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Encyclopedia > Ibogaine
Ibogaine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
12-Methoxyibogamine
Identifiers
CAS number 83-74-9
ATC code  ?
PubChem 363272
Chemical data
Formula C20H26N2O 
Mol. mass 310.433 g/mol
SMILES search in eMolecules, PubChem
Physical data
Melt. point 152–153 °C (306–307 °F)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism  ?
Half life  ?
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

? Image File history File links Ibogaine structure. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 411 pixelsFull resolution (984 × 506 pixel, file size: 116 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... It has been suggested that Effective half-life be merged into this article or section. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status

Schedule I(US) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Routes  ?

Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid, a long-acting hallucinogen which has gained attention due to its application in the treatment of opioid addiction and similar addiction syndromes. It occurs naturally in a number of dogbane plants, among them above all in Tabernanthe iboga. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... Image File history File links Ibogaine. ... Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... An addiction is a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity. ... Genera See Taxonomy and Genera. ... Binomial name Tabernanthe iboga (L.) Nutt. ...

Contents

Formulations

Isolated and standardized ibogaine is sold by Sigma-Aldrich in form of its crystalline hydrochloride salt. Natural alkaline ibogaine and related indole compounds tend to (auto)oxidize quickly in air atmosphere[1] as opposed to their salt form which is stable. So, working under inert atmosphere or under acidic conditions is crucial to prevent decomposition during extraction. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation NASDAQ: SIAL, headquartered in St. ... In chemistry, hydrochlorides are salts resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (mostly amines). ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. ... Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. ... In English, to be inert is to be in a state of doing little or nothing. ... Liquid-liquid extraction, also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds based on their solution preferences for two different immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent. ...


The total alkaloid extract from Tabernanthe iboga rootbark is said to have about 1/5th the potency of pure ibogaine hydrochloride and the fresh, properly prepared extract contains all the alkaloids used in African traditional religion and medicine.[2] In Africa, Tabernanthe iboga is consumed as a stimulant by chewing the rootbark. In Bwiti religious ceremonies, the rootbark is pulverized and swallowed with water to produce intense psychoactive effects.


The name "Indra extract" has become synonymous with the total alkaloid extract of iboga rootbark. However, that name actually refers to a particular stock of about 44kg of an iboga extract manufactured by an unnamed European industrial manufacturer in 1981. This stock was later purchased by Carl Waltenburg, who distributed it under the name "Indra extract". Waltenburg used the extract to treat heroin addicts in Christiana, Denmark, a squatter village where heroin addiction was widespread in 1982.[3] Indra extract was offered for sale over the internet until 2006, when the Indra web presence disappeared. Iboga extracts are still often called "Indra extract", but it is unclear whether any of them are actually from Waltenburg's original Indra stock, or whether any of that stock is still in existence or viable after over 2 decades. Whether the extraction was once performed properly is unknown, so the real composition of the product remains uncertain. Nickname: Country Denmark Region Hovedstaden City Copenhagen Squatted 1971 Legalized 1995 Government  - Type Consensus democracy Area  - Land 0. ... This article is about occupying land without permission. ...


History

Ibogaine was first isolated from Tabernanthe iboga in 1901 by Dybowski and Landrin[4] and independently by Haller and Heckel in the same year. Samples of the plant were obtained from Gabon, Africa in the mid 1800s where it has been used in initiation rites of the Bwiti religion. The challenging total synthesis was accomplished by G. Büchi in 1966.[5] Since then, several further totally synthetic routes have been developed.[6] The use of ibogaine in treating substance use disorders in human subjects was first proposed by Howard Lotsof in U.S. Patent 4,499,096  which was awarded in 1985. Ibogaine's ability to attenuate opioid withdrawal confirmed in the rat was first published by Dzoljic et al. (1988).[7] Ibogaine's use in diminishing morphine self-administration in preclinical studies was shown by Glick et al. (1991)[8] and ibogaine's capacity to reduce cocaine self-administration in the rat was shown by Cappendijk et al. (1993).[9] Animal model support for ibogaine claims to treat alcohol dependence were established by Rezvani (1995).[10] Binomial name Tabernanthe iboga (L.) Nutt. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Bwiti is a West Central African religion practiced by the forest-dwelling Babongo and Mitsogo people of Gabon (where it is one of the three official religions) and the Fang people of Gabon and Cameroon. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Howard Lotsof is the western worlds leading ibogaine researcher, and was the purported discoverer of its anti-addictive effects. ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium and the prototypical opiate. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Data demonstrating ibogaine's efficacy in attenuating opioid withdrawal in drug dependent human subjects was published by Alper et al. (1999)[11] and Mash et al. (2000).[12] However, there have been as yet no peer-reviewed studies demonstrating any statistically significant long term improvement following ibogaine administration to humans with drug problems.


