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A fountain in Boise, Idaho, February 2007
A fountain in Boise, Idaho, February 2007
Snowflakes (ice crystals) by Wilson Bentley, 1902
Snowflakes (ice crystals) by Wilson Bentley, 1902

Ice is the name given to any one of the 15 known crystalline solid phases of water. In non-scientific contexts, it usually describes ice Ih, which is known to be the most abundant of these phases. It can appear transparent or an opaque bluish-white color depending on the presence of impurities such as air. The addition of other materials such as soil may further alter the appearance. Volatiles are that group of compounds with low boiling points (see volatile) that are associated with a planets or moons crust and/or atmosphere. ... This article deals with the state capital of Idaho. ... -1... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 469 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1124 × 1437 pixel, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 469 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1124 × 1437 pixel, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Wilson Snowflake Bentley (1865–1931), born in Jericho, Vermont, was the first known photographer of snowflakes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This article is about the properties of water. ... Ice Ih is the hexagonal crystal form of ordinary ice, or frozen water. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Impurities are substances inside a confined amount of liquid, gas, or solid, which differ from the chemical composition of the material or compound. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ...


The most common phase transition to ice Ih occurs when liquid water is cooled below 0 °C (273.15 K, 32 °F) at standard atmospheric pressure. It can also deposit from a vapor with no intervening liquid phase, such as in the formation of frost. This diagram shows the nomenclature for the different phase transitions. ... Ice Ih is the hexagonal crystal form of ordinary ice, or frozen water. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure caused by the weight of air above any area in the Earths atmosphere. ... It has been suggested that Deposition (meteorology) be merged into this article or section. ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ...


Ice appears in nature in forms as varied as snowflakes and hail, icicles, glaciers, pack ice, and entire polar ice caps. It is an important component of the global climate, particularly in regard to the water cycle. Furthermore, ice has numerous cultural applications, from the ice cooling one's drink to winter sports and ice sculpture. For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the precipitation. ... Icicle on a tree Icicles on a bush Icicle on a roof Close up of an icicle A large icicle Icicle (yacht) is also the name of the largest Ice yacht An icicle is a spike of ice formed when water dripping or falling from another object freezes. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... An icebreaker navigates some through young (1 year) sea ice Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... An ice cap is a dome-shaped ice mass that covers less than 50,000 km² of land area (usually covering a highland area). ... Global climate is a concept that has never been defined, but roughly speaking it is meant to express the average temperature, average precipitation, average intensity of winds and similar features of Earths atmosphere and the whole planets surface. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle. ... A winter sport is a sport commonly played during winter, usually a sport played on snow or ice. ... Ice sculpting on the streets of Gamla Stan, Stockholm Ice sculpture is a form of sculpture that uses ice as the raw material. ...


The word is from Old English ís, in turn derived from Proto-Germanic *isaz. Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Isaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the i-rune ᛁ, meaning ice. In the Younger Futhark it is called Iss in Icelandic and isa in Norse. ...

Contents

Characteristics

Strings of ice found in the Adirondack Region of New York State
Strings of ice found in the Adirondack Region of New York State

As a naturally occurring crystalline solid, ice is considered a mineral consisting of hydrogen oxide. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 3. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...


An unusual property of ice frozen at a pressure of one atmosphere is that the solid is some 8% less dense than liquid water. Water is the only known non-metallic substance to expand when it freezes. Ice has a density of 0.9167 g/cm³ at 0 °C, whereas water has a density of 0.9998 g/cm³ at the same temperature. Liquid water is most dense, essentially 1.00 g/cm³, at 4 °C and becomes less dense as the water molecules begin to form the hexagonal crystals of ice as the temperature drops to 0 °C. (In fact, the word "crystal" derives from Greek word for frost.) This is due to hydrogen bonds forming between the water molecules, which line up molecules less efficiently (in terms of volume) when water is frozen. The result of this is that ice floats on liquid water, which is an important factor in Earth's climate (if water had sunk instead of floating, any body of water would have frozen from the bottom to the surface, killing any fish and other creatures not resistant to freezing temperatures). Density of ice increases slightly with decreasing temperature (density of ice at −180 °C (93 K) is 0.9340 g/cm³).[citation needed] Standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Icicles A natural ice block in Iceland Ice is the solid form of water. ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ...


