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Encyclopedia > Ibrahim Pasha
For other uses, see Ibrahim Pasha (disambiguation).

Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: ابراهيم باشا) ‎ (178910 November 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. He is better known as the son of Muhammad Ali of Egypt. He is however considered to be adopted. Ibrahim served as Regent for his father from July to 10 November 1848. Ibrahim Pasha is the name of several Ottoman-era potentates from the Middle East and North Africa. ... The Arabic language (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Muhammad `AlÄ« Muhammad `Ali Pasha (Arabic: محمد علي باشا) (many spelling variations, including Turkish Mehmet Ali (Kavalalı Mehmet Ali PaÅŸa), are encountered) (c. ... Adoption is the legal act of permanently placing a child with a parent or parents other than the birth parents. ... // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts of head of state, especially if not the Monarch (who has higher titles). ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Early career

Ibrahim Pasha was born in the town of Kavala, currently located in the East Macedonia and Thrace periphery of Greece. This town was also native to his adoptive father. Kavala (also seen as Kavála, Kavalla, Cavalla, and Cavalle (Greek: Καβάλα), (2001 pop. ... Categories: Greece geography stubs ... The peripheries (περιφέρειες) are the subnational divisions of Greece. ...


In 1805 and during his father's struggle to establish himself in Egypt, Ibrahim, an adolescent of sixteen years of age, was sent as a hostage to the Ottoman capitan pasha (admiral). But when Muhammad Ali was recognized as Pasha and had managed to defeat the expedition of Major General Alexander Mackenzie-Fraser of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Ibrahim was allowed to return to Egypt. 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The process of Muhammad Alis seizure of power in Egypt was a long three way civil war between the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian Mamelukes, and Albanian mercenaries. ... A separate article is about the punk band called The Adolescents. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... Admiral is a word from the Arabic term Amir-al-bahr (Lord of the bay). ... This article discusses the rank/title used in the Ottoman Empire. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The Union Flag, in its modern form, was first adopted in 1801. ...


When Muhammad Ali went to Arabia to prosecute the war against the Wahhabis in 1813, Ibrahim was left in command of Upper Egypt. He continued the war with the broken power of the Mamelukes, whom he suppressed. In 1816 he succeeded his brother Tusun in command of the Egyptian forces in Arabia. The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...


Campaigns against the Wahhabis

Muhammad Ali had already begun to introduce European discipline into his army, and Ibrahim had probably received some training, but his first campaign was conducted more in the old Asiatic style than his later operations. The campaign lasted two years, and terminated in the destruction of the Wahhabis as a political power. Ibrahim landed at Yanbu, the port of Medina, on September 30, 1816. The holy cities had been recovered from the Wahhabis, and Ibrahim's task was to follow them into the desert of Nejd and destroy their fortresses. Such training as the Egyptian troops had received, and their artillery, gave them a marked superiority in the open field. But the difficulty of crossing the desert to the Wahhabi stronghold of Deraiya, some 400 miles east of Medina, and the courage of their opponents, made the conquest a very arduous one. Ibrahim displayed great energy and tenacity, sharing all the hardships of his army, and never allowing himself to be discouraged by failure. By the end of September 1818 he had forced the Wahhabi leader to surrender, and had taken Deraiya, which he ruined. World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... World map showing Asia (geographically) Asia is the central and eastern part of Eurasia and worlds largest continent. ... NASA photograph of Yanbu al Bahr Yanbu al Bahr (arabic: ينبع البحر spring by the sea), also known simply as Yanbu, Yambo, or Yenbo, is a major Red Sea port in the Al Madinah province of western Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city of Medina in Saudi Arabia. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 92 days remaining. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Najd (Nejd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... 1818 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Operations in the Morea

On December 11, 1819 he made a triumphal entry into Cairo. After his return Ibrahim gave effective support to the Frenchman, Colonel Sève (Suleiman Pasha), who was employed to drill the army on the European model. Ibrahim set an example by submitting to be drilled as a recruit. In 1824, Muhammad Ali was appointed governor of the Morea by Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II. Mahmud actually required the assistance of the Egyptian army in the contemporary Greek War of Independence (1821 - 1832). December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1819 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Although technically in Giza, The Great Pyramids have become a symbol of Cairo internationally Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة; transliterated: al-Qāhirah) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ... Suleiman Pasha, a. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... Sultan Mahmud II Mahmud II (in Arabic محمودالثانى ) (July 20, 1785–July 1, 1839) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death. ... The Declaration of the War by Bishop Germanos at St Lavra on March 25, 1821 The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution of 1821, was a war against the Ottoman Empire for independence, which started that year. ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Ibrahim was sent to Peloponnesos with a squadron and an army of 17,000 men. The expedition sailed on 4 July 1824, but was for some months unable to do more than come and go between Rhodes and Crete. The fear of the Greek fire ships stopped his way to the Morea. When the Greek sailors mutinied from want of pay, Ibrahim was able to land at Modon on February 26, 1825. He remained in the Morea until the capitulation of October 1, 1828 was forced on him by the intervention of the Western powers. Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, Pelops Island, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Main entrance to the medieval city of Rhodes Rhodes, Greek Ρόδος (Rhodos; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is the largest of the Dodecanese islands, and easternmost of the major islands of Greece in the Aegean Sea. ... Greece and Crete Crete, sometimes spelled Krete (Greek Κρήτη / Kriti; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is not about the fireboats that fight fire Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts Drakes fire ship attack on the Spanish Armada. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...