Effects

At low doses, ibogaine has a mild stimulant effect. At higher doses, temporary effects include hallucination and ataxia. The most studied long-term therapeutic effect is that ibogaine seems to catalyze partial or complete interruption of addiction to opioids. An integral effect is the alleviation of symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Research also suggests that ibogaine may be useful in treating dependence to other substances such as alcohol, methamphetamine, and nicotine, and may affect compulsive behavioral patterns not involving substance abuse or chemical dependence. Ibogaine has been used as an adjunct to psychotherapy by Claudio Naranjo, documented in his book The Healing Journey.[13] For other uses, see Ataxia (disambiguation). ... An addiction is a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae), predominantly in tobacco, and in lower quantities in tomato, potato, eggplant (aubergine), and green pepper. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Claudio Naranjo is a Chilean-born anthropologist and psychiatrist who is noted for his inter-disciplinary work with mind-altering substances, as well as the Enneagram and Gestalt psychotherapy. ...


Pharmacology

The pharmacology of ibogaine is quite complex, affecting many different neurotransmitter systems simultaneously.[14][15] Because of its fairly low potency at any of its target sites, ibogaine is used in doses anywhere from 5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight for minor effect to 30 mg/kg in the cases of strong polysubstance addiction. It is unknown whether doses greater than 30mg/kg in humans produce effects that are therapeutically beneficial, medically risky, or simply prolonged in duration. Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ...


Mechanism and Pharmacodynamics

Among recent proposals for ibogaine mechanisms of action is activation of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) pathway in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain. The work has principally been accomplished in preclinical ethanol research where 40 mg/kg of ibogaine caused increases of RNA expression of GDNF in keeping with reduction of ethanol intake in the rat, absent neurotoxicity or cell death.[16] GDNF Glial cell line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) is a small protein that potently promotes the survival of many types of neurons. ... Grays FIG. 712– Transverse section of mid-brain at level of superior colliculi. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid consisting of a string of covalently-bound nucleotides. ...


Ibogaine is a noncompetitive antagonist at α3β4 nicotinic receptors, binding with moderate affinity.[17] Several other α3β4 antagonists are known, and some of these such as bupropion (Zyban), and mecamylamine have been used for treating nicotine addiction. This α3β4-antagonism correlates quite well with the observed effect of interrupting addiction. Co-administration of ibogaine with other α3β4-antagonists such as 18-MC, dextromethorphan or mecamylamine had a stronger anti-addictive effect than when it was administered alone.[18] Since α3β4 channels and NMDA channels are related to each other and their binding sites within the lumen bind a range of same ligands (e.g. DXM, PCP),[19] some "older" sources suggested that ibogaine's anti-addictive properties may be (partly) due to it being an NMDA receptor antagonist.[20] However, ligands, like 18-MC, selective for α3β4- vs. NMDA-channels showed no drop-off in activity. Antagonists In medicine and biology, a receptor antagonist is a ligand that inhibits the function of an agonist and inverse agonist for a specific receptor. ... Nicotinic Receptors form ion channels present in the plasma membrane of cells. ... Bupropion (INN; also amfebutamone,[1] brand names Wellbutrin, Zyban, Budeprion and Buproban) is an atypical antidepressant, which acts as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and dopamine reuptake inhibitor,[2] and a nicotinic antagonist. ... Mecamylamine is a nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. ... Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae), predominantly in tobacco, and in lower quantities in tomato, potato, eggplant (aubergine), and green pepper. ... // Dextromethorphan hydrobromide monohydrate (DM or DXM) is an antitussive drug that is found in many over-the-counter cold and cough preparations. ... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic receptor for glutamate (NMDA is a name of its selective specific agonist). ... artery anatomy, showing lumen The lumen (pl. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Phencyclidine (a contraction of the chemical name phenylcyclohexylpiperidine), abbreviated PCP, is a dissociative drug formerly used as an anesthetic agent, exhibiting hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects. ... NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). ... 18-methoxycoronaridine. ...


It is suspected that ibogaine's actions on the opioid and glutamatergic systems are also involved in its anti-addictive effects. Persons treated with ibogaine report a cessation of opioid withdrawal signs generally within an hour of administration. An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Glutamic acid or glutamate (the anionic form of glutamic acid) is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids. ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ...