When ice melts, it absorbs as much heat energy (the heat of fusion) as it would take to heat an equivalent mass of water by 80 °C, while its temperature remains a constant 0 °C. For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Heat of fusion is the amount of heat energy which must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change states from a solid to a liquid or vice versa. ...


It is also theoretically possible to superheat ice beyond its equilibrium melting point. Simulations of ultrafast laser pulses acting on ice show it can be heated up to room temperature for an extremely short period (250 ps) without melting it. [1]


Light reflecting from ice can appear blue, because ice absorbs more of the red frequencies than the blue ones. Also, icebergs containing impurities (e.g. sediments, algae, air bubbles) can appear green.[2]


Slipperiness

Ice crystals at refrigerator window
Ice crystals at refrigerator window

Until recently, it was widely believed that ice was slippery because the pressure of an object in contact with it caused a thin layer to melt. For example, the blade of an ice skate, exerting pressure on the ice, melted a thin layer, providing lubrication between the ice and the blade.


This explanation is no longer widely accepted. There is still debate about why ice is slippery. The explanation gaining acceptance is that ice molecules in contact with air cannot properly bond with the molecules of the mass of ice beneath (and thus are free to move like molecules of liquid water). These molecules remain in a semiliquid state, providing lubrication regardless of pressure against the ice exerted by any object. [3]


This phenomenon does not seem to hold true at all temperatures. The extreme conditions found, especially, in Antarctica have been observed to make ice and snow not slippery. Explorers report that at very low temperatures snow loses its "glide", and pulling a sledge across it becomes like pulling a sledge through sand.[citation needed]


Types

Ice coating the branches of a tree
Ice coating the branches of a tree
Feather ice on the plateau near Alta, Norway. The crystals form at temperatures below −30 °C (i.e. −22 °F).
Feather ice on the plateau near Alta, Norway. The crystals form at temperatures below −30 °C (i.e. −22 °F).

Everyday ice and snow have a hexagonal crystal structure (ice Ih). Subjected to higher pressures and varying temperatures, ice can form in roughly a dozen different phases. Only a little less stable (metastable) than Ih is the cubic structure (Ic). Icicles hang from the branches of a bush File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Icicles hang from the branches of a bush File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... County Finnmark District Municipality NO-2012 Administrative centre Alta Mayor (2003) Geir Ove Bakken (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 7 3,849 km² 3,651 km² 1. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Ice Ih is the hexagonal crystal form of ordinary ice, or frozen water. ... Metastable cubic crystalline variant of ice. ...


At other temperatures and pressures, other forms of ice exist, including II, III, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, and X. With care all these types can be recovered at ambient pressure. The types are differentiated by their crystalline structure, ordering and density. There are also two metastable phases of ice under pressure, both fully hydrogen disordered; these are IV and XII. Ice XII was discovered in 1996. In 2006, XIII and XIV were discovered.[4] Ices XI, XIII, and XIV are hydrogen-ordered forms of ices Ih, V, and XII respectively. A tetragonal crystalline ice, formed by cooling water down to 250 K at 300 MPa. ... Ice IX is a metastable form of solid water that exists at temperatures below 140K and pressures between 200 and 400 MPa. ... Ice XII is a metastable, dense, crystalline phase of solid water. ...


As well as crystalline forms, solid water can exist in amorphous states as amorphous solid water (ASW), low density amorphous ice (LDA), high density amorphous ice (HDA), very high density amorphous ice (VHDA) and hyperquenched glassy water (HGW). When water is cooled below its normal freezing point, it normally freezes to form hexagonal ice, or Ice I, though it can exist in other solid forms. ... When water is cooled below its normal freezing point, it normally freezes to form hexagonal ice, or Ice I. If it is very pure and cooled carefully, it may be supercooled to about −42 °C. If water is cooled very rapidly then it forms an amorphoric glass. ... When water is cooled below its normal freezing point, it normally freezes to form hexagonal ice, or Ice I. If it is very pure and cooled carefully, it may be supercooled to about -42°C. If water is cooled very rapidly then it forms an amorphoric glass. ... When water is cooled below its normal freezing point, it normally freezes to form hexagonal ice, or Ice I. If it is very pure and cooled carefully, it may be supercooled to about -42 °C. If water is cooled very rapidly then it forms an amorphoric glass. ... When water is cooled below its normal freezing point, it normally freezes to form hexagonal ice, or Ice I. If it is very pure and cooled carefully, it may be supercooled to about -42°C. If water is cooled very rapidly then it forms an amorphoric glass. ...


