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Encyclopedia > Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. It is the western and southernmost of the three southern European peninsulas (the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas). It is bordered on the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea, and on the north and west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Pyrenees form the northeast edge of the peninsula, connecting it to the rest of Europe. In the south, it approaches the northern coast of Africa. It is the third largest peninsula in Europe, with an area of 582 860 km². The name "Iberia" was also used since the times of Ancient Greece and Rome for another territory at the opposite corner of Europe, Caucasian Iberia, in modern day Georgia. World map showing the location of Europe. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ...

Contents

History

Satellite view of the Iberian peninsula
Satellite view of the Iberian peninsula
Topographic map of the Iberian Peninsula
Topographic map of the Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1,000,000 years (Atapuerca). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1250x950, 315 KB) Summary Source NASAs Visible Earth Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Iberian Peninsula ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1250x950, 315 KB) Summary Source NASAs Visible Earth Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Iberian Peninsula ... Topographic map of the Iberian Peninsula, created with Online Map Creator (public domain) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Topographic map of the Iberian Peninsula, created with Online Map Creator (public domain) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Atapuerca, also known as Sierra de Atapuerca or Sierra Atapuerca, is an ancient karst topography region of Spain, containing several caves such as the Gran Dolina site, where fossils and stone tools of the one of the earliest known hominids in Europe have been found, dating to between 780,000...


The original peoples of the Iberian peninsula (in the sense that they are not known to have come from elsewhere), consisting of a number of separate tribes, are given the generic name of Iberians. This may have included the Basques, the only pre-Celtic people in Iberia surviving to the present day as a separate ethnic group.[citation needed] The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: Euskaldunak) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of northwestern Spain and southwestern France. ... A Celtic cross. ...


The seafaring Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians successively settled along the Mediterranean coast and founded trading colonies there over a period of several centuries. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ...


Around 1100 BC Phoenician merchants founded the trading colony of Gadir or Gades (modern day Cádiz) near Tartessos. In the 8th century BC the first Greek colonies, such as Emporion (modern Empúries), were founded along the Mediterranean coast on the East, leaving the south coast to the Phoenicians. The Greeks are responsible for the name Iberia, after the river Iber (Ebro). In the 6th century BC the Carthaginians arrived in Iberia while struggling with the Greeks for control of the Western Mediterranean. Their most important colony was Carthago Nova (Latin name of modern day Cartagena). (Redirected from 1100 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC - 1100s BC - 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC Events and Trends 1100 BC - Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the Hittites... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Nickname: Tacita de plata (little silver cup) Location within Spain Province Cádiz  - Mayor Teófila Martínez (PP) Area    - City 12. ... Tartessos (also Tartessus) was a harbor city on the south coast of the Iberian peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir river. ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... Greek amphora found at Empúries Empúries (Catalan name; in Spanish: Ampurias) is a town on the Mediterranean coast, of the Catalan comarca of Baix Empordà. It was founded in 575 BC by Greek colonists from Phocaea with the name of Ἐμπόριον ( Emporion — market; see also List of traditional Greek... The Ebro (Greek: Έβρος, Latin: Iberus, Spanish: Ebro, Catalan: Ebre) is Spains most voluminous and second longest river. ... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ... Carthago Nova (New Carthage, Carthage already meaning new city in Punic) is the Latin name of the most important Carthaginian coastal trading colony in Spain. ... For other places of the same name, see Cartagena. ...


In 219 BC, the first Roman troops invaded the Iberian Peninsula, during the Second Punic war against the Carthaginians, and annexed it under Augustus after two centuries of war with the Celtic and Iberian tribes and the Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian colonies becoming the province of Hispania. It was divided in Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior during the late Roman Republic; and, during the Roman Empire, Hispania Taraconensis in the northeast, Hispania Baetica in the south and Lusitania in the southwest. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC 221 BC 220 BC - 219 BC - 218 BC 217 BC... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Combatants Image:SPQR-Stone. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... During the Roman Republic, Hispania Ulterior was a region of Hispania roughly located in Baetica and in the Guadalquivir valley of modern Spain. ... During the Roman Republic, Hispania Citerior was a region of Hispania roughly located in the northeastern coast and in the Ebro valley of modern Spain. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Roman Imperial province of Hispania Tarraconensis, 120 AD Hispania Tarraconensis was a Roman province in what is known today as modern Spain. ... Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 CE In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, 120 AD Lusitania was an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal, except for the area between the rivers Douro and Minho (part of Hispania Tarraconensis), and part of modern day western Spain, the present autonomous communities of Extremadura...