Ibogaine is a weak 5HT2A receptor agonist[21] and although it is unclear how significant this action is for the anti-addictive effects of ibogaine, it is likely to be important for the hallucinogenic effects.[22] Ibogaine is also a sigma2 receptor agonist.[23] The 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor which belongs to the serotonin receptor family and exhibits a GPCR. Activation of this receptor has a generally excitatory effect on most regions of the brain, although it may also have an inhibitory effect on certain areas such... Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Opioid receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors with opioids as ligands. ... Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ...


Metabolites

Ibogaine is metabolized in the human body by cytochrome P450 2D6, and the major metabolite is noribogaine (12-hydroxyibogamine). Noribogaine is most potent as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor and acts as moderate κ- and weak µ-opioid receptor full agonist and has therefore also an aspect of an opiate replacement similar to compounds like methadone. Both ibogaine and noribogaine have a plasma half-life of around thirty minutes, although the half-life or noribogaine is slightly longer than the parent compound. It is proposed that ibogaine is deposited in fat and metabolized into noribogaine as it is released.[24] Noribogaine shows higher plasma levels than ibogaine and may therefore be detected for longer periods of time than ibogaine. Noribogaine is also more potent than ibogaine in rat drug discrimination assays when tested for the subjective effects of ibogaine.[25] Noribogaine differs from ibogaine in that it contains a phenolic hydroxy instead of a methoxy group at the 12 position. A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressants. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Opiate Replacement Therapy (ORT) is the medical procedure of replacing an illegal opiate drug such as heroin with a longer acting but less euphoric opiate such as methadone or buprenorphine. ... Methadone is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic and in the treatment of narcotic addiction. ... The elimination half-life of a drug (or any xenobiotic agent) refers to the timecourse necessary for the quantity of the xenobiotic agent in the body (or plasma concentration) to be reduced to half of its original level through various elimination processes. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... This prefix in chemical nomenclature indicates the presence of a hydroxyl functional group (-OH). ... In chemistry, the methoxy prefix indicates the function group consisting of the methyl group and oxygen. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ...


Analogs

A synthetic derivative of ibogaine, 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) is a selective α3β4 antagonist that was developed collaboratively by the neurologist Stanley D. Glick (Albany) and the chemist Martin E. Kuehne (Vermont).[26] 18-methoxycoronaridine. ...


Voacangine, a close natural analog of ibogaine found in the tree bark of the Voacanga africana tree, is a common ingredient in the semi-synthesis of ibogaine because it is more abundant and easily accessible than iboga rootbark.[27] Based on their structural similarity to ibogaine and 18-MC and their binding properties in vitro, it is likely that other alkaloidal components of T. iboga and V. africana such as voacangine, ibogamine and coronaridine also contribute to the anti-addictive properties of the extracts from these plants. Voacangine (12-methoxyibogamine-18-carboxylic acid methyl ester) is a tryptamine found predominantly in the rootbark of the Voacanga africana tree. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Usage

Addiction Interruption

Proponents of ibogaine treatment for drug addiction have established formal and informal clinics or self-help groups in Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, France, Slovenia, the Netherlands, Brazil, South Africa, the United Kingdom and New Zealand where ibogaine is administered as an experimental drug. Although the full nature of Ibogaine is still emerging, it appears that the most effective treatment paradigm involves visionary doses of ibogaine of 10 to 20 mg/kg, producing an interruption of opiate withdrawal and craving. Many users of ibogaine report experiencing visual phenomena during a waking dream state, such as instructive replays of life events that led to their addiction, while others report therapeutic shamanic visions that help them conquer the fears and negative emotions that might drive their addiction. It is proposed that intensive counseling and therapy during the interruption period following treatment is of significant value. Some patients require a second or third treatment session with ibogaine over the course of the next 12 to 18 months as it will provide a greater efficacy in extinguishing the opiate addiction or other drug dependence syndrome. A minority of patients relapse completely into opiate addiction within days or weeks. A comprehensive article (Lotsof 1995) on the subject of ibogaine therapy, detailing the procedure, effects and aftereffects is found in, "Ibogaine in the Treatment of Chemical Dependence Disorders: Clinical Perspectives".[28] “West Indian” redirects here. ... Scoring the poppy pod. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means...