Rime is a type of ice formed on cold objects when drops of water crystalize on them. This can be observed in foggy weather, when the temperature drops during night. Soft rime contains a high proportion of trapped air, making it appear white rather than transparent, and giving it a density about one quarter of that of pure ice. Hard rime is comparatively denser. For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... Soft rime is a a white ice deposition that forms when the water droplets in light freezing fog or mist freeze to the outer surfaces of objects, with calm or light wind. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... Rime ice, on top of Szczeliniec Wielki, Poland Rime ice on a tree in Black Forest, Germany Hard rime is a white ice that forms when the water droplets in fog freeze to the outer surfaces of objects. ...


Aufeis is layered ice that forms in Arctic and subarctic stream valleys. Ice frozen in the stream bed blocks normal groundwater discharge and causes the local water table to rise, resulting in water discharge on top of the frozen layer. This water then freezes, causing the water table to rise further and repeat the cycle. The result is a stratified ice deposit, often several meters thick. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Ice can also form icicles, similar to stalactites in appearance, as water drips and re-freezes. Frozen Waterfall in the Rhön mountains A natural, 4 tonne, block of ice on a beach in Iceland Ice can refer to any of the 14 known solid phases of water. ... Water droplet coming out of the central canal of a stalactite A stalactite (Greek stalaktites, (Σταλακτίτης), from the word for drip and meaning that which drips) is a type of speleothem(secondary mineral) that hangs from the ceiling or wall of limestone caves. ...


Clathrate hydrates are forms of ice that contain gas molecules trapped within its crystal lattice. Pancake ice is a formation of ice generally created in areas with less calm conditions. Clathrate hydrates (or alternatively gas clathrates, gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates etc) are a class of solids in which gas molecules occupy cages made up of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. ... Pancake ice is a form of ice that is formed on water covered to some degree in slush. ...


Some other substances (particularly solid forms of those usually found as fluids) are also called "ice": dry ice, for instance, is a popular term for solid carbon dioxide. Dry ice pellet sublimating in water Dry ice block sublimating in air. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


In outer space hexagonal crystalline ice, the predominant form on Earth, is extremely rare. Amorphous ice is more common; however, hexagonal crystalline ice can be formed via volcanic action.[5]


Uses

Ice harvesting

Harvesting ice on Lake Saint Clair in Michigan, circa 1905
Harvesting ice on Lake Saint Clair in Michigan, circa 1905
Ice being transported by cart in Mumbai, India
Ice being transported by cart in Mumbai, India

Ice has long been valued as a means of cooling. Until recently, the Hungarian Parliament building used ice harvested in the winter from Lake Balaton for air conditioning. Icehouses were used to store ice formed in the winter to make ice available year-round, and early refrigerators were known as iceboxes because they had a block of ice in them. In many cities it was not unusual to have a regular ice delivery service during the summer. For the first half of the 19th century, ice harvesting had become big business in America. Frederic Tudor, who became known as the “Ice King,” worked on developing better insulation products for the long distance shipment of ice, especially to the tropics. The advent of artificial refrigeration technology has since made delivery of ice obsolete. Image File history File links Ice_Harvesting_on_Lake_St_Clair_Michigan_circa_1905--photograph_courtesy_Detroit_Publishing_Company. ... Image File history File links Ice_Harvesting_on_Lake_St_Clair_Michigan_circa_1905--photograph_courtesy_Detroit_Publishing_Company. ... Public beach on Lake St. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... The National Assembly of Hungary (Országgyűlés) is the national parliament of Hungary. ... Lake Balaton, located in Hungary, is the largest lake in Central Europe. ... An ancient ice house, called a yakhchal, built in Kerman, Iran during the middle ages, for storing ice during summers. ... Fridge redirects here. ... The inside of a fridge A refrigerator (sometimes shortened to fridge) is an electrical appliance that uses refrigeration to help preserve food. ... Frederic Tudor (September 4, 1783 - February 6, 1864) was Bostons Ice King, the founder of the Tudor Ice Company, and a merchant who made a fortune shipping ice to the Caribbean, Europe, and even as far away as India from sources of fresh water in New England. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ...