Hispania supplied the Roman Empire with food, olive oil, wine and metal. The emperors Trajan, Hadrian and Theodosius I, the philosopher Seneca and the poets Martial and Lucan were born from families living in Iberia. This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 – July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English was Roman emperor from 117 – 138, as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ... Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ...


In the early 5th century, Germanic tribes invaded the peninsula, namely the Suevi, the Vandals (Silingi and Hasdingi) and their allies, the Sarmatian Alans. Only the kingdom of the Suevi (Quadi and Marcomanni) would endure after the arrival of another wave of Germanic invaders, the Visigoths, who conquered all of the Iberian peninsula and expelled or partially integrated the Vandals and the Alans. The Visigoths eventually conquered the Suevi kingdom and its capital city Bracara (modern day Braga) in 584-585. Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe (Germanic as defined by Tacitus) that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... The Silings or Silingi (Latin: Silingae, Greek Σιλίγγαι - Silingai) were an East Germanic tribe probably part of the larger Vandal group. ... The Hasdingii were the southern tribes of the Vandals. ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... The Quadi were a smaller Germanic tribe, about which little definitive information is known. ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Braga is a city in northwestern Portugal, in the province of Minho. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Norte  - Subregion Cávado  - District or A.R. Braga Mayor Mesquita Machado  - Party PS Area 183. ... Events The Visigoths conquer the Suevi kingdom in Spain. ... Events Famine in Gaul. ...


In 711 CE, a Moorish Umayyad army from North Africa invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania. Under their leader Tariq ibn-Ziyad, they landed at Gibraltar and brought most of the Iberian Peninsula under Islamic rule in an eight-year campaign. Al-ʾAndalūs (Arabic الإندلس : Land of the Vandals) is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors. See also: phone number 711. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including: al-Maghrib (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former Islamic sovereign... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic North Africa, including the UN subregion North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad or Taric ben Zeyad (d. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


From the 8th to the 15th centuries, parts of the Iberian peninsula were ruled by the Moors (mainly Berber with some Arab) who had crossed over from North Africa. Many of the ousted Gothic nobles took refuge in the unconquered north Asturian highlands. From there they aimed to reconquer their lands from the Moors: this war of reconquest is known as the Reconquista. Christian and Muslim kingdoms fought and allied among themselves. The Muslim taifa kings competed in patronage of the arts, the Way of Saint James attracted pilgrims from all Western Europe and the Jewish population of Iberia set the basis of Sephardic culture. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including: al-Maghrib (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former Islamic sovereign... The Amazighs (also called Berber people or Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa and speak various Berber languages. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic North Africa, including the UN subregion North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Flag Motto: Hoc Signo Tuetur Pius, Hoc Signo Vincitur Inimicus (English: With this sign thou shalt defend the pious, with this sign thou shalt defeat the enemy) Capital Cangas de Onis, San Martín, Pravia, Oviedo Language(s) Asturian, Latin Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 718-737 Pelayo of... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term taifa in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in Spain (Arabic: Al-Andalus) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. ... External links Official city site Live Cam of Obradoiro Façade Confraternity of St. ... The Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula, also known as the Golden Age of Arab or Moorish Rule in Iberia, refers to a period of history during the Muslim rule of the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman and Visigothic Hispania) in which Jews were generally accepted in society... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the...