Chronic pain management

In 1957, Jurg Schneider, a pharmacologist at CIBA, found that ibogaine potentiates morphine analgesia.[29] Further research was abandoned and no additional data was ever published by Ciba researchers on ibogaine/opioid interactions. Almost 50 years later Patrick Kroupa and Hattie Wells released the first treatment protocol for concomitant administration of ibogaine with opioids in human subjects indicating ibogaine reduced tolerance to opioid drugs.[30] Kroupa, et al., published their research in the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) Journal demonstrating that administration of low "maintenance" doses of ibogaine HCl with opioids decreases tolerance. Ciba Specialty Chemicals is a chemical company based in and near Basel, Switzerland. ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium and the prototypical opiate. ... For other uses of painkiller, see painkiller (disambiguation) An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. ... Patrick K. Kroupa, 2005. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a non-profit organization that aims to assist scientists to design, fund, obtain approval for and report on studies into the risks and benefits of MDMA, psychedelic drugs and marijuana. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Drug tolerance occurs when a subjects reaction to a drug (such as a painkiller or intoxicant) decreases so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect. ...


Side effects

At therapeutic doses, ibogaine has an active window of 24 to 48 hours, is often physically and mentally exhausting and produces ataxia for as long as twelve hours, in some cases even longer. Nausea that may lead to vomiting is not uncommon throughout the experience. Such unpleasant symptoms tend to reduce the attractiveness of ibogaine as a recreational drug at therapeutic doses, however, at lower doses ibogaine is known to have stimulant effects. Some users administer ibogaine by enema in order to avoid nausea. For other uses, see Ataxia (disambiguation). ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ...


In one study using dogs as the subject, ibogaine has been observed to increase sinus arrhythmia (the normal change in heart rate during respiration).[4] Ventricular ectopy has been observed in a minority of patients during ibogaine therapy. [5] It has been proposed that there is a theoretical risk of QT-interval prolongation following ibogaine administration, but no actual occurrence of this phenomenon has been published to date. [6] Cardiac arrhythmia is a group of conditions in which the muscle contraction of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ...


There are 8 documented fatalities that have been loosely associated with ibogaine ingestion. [7]. Autopsies have failed to implicate ibogaine as the sole cause of death due to some patients having significant pre-existing medical problems, and some patients surreptitiously consuming other drugs such as heroin against medical indications during or after ibogaine treatment.


Research

An ibogaine research project was funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse in the early 1990s. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) abandoned efforts to continue this project into clinical studies in 1995, citing other reports that suggested a risk of brain damage with extremely high doses and fatal heart arrhythmia in patients having a history of health problems, as well as inadequate funding for ibogaine development within their budget. However, NIDA funding for ibogaine research continues in indirect grants often cited in peer reviewed ibogaine publications. Cover of a NIDA educational booklet. ...


In addition, after years of work and a number of significant changes to the original protocol, on August 17, 2006, a MAPS-sponsored research team received "unconditional approval" from a Canadian Institutional Review Board (IRB) to proceed with a long-term observational case study that will examine changes in substance use in 20 consecutive people seeking ibogaine-based addiction treatment for opiate dependence at the Iboga Therapy House in Vancouver. The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a non-profit organization that aims to assist scientists to design, fund, obtain approval for and report on studies into the risks and benefits of MDMA, psychedelic drugs and marijuana. ...


Legal status

Ibogaine and its salts were regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1967 pursuant to its enhanced authority to regulate stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens granted by the 1965 Drug Abuse Control Amendments (DACA) to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In 1970, with the passage of the Controlled Substances Act, it was classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States, along with other psychedelics such as LSD and mescaline. Since that time, several other countries, including Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, and Switzerland, have also banned the sale and possession of ibogaine. In chemistry, hydrochlorides are salts resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (mostly amines). ... FDA logo The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, biological medical products, blood products, medical devices, radiation-emitting devices, veterinary products, and cosmetics in the United States. ... A stimulant is a drug which increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or awakeness. ... See also sedative. ... Hallucinogenic drugs or hallucinogens are drugs that can alter sensory perceptions, elicit alternate states of consciousness, or cause hallucinations. ... The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In early 2006, a non-profit foundation addressing the issue of providing ibogaine for the purpose of addiction interruption within establishment drug treatment care was formed in Sweden.[31]


Media references

Documentary and autobiographical

  • Ibogaine: Rite Of Passage is a documentary film about the use of ibogaine in Bwiti tradition and addiction medicine. [8]
  • Daniel Pinchbeck writes of his own experience with ibogaine (among other psychoactives) in "Breaking Open The Head" [9]
  • Ibogaine was the topic of a segment the American public radio series This American Life, Week of December 1, 2006. The show called "Sink or Swim" documented the story of a former addict who opened an underground addiction treatment service using ibogaine.

This American Life (TAL) is a weekly hour-long radio program produced by Chicago Public Radio. ...