In 400 BC Iran, Persian engineers had already mastered the technique of storing ice in the middle of summer in the desert. The ice was brought in during the winters from nearby mountains in bulk amounts, and stored in specially designed, naturally cooled refrigerators, called yakhchal (meaning ice storage). This was a large underground space (up to 5000 m³) that had thick walls (at least two meters at the base) made out of a special mortar called sārooj, composed of sand, clay, egg whites, lime, goat hair, and ash in specific proportions, and which was known to be resistant to heat transfer. This mixture was thought to be completely water impenetrable. The space often had access to a Qanat, and often contained a system of windcatchers that could easily bring temperatures inside the space down to frigid levels in summer days. The ice was then used to chill treats for royalty during hot summer days. Persia redirects here. ... Yakh-chal A yakh-chāl is an ancient natural refrigerator. ... This article applies primarily to Iran A qanat (from Arabic: ) or kareez (from Persian: ) is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water to human settlements or for irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates. ... A windcatcher (Badgir; بادگیر) is a traditional Persian architectural device used for many centuries to create natural ventilation in buildings. ...


Sports

Ice surfing on the Żnin Small Lake
Ice surfing on the Żnin Small Lake

Ice also plays a role in winter recreation, in many sports such as ice skating, tour skating, ice hockey, ice fishing, ice climbing, curling, broomball and sled racing on bobsled, luge and skeleton. Many of the different sports played on ice get international attention every four years during the Winter Olympic Games. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1107x736, 183 KB) Summary The images author is Andrzej Łuczak (woochuck@op. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1107x736, 183 KB) Summary The images author is Andrzej Łuczak (woochuck@op. ... Motto: Å»nin - the open town Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship County Å»nin County Gmina Gmina Å»nin Established 11th century Town rights 1263 Government  - Mayor Leszek Jakubowski Area  - Total 8. ... Outdoor ice skating in Austria Ice skating is travelling on ice with skates, narrow (and sometimes parabolic) blade-like devices moulded into special boots (or, more primitively, without boots, tied to regular footwear). ... Tour skating, or trip skating, is a form of ice skating on natural ices. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Ice fishing in the Finnish Miljoonapilkki fishing competition. ... Ice climbing is the recreational activity of climbing ice formations such as icefalls, and frozen waterfalls. ... For other uses, see Curling (disambiguation). ... A game of broomball begins with a face-off Broomball is a popular recreational ice sport originating in Canada and played around the world. ... Bobsleigh is a winter sport in which teams make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked purpose-built iced tracks in a gravity-powered, steerable sled. ... A luge is small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine and feet-first. ... United States Air Force Major Brady Canfield, 2003 U.S. skeleton champion, shows his takeoff form. ... An athlete carries the Olympic torch during the 2002 torch relay The Winter Olympic Games are a winter multi-sport event held every four years. ...


A sort of sailboat on blades gives rise to ice boating. The human quest for excitement has even led to ice racing, where drivers must speed on lake ice while also controlling the skid of their vehicle (similar in some ways to dirt track racing). The sport has even been modified for ice rinks. An ice boat (more commonly spelled as one word - iceboat, once called an ice scooter) is a boat or purpose-built framework similar in appearance to a sail boat but fitted with skis or runners (skates) and designed to run over ice instead of (liquid) water, known in the sport... Ice racing, with cars, motorcycles or snowmobiles, takes place on frozen lakes or rivers, or on carefully groomed frozen lots. ... Dirt track racing is a type of auto racing performed on oval tracks. ... Rockefeller Center ice rink Outdoor ice rink in Ottawa. ...


