dessert served in Malaysia and Singapore. ...

See also

This is a list of ice cream brands currently in production around the world. ... Antifreeze proteins AFPs or ice structuring proteins ISPs refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates, plants, fungi and bacteria that permit their survival in subzero environments. ... An Arctic roll is a British dessert made of ice cream wrapped in sponge cake to form a roll, often with jam between the sponge and the ice cream. ... Baked Alaska (also known as glace au four, omelette à la norvégienne, Norwegian omelette and omelette surprise) is a dessert made of ice cream (ideally straight from the freezer) placed in a pie dish lined with slices of sponge cake or Christmas pudding and topped with meringue. ... Brain Freeze or ice cream headache is a term used to refer to the pain sometimes inflicted by devouring something cold like ice cream or a cold beverage, often very quickly. ... Ǣ Freeze-dried ice cream Freeze-dried ice cream was developed by NASA for the Apollo missions and is still used today. ... Fried ice cream served at a Thai restaurant in the United States. ... A stack of sugar ice cream cones An ice cream cone or cornet is a cone-shaped pastry, usually made of a wafer similar in texture to a waffle, in which ice cream is served, allowing it to be eaten without a bowl or spoon. ... An ice cream sandwich. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Snow cream is a traditional wintertime treat in the northern USA. It is made by slowly pouring a small amount of sweetened dairy-based liquid (similar to ice cream ingredients) into snow. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.purelydecadent.com/
  2. ^ http://www.tofutti.com/
  3. ^ ICE CREAM LABELING - WHAT DOES IT ALL MEAN?
  4. ^ Tamra Andrews: Nectar and Ambrosia:An Encyclopedia of Food in World Mythology, ABC-CLIO:Santa Barbara, 2000 (p. 121)
  5. ^ Early Abbasid era, Ahmed Fawzi Alexandria University 2002 (p. 89)
  6. ^ Olver, Lynne (2005). The Food Timeline- history notes: ice cream & ice. /www.foodtimeline.org. Retrieved on 2006-04-07. quoting History of Food, Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat, translated by Anthea Bell [Barnes & Noble Books:New York] 1992 (p. 749-50)
  7. ^ Tannahill, Reay (1995). Food in History, revised edition, Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-517-88404-6. 
  8. ^ For example see: Cadbury Ice Cream. Cadbury Trebor Bassett (2006). Retrieved on 2006-04-07.
  9. ^ de Rachewiltz, Igor (2000). F. Wood's Did Marco Polo Go To China? A Critical Appraisal. Australian National University: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies. Retrieved on 2006-04-07.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Powell, Marilyn (2005). Cool: The Story of Ice Cream, Paperback, Penguin Canada. ISBN 978-0-14-305258-6. 
  11. ^ Goff, Professor H. Douglas. Ice Cream History and Folklore. Dairy Science and Technology. University of Guelph. Retrieved on 2006-04-07.
  12. ^ http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page126.asp
  13. ^ http://www.kzwp.com/lyons/
  14. ^ Business Outlook: ice cream manufacturing (based on a report to be found through www.ibisworld.com.au). Reed Business Information (2005). Retrieved on 2006-03-03.
  15. ^ Tike web page on consumer habits
  16. ^ Norway - the official site in the United States. What's Cooking: (N)ice and cold. The Government of Norway et al. (2005). Retrieved on 2006-11-04.
  17. ^ ReadWriteThink. Commercial ice cream is first sold in the U.S. in 1786. The International Reading Association (IRA), the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE), and the Verizon Foundation (2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-04.
  18. ^ Edmund Forte. Hokey Pokey and All That: The history of ice cream. — Forte presents this and several alternative hypotheses.
  19. ^ What Japan Thinks - Japanese Opinion Polls Translated into English. Nearly two in five Japanese eat ice cream every week (2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-27.
  20. ^ a b c d http://www.icecream.or.jp/data/hakusho05.html Japanese Ice Cream Association. Vanilla holds an unshakable top position in favorite ice cream flavors. Ice Cream White Paper 2006. Tokyo, Japan. Retrieved on 2006-10-21 (Japanese).
  21. ^ Technical Fact Sheet No. 4 (pdf). The Ice Cream Alliance Ltd. Retrieved on 2006-11-04.
  22. ^ Eater, Picky (2004). AsianWeek. Rice Noodles in Your Frozen Delights. Pan Asia Venture Capital Corporation. Retrieved on 2006-11-04.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Cadbury Schweppes plc (Cadbury Trebor Bassett), (NYSE: CSG) is a confectionery and beverage company with its headquarters in London. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, Australia. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... The University of Guelph is a medium-sized university located in Guelph, Ontario, established in 1964. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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