Incidental fictionalized/fanciful references in popular media

  • Hunter S. Thompson alleged in his book Fear and Loathing: On the Campaign Trail '72 [32] that United States Democratic Party presidential hopeful Edmund Muskie used ibogaine during his 1972 campaign. This is also voiced in 1972 articles in Rolling Stone magazine. Thompson also claimed to have used ibogaine himself.
  • In the movie Good Will Hunting, the character Skylar (a chemistry student) cites the complex and time-consuming task of assigning the proton spectrum for ibogaine as an excuse for declining a social invitation.
  • The X-Files, Season 8, Episode 7, "Via Negativa". Originally aired: 12/17/2000. Summary: a serial killer/cult leader uses Ibogaine to astral-project and kill his victims.
  • CSI, Season 4, Episode 16, "Getting Off". Originally aired: 1/1/2004. Summary: An underground ibogaine treatment provider is murdered by dealers of morphine and cocaine who perceive ibogaine's anti-addictive properties as a threat to their business.
  • Ibogaine is also mentioned in the book 2012: The Return of Queztcoatl by Daniel Pinchbeck. [10]
  • The Policy (1999) by Patrick Lynch incorporates ibogaine into the plot. One of the characters is sent to drug rehabilitation for a cocaine problem to keep him out of the way for some period of time while an insurance scam is accompished but he opts for ibogaine therapy and returns home far earlier than anticipated only be to murdered.

Hunter Stockton Thompson (July 18, 1937 – February 20, 2005) was an American journalist and author. ... A collection of articles covering the 1972 presidential campaign serialized in Rolling Stone and later released as a book, written by gonzo journalist Hunter S Thompson and illustrated by Ralph Steadman. ... Edmund Muskie (March 28, 1914 – March 26, 1996) was an American Democratic politician from Maine. ... This article is about the magazine. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that NMR Data Processing be merged into this article or section. ... X-Files intro from first 8 seasons The X-Files was a popular 1990s American science fiction television series created by Chris Carter. ... Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. ... CSI: Crime Scene Investigation is a popular Alliance Atlantis/CBS police procedural television series, running since October 2000, about a team of forensic scientists. ...

See also

Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain. ... A dissociative is a drug which reduces (or blocks) signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain, typically, but not necessarily, or limited to the physical senses. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Oneirophrenia is a hallucinatory, dream-like, state caused by several conditions such as prolonged sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, or drugs (such as ibogaine. ... Dr. Deborah Mash is a professor of neurology and molecular and cellular pharmacology at the University of Miami School of Medicine. ... This is a partial list of Entheogenic substances: Entheogen Ethnobotany Categories: | ...

External links

References

  1. ^ a)Taylor WI (1965): "The Iboga and Voacanga Alkaloids" (Journal?), Pages 203, 207 and 208. Oxidation products: peroxides; indolenine, iboquine and iboluteine. pdf b) Also compare PMID 16959135
  2. ^ Jenks CW (2002)
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ J. Dybowski, E. Landrin (1901). "PLANT CHEMISTRY. Concerning Iboga, its excitement-producing properties, its composition, and the new alkaloid it contains, ibogaine". C. R. Acad. Sci. 133: 748. Retrieved on 2006-06-23. 
  5. ^ G. Büchi, D.L. Coffen, Karoly Kocsis, P.E. Sonnet, and Frederick E. Ziegler (1966). "The Total Synthesis of Iboga Alkaloids" (pdf). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 88 (13): 3099-3109. Retrieved on 2006-06-23. 
  6. ^ C. Frauenfelder (1999) Doctoral Thesis, page 24 (pdf)
  7. ^ E.D. Dzoljic et al. (1988): "Effect of ibogaine on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in chronic morphine-dependent rats" Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 294, 64-70
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Ibogaine Detox and Treatment (918 words)
Since ibogaine aides in the cessation of addiction, it started to be used to deal with opiates and other substance addictions.
At therapeutic doses, ibogaine has an active window of 24 to 48 hours, is often physically and mentally exhausting and produces ataxia for as long as twelve hours.5 Nausea that may lead to vomiting is not uncommon throughout the experience.
Ibogaine enables the patient to focus on the underlying causes of addiction without going through the intense withdrawal symptoms that accompany most types of detoxification.
Ibogaine.co.uk (537 words)
Ibogaine is a psychoactive indole alkaloid derived from the rootbark of an African plant - Tabernanthe iboga.
Both scientific studies and widespread anecdotal reports appear to suggest that a single administration of ibogaine has the ability to both remove the symptoms of drug withdrawal and reduce drug-craving for a period of time after administration.
Ibogaine's current legal status in the UK, and much of the rest of the world, is that of an unlicensed, experimental medication, and it not therefore an offence to possess the drug, though to act as a distributor may be breaking the law.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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