Transportation

U.S. Coast Guard icebreakers near McMurdo Station, February 2002
U.S. Coast Guard icebreakers near McMurdo Station, February 2002

Ice can also be an obstacle; for harbors near the poles, being ice-free is an important advantage, ideally all-year round. Examples are Murmansk (Russia), Petsamo (Russia, formerly Finland) and Vardø (Norway). Harbors that are not ice-free are opened up using icebreakers. US Coast Guard icebreakers near McMurdo Station, February 2002 Source: NASA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... US Coast Guard icebreakers near McMurdo Station, February 2002 Source: NASA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Icebreaker (disambiguation). ... McMurdo Station from Observation Hill. ... For other uses, see Harbor (disambiguation). ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and... The area of Petsamo (Pechenga in Russian) in northern Lapland, indigenously inhabited by Samis, came to Finland in 1920 and to the Soviet Union in 1944. ... County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2002 Administrative centre Vardø Mayor (2003) Rolf Einar Mortensen (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 183 600 km² 586 km² 0. ... For other uses, see Icebreaker (disambiguation). ...


Ice forming on roads is a dangerous winter hazard. Black ice is very difficult to see because it lacks the expected frosty surface. Whenever there is freezing rain or snow that occurs at a temperature near the melting point, it is common for ice to build up on the windows of vehicles. Driving safely requires the removal of the ice build-up. Ice scrapers are tools designed to break the ice free and clear the windows, though removing the ice can be a long and labor-intensive process. For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Freezing Rain is a type of precipitation that begins as snow at higher altitude, falling from a cloud towards earth, melts completely on its way down while passing through a layer of air above freezing temperature, and then encounters a layer below freezing at lower level to become supercooled. ... For other uses, see Window (disambiguation). ... An ice scraper is a handheld tool for removing frost, ice, and snow from windows, usually on automobiles. ...


Far enough below the freezing point, a thin layer of ice crystals can form on the inside surface of windows. This usually happens when a vehicle has been left alone after being driven for a while, but can happen while driving if the outside temperature is low enough. Moisture from the driver's breath is the source of water for the crystals. It is troublesome to remove this form of ice, so people often open their windows slightly when the vehicle is parked in order to let the moisture dissipate, and it is now common for cars to have rear-window defrosters to combat the problem. A similar problem can happen in homes, which is one reason why many colder regions require double-pane windows for insulation. Defrosting is a procedure, performed periodically on refrigerators and freezers to maintain their operating efficiency. ... Insulated Glazing Unit or Insulating Glass Unit (commonly referred to as IGU) is described as two or more lites of glass spaced apart and hermetically sealed to form a single glazed unit with an air space between each lite. ...


When the outdoor temperature stays below freezing for extended periods, very thick layers of ice can form on lakes and other bodies of water (although places with flowing water require much colder temperatures). The ice can become thick enough to drive onto with automobiles and trucks. Doing this safely requires a thickness of at least 30 centimeters (one foot). For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... Car redirects here. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ...


For ships, ice presents two distinct hazards. Spray and freezing rain can produce an ice build-up on the superstructure of a vessel sufficient to make it unstable and to require it to be hacked off or melted with steam hoses. And icebergs — large masses of ice floating in water (typically created when glaciers reach the sea) — can be dangerous if struck by a ship when under way. Icebergs have been responsible for the sinking of many ships, a notable example being the Titanic. Freezing Rain is a type of precipitation that begins as snow at higher altitude, falling from a cloud towards earth, melts completely on its way down while passing through a layer of air above freezing temperature, and then encounters a layer below freezing at lower level to become supercooled. ... An iceberg (berg is the German word for mountain) is a large piece of ice that has broken off from a glacier or ice shelf and is floating in open water. ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ...


For aircraft, ice can cause a number of dangers. As an aircraft climbs, it passes through air layers of different temperature and humidity, some of which may be conducive to ice formation. If ice forms on the wings or control surfaces, this may adversely affect the flying qualities of the aircraft. During the first non-stop flight of the Atlantic, the British aviators Captain John Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown encountered such icing conditions - Brown left the cockpit and climbed onto the wing several times to remove ice which was covering the engine air intakes of the Vickers Vimy aircraft they were flying. There have been several well-known people named John Alcock, including: John Alcock (aviator) John Alcock (bishop) John Alcock (composer) John Alcock (producer) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sir Arthur Whitten Brown (July 23, 1886 - October 4, 1948) was, as a Lieutenant in the Royal Air Force together with Captain John Alcock, the navigator of the first successful non-stop transatlantic flight, from St Johns, Newfoundland to Clifden, Connemara, Ireland which took place on 14 June 1919... The Vickers Vimy was a British heavy bomber aircraft of the World War I era. ...