Ibrahim's operations in the Morea were energetic and ferocious. He easily defeated the Greeks in the open field, and though the siege of Messolonghi proved costly to his own troops and to the Ottoman forces who operated with him, he brought it to a successful termination on 24 April 1826. The Greek guerrilla bands harassed his army, and in revenge he desolated the country and sent thousands of the inhabitants into slavery in Egypt. These measures of repression aroused great indignation in Europe and led to the intervention of the naval squadrons of the United Kingdom, the Restored Kingdom of France and Imperial Russia in the Battle of Navarino (October 20, 1827). Their victory was followed by the landing of a French expeditionary force. By the terms of the capitulation of October 1, 1828, Ibrahim evacuated the country. Messolonghi is a town of about 12,000 people (as of 1991 census) in central Greece. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 1826 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Distinguish from the type of ape called a gorilla. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... War and peace in Russia, 1796-1825 Catherine II died in 1796, and her son Paul (r. ... Battle of Navarino The naval Battle of Navarino was fought on 20 October 1827, during the Greek War of Independence (1821-29). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Campaigns in Syria

It is fairly certain that the Turkish government, jealous of his power, had laid a plot to prevent him and his troops from returning to Egypt. English officers who saw him at Navarino describe him as short, grossly fat and deeply marked with smallpox. His obesity did not cause any abatement of activity when next he took the field. In 1831, his father's quarrel with the Porte having become flagrant, Ibrahim was sent to conquer Syria. He carried out his task with truly remarkable energy. He took Acre after a severe siege on 27 May 1832, occupied Damascus, defeated an Ottoman army at Homs on 8 July defeated another Ottoman army at Beilan on 29 July, invaded Asia Minor, and finally routed the grand vizier at Konia on 21 December. Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... An acre is an English unit of area. ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


The convention of Kutahiah on 6 May left Syria for a time in the hands of Muhammad Ali. Ibrahim was undoubtedly helped by Colonel Sève arid the European officers in his army, but his intelligent docility to their advice, as well as his personal hardiness and energy, compare most favourably with the sloth, ignorance and arrogant conceit of the Ottoman generals opposed to him. He is entitled to full credit for the diplomatic judgment and tact he showed in securing the support of the inhabitants, whom he protected and whose rivalries he utilized. After the campaign of 1832 and 1833 Ibrahim remained as governor in Syria. He might perhaps have administered successfully, but the exactions he was compelled to enforce by his father soon caused the popularity of his government to decline and provoked revolts. May 6 is the 125126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1838 the Porte felt strong enough to renew the struggle, and war broke out once more. Ibrahim won his last victory for his father at Nezib on June 24, 1839. But the United Kingdom and the Austrian Empire intervened to preserve the integrity of the Ottoman Empire. Their squadrons cut his communications by sea with Egypt, a general revolt isolated him in Syria, and he was finally compelled to evacuate the country in February 1841. 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire until 1867 and of the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary until 1918. ... take you to calendar). ...


Last years

Ibrahim spent the rest of his life in peace, but his health was ruined. In 1846 he paid a visit to Western Europe, where he was received with some respect and a great deal of curiosity. When his father became senile, Ibrahim was appointed Regent in his place. He held his regency from July till the time of his death on 10 November 1848. 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts of head of state, especially if not the Monarch (who has higher titles). ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Preceded by:
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Regent-Governor of Egypt
1848
Succeeded by:
Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad `Alī Muhammad `Ali Pasha (Arabic: محمد علي باشا) (many spelling variations, including Turkish Mehmet Ali (Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa), are encountered) (c. ... // Monarchs Wālīs (Governors) of Egypt, 1805-1867 Muḩammad ‘Alī 1805-1848 Ibrāhīm 1848 Mu&#7721sdfsdfsdfssdf;ammad ‘Alī (restored) 1848-1849 ‘Abbās I 1849-1854 Sa‘īd 1854-1863 Ismā‘īl 1863-1867 Khedives of Egypt, 1867-1914 Ismā‘īl 1867-1879 Tawfīq 1879... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Muhammad `Alī Muhammad `Ali Pasha (Arabic: محمد علي باشا) (many spelling variations, including Turkish Mehmet Ali (Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa), are encountered) (c. ...

Bibliography

See Edouard Gouin, L'Egypte au XIX' siècle (Paris, 1847); Aimé Vingtrinier, Soliman-Pasha (Colonel Sève) (Paris, 1886). A great deal of unpublished material of the highest interest with regard to Ibrahim's personality and his system in Syria is preserved in the British Foreign Office archives; for references to these see Cambridge Mod. Hist. x. 852, bibliography to chap. xvii. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom abroad. ...


Reference

Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • Britannica Concise Encyclopedia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ibrahim Pasha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1194 words)
Ibrahim Pasha was born in the town of Kavala, currently located in the East Macedonia and Thrace periphery of Greece.
Ibrahim landed at Yanbu, the port of Medina, on September 30, 1816.
Ibrahim was undoubtedly helped by Colonel Sève arid the European officers in his army, but his intelligent docility to their advice, as well as his personal hardiness and energy, compare most favourably with the sloth, ignorance and arrogant conceit of the Ottoman generals opposed to him.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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