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Encyclopedia > Ibn Arabi
Middle Eastern scholar
Medieval era
Name: Ibn Arabi
Birth: 1165 a.D. in Spain [1]
Death: 1240 a.D. in Damascus [1]
School/tradition:
Influences: Al-Ghazali
Influenced: Shah Nimatullah[citation needed]
For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi.

Ibn Arabi, was an Arab Muslim mystic and philosopher. He was born 1165 in Murcia and died 1240 in Damascus. Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Haruniyah stucture in Tus, named after Harun al-Rashid, the mausoleum of Al-Ghazali is expected to be situated on the entrance of this monument Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzālī (1058-1111) (Persian: ‎), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shah Nur ad-Din Nimatullah Vali. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎; transliteration: ) is a member of a Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Look up mystic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Events November 23 - Pope Alexander III enters Rome. ... For the Roman goddess see Venus. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ...

Contents

Name

Abū `Abd-Allah Muḥammad ibn `Ali ibn Muḥammad ibn al-`Arabi al-Ḥātimī al-Ṭā’ī (أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن محمد بن العربي الحاتمي الطائي ) Look up Abdullah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Muhammad is a common anglicized spelling of the Arabic given name, writen in Arabic script as محمد (M-Ḥ-M-D, read from left to right). ... Look up Ali, ali in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Also known in the Western world as Doctor Maximus and in the Islamic world by the titles of Muhyi id-Din (محيي الدين "Revivifier of religion") and al-Shaykh al-Akbar (الشيخ الأكبر "Great Master") The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...


Biography

He is sometimes described as a mystical philosopher. Even in his lifetime he was acknowledged to be one of the most important spiritual teachers within Sufism, the mystical tradition of Islam.
A vastly prolific writer, Ibn Arabi is generally known as the prime exponent of the idea that would later be termed wahdat al-wujud (وحدة الوجود, "unity of being"), though he has never used this term in any of his writings. His emphasis, as with any mystic, lay rather on the true potential of the human being and the path to realising that potential, which reaches its completion in the Perfect or Complete Man (al-insan al-kamil). Ibn Arabi wrote at least 300 works, ranging from minor treatises to the huge 37-volume Meccan Revelations (al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya) and the quintessence of his teachings, The Seals of Wisdom (Fusus al-hikam). Approximately 110 works are known to have survived in verifiable manuscripts, some 18 in Ibn Arabi’s own hand. He exerted an unparalleled influence, not only upon his immediate circle of friends and disciples, many of whom were considered spiritual masters in their own right, but also on succeeding generations, affecting the whole course of subsequent spiritual thought and practice in the Arabic, Turkish and Persian-speaking worlds. In recent years his writings have also become increasingly the subject of interest and study in the West, leading to the establishment of an international academic Society in his name. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition that found a home in Islam and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Allah, divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Wahdat-ul-Wujood or Wahdat al-Wujud (Arabic: وحدة الوجود) the Unity of Being is a Muslim Sufi philosophy emphasizing that there is no existence except the ultimate truth, that was formulated by Ibn Arabi. ...


Ibn Arabi’s life can be divided into three discrete phases: born in Medinat Mursiya the present day Murcia in south-eastern Spain in 560AH/1165AD, he spent the first thirty-five years of his life in the Maghreb, the western lands of Islam which stretched from al-Andalus to Tunis; then he embarked on pilgrimage and spent the next three years in or around Mecca, where a series of dramatic experiences initiated the writing of several works including his magnum opus, the Meccan Illuminations ; the final phase of his life was spent in the Levant and Anatolia, where he raised a family, and in addition to an unceasing literary output and instruction given to numerous disciples, he became adviser to kings and rulers. He settled in Damascus, where he lived for 17 years, dying in 638AH/1240AD, and his tomb is still an important place of pilgrimage. For the Roman goddess see Venus. ... Events November 23 - Pope Alexander III enters Rome. ... The Algerian bay (view from the west). ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see Pilgrimage (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile...


Quotes

If you see a Prophet speaking a language outside the simple ordinances of the Shari'a, that is due to the fact that he is a wali and a knower of Allah. For this reason, his station in respect to his being a man of knowledge and a wali is more perfect and complete than it is due to the fact that he is a Messenger or someone who legislates and has a Shari'a. If you hear one of the People of Allah speaking, or it is related to you that he said, "Wilaya is higher than prophethood," that speaker only means what we mentioned. Or if he says that the wali is above the Prophet or the Messenger, he means in the same person. He is the Messenger, and inasmuch as he is a wali, he is more complete than he is by simply being a Prophet. It does not mean that the wali who follows him is higher than him. The follower never overtakes the followed in that in which he follows him. If he had overtaken him, then he would not be his follower. So understand that!