A particular icing vulnerability associated with reciprocating internal combustion engines is the carburettor. As air is sucked through the carburettor into the engine the local air pressure is lowered, which causes adiabatic cooling. So, in humid close-to-freezing conditions, the carburettor will be colder and tend to ice up. This will block the supply of air to the engine, and cause it to fail. Aircraft reciprocating engines with carburettors are provided with carburettor air intake heaters for this reason. The increasing use of fuel injection—which does not require carburettors—has made "carb icing" less of an issue for reciprocating engines. The carburetor (or carburettor, carb for short) is a device which mixes air and fuel for an internal_combustion engine. ... This article covers adiabatic processes in thermodynamics. ... // Fuel injection is a system of fuel delivery for mixture with air in an internal combustion engine. ...


Jet engines do not experience carb icing, but recent evidence indicates that they can be slowed, stopped, or damaged by internal icing in certain types of atmospheric conditions much more easily than previously believed. In most cases, the engines can be quickly restarted and flights are not endangered, but research continues to determine the exact conditions that produce this type of icing, and find the best methods to prevent or reverse it in flight.


Other uses

Ice pier during 1983 cargo operations. McMurdo Station, Antarctica
Ice pier during 1983 cargo operations. McMurdo Station, Antarctica
  • Engineers used pack ice's formidable strength when they constructed Antarctica's first floating ice pier in 1973.[6] Such ice piers are used during cargo operations to load and offload ships. Fleet operations personnel make the floating pier during the winter. They build upon naturally occurring frozen seawater in McMurdo Sound until the dock reaches a depth of about 22 feet (6.7 m). Ice piers have a lifespan of three to five years.
  • The manufacture and use of ice cubes or crushed ice is common for drinks.
  • Pagophagia, a type of pica eating disorder, is the compulsive consumption of ice.
  • Structures and ice sculptures are built out of large chunks of ice. The structures are mostly ornamental (as in the case with ice castles) and not practical for long-term habitation. Ice hotels exist on a seasonal basis in a few cold areas. Igloos are another example of a temporary structure, made primarily from snow.
  • During World War II, Project Habbakuk was a British program which investigated the use of pykrete (wood fibres mixed with ice) as a possible material for warships, especially aircraft carriers due to the ease with which a large deck could be constructed, but the idea was given up when there were not enough funds for construction of a prototype.
  • Ice can be used to start a fire by carving it into a lens that will focus sunlight onto kindling. When one waits long enough, a fire will start.[7]
  • In global warming, ice plays an important part because it reflects 90% of the sun's rays. Furthermore, ice cores help provide historical climate information.
  • In January and February 1658, the straits between the islands of Denmark, Great Belt and Little Belt froze over, allowing a Swedish army to March across the Belts and defeat the Danish army. The resulting Treaty of Roskilde ceded large areas of Denmark to Sweden.

McMurdo Station from Observation Hill. ... An icebreaker navigates some through young (1 year) sea ice Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... Severe cracks in an ice pier in use for four seasons at McMurdo Station slowed cargo operations in 1983 and proved to be a safety hazard. ... Categories: Antarctica geography stubs | Geography of Antarctica | Ross Dependency ... OShea Jackson (born June 15, 1969), better known by his stage name Ice Cube, is an American MC, songwriter, actor, screenwriter, and film director. ... Crushed ice is ice that has been crushed or sheared into irregularly-shaped flakes and adds an interesting aesthetic effect to some cocktails. ... Pagophagia is the compulsive consumption of ice. ... This page is for the medical disorder. ... Ice sculpting on the streets of Gamla Stan, Stockholm Ice sculpture is a form of sculpture that uses ice as the raw material. ... An ice palace or ice castle is a castle-like structure made of blocks of ice. ... Absolut Icebar in Jukkasjärvi, Sweden (December, 2005). ... Igloo An igloo (Inuit language: iglu, Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᒡᓗ, house, plural: iglooit or igluit, but in English commonly igloos), translated sometimes as snowhouse, is a shelter constructed from blocks of snow, generally in the form of a dome. ... Project Habbakuk was a plan by the British in World War II to construct an unsinkable aircraft carrier out of ice, for use against German U-boats in the mid- Atlantic, which was out of range of land-based planes. ... Pykrete is a composite material made of approximately 14% sawdust (or, less frequently, wood pulp) and 86% water by weight then frozen, invented by Max Perutz and proposed during World War II by Geoffrey Pyke to the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom as a candidate material for making a... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Sol redirects here. ... An ice core is a tube of ice removed from an ice sheet. ... The straits of Denmark. ... A picture of the Lillebælt in Denmark The Little Belt or Small Belt (Danish:Lillebælt) is a strait between the Danish island of Funen and the Jutland Peninsula. ... The crossing of the Great Belt The March across the Belts was a campaign between January 30 and February 8, 1658 during the Northern Wars where Swedish king Karl X Gustav led the Swedish army from Jutland across the ice of the Little Belt and the Great Belt to reach... The Treaty of Roskilde was signed on February 26, 1658 in the Danish city Roskilde, whereby the king of Denmark-Norway sacrificed nearly half his territory to save the rest. ...