In medieval times the peninsula housed many small states including Castile, Aragon, Navarre, León and Portugal. The peninsula was part of the Islamic Almohad empire until they were finally uprooted. The last major Muslim stronghold was Granada which was eliminated by a combined Castilian and Aragonese force in 1492. The small states gradually amalgamated over time, with the excepion of Portugal, even if for a brief period (1580-1640) the whole peninsula was united politically under the Iberian Union. After that point the modern position was reached and the peninsula now consists of the countries of Spain and Portugal (excluding their islands - the Portuguese Azores and Madeira Islands and the Spanish Canary Islands and Balearic Islands; and the Spanish possessions of Ceuta and Melilla), Andorra, French Cerdagne and Gibraltar. Medieval Times outside of Chicago This is the article on the Medieval Times dinner theater chain. ... Limits of the Kingdom of Castile in 1210 The Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of León, 1030 Capital León Language(s) Mainly Latin and Astur-Leonese. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous community Andalusia Settled since 7th century BC Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 738 m (2,421. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Iberian Union is modern day term that refers to the historical political unit that governed all of the Iberian peninsula south of the Pyrenees from 1580-1640. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... Location Motto of the autonomous region: Das ilhas, as mais belas e livres (Portuguese: Of the islands, the most beautiful and free) Official language Portuguese Capital Funchal Other towns Porto Santo, Machico, Santa Cruz, Câmara de Lobos, Santana, Ribeira Brava, Caniço Area 797 km² Population  - Total (1991)  - Density... Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Area  â€“ Total   28 km² Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ Density  75,276  2688. ...  Spain Area  â€“ Total    20 km² (8 mi²) Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ Density  66,871  3,343. ... French Cerdagne is the northern half of Cerdagne that became French at the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, while the southern half remained Spanish (part of Catalonia). ...


Countries & territories

The positions of the different countries/territories of Iberia.

Political divisions of the Iberian Peninsula sorted by area: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x722, 113 KB)from NASA World Wind File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x722, 113 KB)from NASA World Wind File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Andorra. ... A microstate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very little land area - usually both. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... French Cerdagne is the northern half of Cerdagne that became French at the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, while the southern half remained Spanish (part of Catalonia). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Gibraltar_(bordered). ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...

See also

The Iberian language describes a linguistic group identified with the Iberian civilization (7th century BC – 1st century BC), formed in the eastern and south-eastern regions of the Iberian peninsula. ... This article describes the prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula from the appearance of the first human populations until the arrival of the Phoenicians and the first recorded contacts with other European cultures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Continental Portugal (Portuguese: Portugal Continental) is the designation of the mainland Portugal territory, in the Iberian Peninsula, located in the Continental Europe. ... Historically, the modern country of Spain was formed by the accretion of several independent Iberian realms through dynastic inheritance, conquest and the will of the local elites. ... Languages Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Spaniards, Portuguese Sephardi Jews (Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Tiberian ; plural ספרדים, Standard Tiberian ) are a subgroup of Jews originating in the Iberian Peninsula, usually defined in contrast to Ashkenazi Jews... Forest of cork oaks in the south of Portugal (Algarve) Furthest extent of the Iberian woodlands. ... Main language areas in Iberia circa 250 BC. This is a list of the Pre-Roman people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania - modern Andorra, Portugal and Spain). ...

External links

  • IberianatureA guide to the environment, geography, climate, wildlife, natural history and landscape of Iberia
  • Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia (around 200 BC)
  • Spanish words of Latin origin Spanish , a romance language.

  Results from FactBites:
 
European Voyages of Exploration: Iberian Pioneers (1826 words)
These port cities would be the leaders of Iberian overseas expansion with their outward focus on trade as exporters of wool, textiles, and iron, and importers of spices, silk and luxury goods.
Iberian society was made up of three different social classes: the nobility, the commoners, and the clergy.
The Iberian Peninsula is dominated by mountains and lacks arable land except in a few plateau areas and in some coastal regions.
Iberian Peninsula - Information from Reference.com (1167 words)
The Iberian Peninsula is dominated by the Meseta (central plateau), a great uplifted fault block (average elevation 2,000 ft/610 m) ringed and crossed by mountain ranges.
It is the western and southernmost of the three southern European peninsulas (the Iberian, Italian and Balkan peninsulas).
In 219 BC, the first Roman troops invaded the Iberian Peninsula, during the Second Punic war against the Carthaginians, and annexed it under Augustus after two centuries of war with the Celtic and Iberian tribes and the Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian colonies becoming the province of Hispania.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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