—Fusus ul Hikam , Ibn Arabi

"Neither my Heaven nor my Earth contains me, but the heart of my faithful believer contains me," this because the heart is a mirror in which the manifested "Form of God" is at each moment reflected on the scale of the microcosm[2]!

—Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn `Arabi, Ibn Arabi

His doctrine

A profound visionary capacity, coupled with a remarkable intellectual insight into human experience and a thorough comprehension of all the traditional sciences, marks out Ibn Arabi from comparable figures in Islam. It has been tempting for scholars to characterise him as a mystical philosopher, a formulation which is rather at odds with his own teachings on the limitations of philosophical thinking. He was as much at home with Qur'an and Hadith scholarship as with medieval philology and letter symbolism, philosophy, alchemy and cosmology. He could write with equal facility in prose or poetry, and utilised the polysemous ambiguity of the Arabic language to great effect. The characteristic resonances of rhymed prose (saj’), which are to be found in the Qur'an, abound in his works. The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Rhymed prose is a literary form and literary genre, written in unmetrical rhymes. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


In recent years Western scholars such as William Chittick and Michel Chodkiewicz have begun to explore the radical way in which Ibn Arabi’s thought is underpinned and inspired by the infallible revelation of the Qur'an. He adopts the rich vocabulary of spiritual phenomenology which previous mystics had built up, and gives it both a scriptural basis and an ontological root. William C. Chittick is a renowned Islamologist. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


This all-inclusiveness and flexibility equally make him one of the most demanding of authors, and one whose subtlety lesser minds have often struggled to comprehend, some falling into rejection and outright opposition. He combines a detailed architecture of spiritual experience, theory and practice, with descriptions of the attainments of other masters he met as well as his own personal visions, insights and dreams. It is his propensity to recount stories from his own direct experience, primarily in order to make a teaching point, that allows readers to gain such a detailed insight into the inner world of one of the greatest mystics the world has known, and also allows us to reconstruct his life and times with some accuracy.


Orthodox Criticism and its Defence

Some Sunnis reject the notion that Ibn Arabi was a Muslim. Reasons for Ibn Arabi being branded a heretic were some of his statements in his books such as "Fusoos Al-Hikam" and "Al-Ahkaam". One example is where Ibn Arabi said, " العبد رب و الرب عبد Al-`Abdu Rabbun Warrabbu `Abdun" meaning The slave (human) is the Lord and the Lord is the slave." Sufis claim that such statements were always considered to be the most elevated exposition of mystical thought in Islam, and therefore unsuitable for the untrained mind. Ibn Arabi has also said, " الرب رب في التنزل والعبد عبد فى الترقي Al-Rabbu Rabbun Fa in tanazzal, wal abdu abdun fa in tarakka" (Lord is Lord through his coming down in love to His creations and a slave is a slave however high in status he goes up). This clearly shows that he accepted the existence of creations.


Its defence

The Shaikh wrote his books in the Arabic used by highly literate persons. He also made heavy use of terminologies. This was common for all Sufi masters, but they first taught their students the basics before handing them their books. They also burned most of their works before death, fearing that the later untrained generations might misunderstand them. His book Fusoos Al-Hikam, for example, came under heavy fire and he was declared Kafir by many scholars. This book was translated into many languages.


Urdu Translation of Fusus -ul- Hikam

In Urdu, the most authentic translation is supposed to be that of Maulvi Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui. His translation is in the curriculam of Punjab University. He has made an interpretive translation and explained the terms and grammar while clarifying the Shaikh's opinions. For example, he says the Shaikh used a lot of Mushaakla. A Mushakala is a type of simile where a phrase is returned with a different meaning. For example: Bahrul Uloom Hazrat Maulana Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui Hasrat (1870-1962) aka Qadeer Pia (Qadeer the Beloved) by his disciples. ...