At different pressures

Most liquids freeze at a higher temperature under pressure because the pressure helps to hold the molecules together. However, the strong hydrogen bonds in water make it different: water freezes at a temperature below 0 °C under a pressure higher than 1 atm. Consequently water also remains frozen at a temperature above 0 °C under a pressure lower than 1 atm. The melting of ice under high pressures is thought to contribute to the movement of glaciers. Ice formed at high pressure has a different crystal structure and density than ordinary ice. Ice, water, and water vapor can coexist at the triple point, which is exactly 273.16 K (by definition) at a pressure of 611.73 Pa. In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ... In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ...


Phases

Phase Characteristics
Amorphous ice Amorphous ice is an ice lacking crystal structure. Amorphous ice exists in three forms: low-density (LDA) formed at atmospheric pressure, or below, high density (HDA) and very high density amorphous ice (VHDA), forming at higher pressures. LDA forms by extremely quick cooling of liquid water ("hyperquenched glassy water", HGW), by depositing water vapour on very cold substrates ("amorphous solid water", ASW) or by heating high density forms of ice at ambient pressure ("LDA").
Ice Ih Normal hexagonal crystalline ice. Virtually all ice in the biosphere is ice Ih, with the exception only of a small amount of ice Ic.
Ice Ic A Metastable cubic crystalline variant of ice. The oxygen atoms are arranged in a diamond structure. It is produced at temperatures between 130-150 K, and is stable for up to 200 K, when it transforms into ice Ih. It is occasionally present in the upper atmosphere.
Ice II A rhombohedral crystalline form with highly ordered structure. Formed from ice Ih by compressing it at temperature of 190-210 K. When heated it undergoes transformation to ice III.
Ice III A tetragonal crystalline ice, formed by cooling water down to 250 K at 300 MPa. Least dense of the high-pressure phases. More dense than water.
Ice IV A Metastable rhombohedral phase. Does not easily form without a nucleating agent.
Ice V A monoclinic crystalline phase. Formed by cooling water to 253 K at 500 MPa. Most complicated structure of all the phases.
Ice VI A tetragonal crystalline phase. Formed by cooling water to 270 K at 1.1 GPa. Exhibits Debye relaxation.
Ice VII A cubic phase. The hydrogen atoms positions are disordered, the material shows Debye relaxation. The hydrogen bonds form two interpenetrating lattices.
Ice VIII A more ordered version of ice VII, where the hydrogen atoms assume fixed positions. Formed from ice VII by cooling it below 5 °C.
Ice IX A tetragonal metastable phase. Formed gradually from ice III by cooling it from 208 K to 165 K, stable below 140 K and pressures between 200 and 400 MPa. It has density of 1.16 g/cm³, slightly higher than ordinary ice.
Ice X Proton-ordered symmetric ice. Forms at about 70 GPa.
Ice XI An orthorhombic low-temperature equilibrium form of hexagonal ice. It is ferroelectric.
Ice XII A tetragonal metastable dense crystalline phase. It is observed in the phase space of ice V and ice VI. It can be prepared by heating high-density amorphous ice from 77 K to about 183 K at 810 MPa.
Ice XIII A monoclinic crystalline phase. Formed by cooling water to below 130 K at 500 MPa. The proton-ordered form of ice V.
Ice XIV An orthorhombic crystalline phase. Formed below 118 K at 1.2 GPa. The proton-ordered form of ice XII.
Ice XV The predicted but not yet proven proton-ordered form of ice VI. Thought to be formed by cooling water to around 108-80 K at 1.1 GPa.