  1. The Arabic couplet of dark ages is, "He told me shall I sew you a shirt, I told him to sew me a bread instead". Here we know that bread cannot be sewn; it must be baked. However, the hungry poet is in a dire need of food and must eat.
  2. The Quran says in the chapter Cow, "They mock and God mocks, and God is the best mocker". Here we know that mockery is against the grace of the God's majesty. It means God returns the mockery upon the mocker.
  3. The Quran says in the chapter Tariq, "They plot and God plots". Here again, we know that plotting is against the grace of God as well. It means God knows their plot and foils it.

References

  1. ^ a b Sufism and Taoism, by Toshihiko Izutsu (California 1983) [1]
  2. ^ Corbin, Henry. Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn `Arabi, 1969. p. 196
  • Hirtenstein, The Unlimited Mercifier, ISBN 0-9534513-2-1
  • Addas, Quest for the Red Sulphur, ISBN 0-946621-45-4
  • Titus Burckhardt & Bulent Rauf (translator), Mystical Astrology According to Ibn 'Arabi (The Fons Vitae Titus Burckhardt Series) ISBN 1-887752-43-9
  • Torbjörn Säfve, "Var inte rädd", ISBN 91-7221-112-1

Toshihiko Izutsu (井筒俊彦;1914 – 1993) was a university professor and author of many books on Islam and other religions. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Titus Burckhardt, a German Swiss, was born in Florence in 1908 and died in Lausanne in 1984. ...

Works

  • complete list of Ibn Arabi Books in Arabic
  • The Seals of Wisdom (also translated as The Bezels of Wisdom), or Fusus al-Hikam.
  • The Meccan Illuminations (Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya), his largest work discussing a wide range of topics from mystical philosophy to Sufi practices and records of his dreams/visions, often described as his Magnum Opus.
  • The Diwan, his collection of poetry spanning five volumes, mostly unedited.
  • The Holy Spirit in the Counselling of the Soul (Ruh al-quds), a treatise on the soul which includes a summary of his experience from different spiritual masters in the Maghrib.
  • Contemplation of the Holy Mysteries (Mashahid al-asrar), probably his first major work consisting of fourteen visions and dialogues with God.
  • Divine Sayings (Mishkat al-anwar), an important collection made by Ibn Arabi of 101 hadith qudsi
  • The Book of Annihilation in Contemplation (K. al-Fana' fi'l-mushahada), a short treatise on the meaning of mystical annihilation (fana).
  • Devotional Prayers (Awrad), a widely read collection of fourteen prayers for each day and night of the week.
  • Red Sulphur (Al-Kabrit al-ahmar).
  • Journey to the Lord of Power (Risalat al-anwar), a detailed technical manual and roadmap for the "journey without distance".
  • Sufis of Andalusia, reminiscences and spiritual anecdotes about many interesting people whom he met in al-Andaluz.

Deewan, sometimes spelt Divan, is the word for either a collection of the works, or the whole body of work of an Urdu, Persian or Ottoman Turkish poet. ... A manuscript page of the Quran in the script developed in al-Andalus, 12th century Al-ʾAndalus (Arabic الأندلس) is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Emirate (ca 750–929) and Caliphate of Cordoba (929–1031 ) and its taifa successor...

See also

Islamic scholars are Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who work in one or more fields of Islamic studies. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition that found a home in Islam and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Allah, divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Frithjof Schuon (June 18, 1907 – May 5, 1998) was a metaphysician, poet, painter, Sufi, and a leading figure of traditional metaphysics. ... Mahmud Shabistari is one of the most celebrated Persian Sufi poets. ... Wahdat-ul-Wujood or Wahdat al-Wujud (Arabic: وحدة الوجود) the Unity of Being is a Muslim Sufi philosophy emphasizing that there is no existence except the ultimate truth, that was formulated by Ibn Arabi. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ibn Arabi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1212 words)
Ibn Arabi wrote at least 300 works, ranging from minor treatises to the huge 37-volume Meccan Illuminations (al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya) and the quintessence of his teachings, The Bezels of Wisdom (Fusus al-hikam).
One example is where Ibn Arabi said, "Al-`Abdu Rabbun Warrabbu `Abdun" meaning The slave (human) is the Lord/God and the Lord/God is the slave (human)." Sufis claim that such statements were always considered to be the most elevated exposition of mystical thought in Islam, and therefore unsuitable for the untrained mind.
Ibn Arabi has also said, "Al-Rabbu Rabbun Fa in tanazzal, wal abdu abdun fa in tarakka" (Lord is Lord however low He comes down and a slave is a slave however high in status he goes up).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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