Everyday ice is a crystal, which means its molecules are lined up in a repeating pattern. ... An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. ... Ice Ih is the hexagonal crystal form of ordinary ice, or frozen water. ... Metastable cubic crystalline variant of ice. ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system (or isometric crystal system) is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... In crystallography, the rhombohedral (or trigonal) crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... A tetragonal crystalline ice, formed by cooling water down to 250 K at 300 MPa. ... In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... Debye relaxation is the dielectric relaxation response of an ideal, noninteracting population of dipoles to an alternating external electric field. ... Debye relaxation is the dielectric relaxation response of an ideal, noninteracting population of dipoles to an alternating external electric field. ... Ice IX is a metastable form of solid water that exists at temperatures below 140K and pressures between 200 and 400 MPa. ... An orthorhombic low-temperature equilibrium form of hexagonal ice. ... In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... In physics, the ferroelectric effect is an electrical phenomenon whereby certain ionic crystals may exhibit a spontaneous dipole moment. ... Ice XII is a metastable, dense, crystalline phase of solid water. ...

References

  1. ^ Ultrafast superheating and melting of bulk ice : Abstract : Nature
  2. ^ Why some ice looks blue
  3. ^ Explaining Ice: The Answers Are Slippery - New York Times
  4. ^ C.G. Salzmann, P.G. Radaelli, A. Hallbrucker, E. Mayer, J.L. Finney, Science 311, 1758, 2006
  5. ^ Astronomers Contemplate Icy Volcanoes in Far Places, Kenneth Chang, New York Times, December 9, 2004
  6. ^ "Unique ice pier provides harbor for ships," Antarctic Sun. January 8, 2006; McMurdo Station, Antarctica.
  7. ^ http://wildwoodsurvival.com/survival/fire/ice/rb/rbfirefromice3a.html

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... McMurdo Station from Observation Hill. ...

See also

Look up Ice in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ice

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... This article is about a medical condition. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Deicing is the process of removing ice from a surface. ... Diamond dust is the name commonly used to refer to a ground-level cloud composed of tiny ice crystals. ... Sampling the surface of a glacier. ... Frazil ice is ice formed in turbulent supercooled water. ... For other uses, see Iceberg (disambiguation). ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... Slurry ice with propylene glycol as depressant viewed through a Microscope . ... Ice climbing is the recreational activity of climbing ice formations such as icefalls, and frozen waterfalls. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... OShea Jackson (born June 15, 1969), better known by his stage name Ice Cube, is an American MC, songwriter, actor, screenwriter, and film director. ... Icicles A natural ice block in Iceland Ice is the solid form of water. ... Tour skating, or trip skating, is a form of ice skating on natural ices. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Absolut Icebar in Jukkasjärvi, Sweden (December, 2005). ... Severe cracks in an ice pier in use for four seasons at McMurdo Station slowed cargo operations in 1983 and proved to be a safety hazard. ... An ice spike grown in an ice cube tray. ... A polynya (pronounced pol-in-YA) is an area of open water surrounded by sea ice. ... Pykrete is a composite material made of approximately 14% sawdust (or, less frequently, wood pulp) and 86% water by weight then frozen, invented by Max Perutz and proposed during World War II by Geoffrey Pyke to the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom as a candidate material for making a... An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... When water is cooled below its normal freezing point, it normally freezes to form hexagonal ice, or Ice I, though it can exist in other solid forms. ... Névé is a young, granular type of snow which has been partially melted, refrozen and compacted. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Icicle on a tree Icicles on a bush Icicle on a roof Close up of an icicle A large icicle Icicle (yacht) is also the name of the largest Ice yacht An icicle is a spike of ice formed when water dripping or falling from another object freezes. ... Closeup view of a frost flower. ... A rusticle is a little similar to an icicle or stalactite in appearance, but occurs under water when wrought iron rusts. ... Isaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the i-rune ᛁ, meaning ice. In the Younger Futhark it is called Iss in Icelandic and isa in Norse. ... An ice nucleus is a particle which acts as the nucleus for the formation of an ice crystal in the atmosphere. ...

External links


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