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Encyclopedia > IUPAC nomenclature

IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. It is developed and kept up to date under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). A chemical compound is a chemical substance formed from two or more elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Chemistry (derived from the Arabic word kimia, alchemy, where al is Arabic for the) is the science that deals with the properties of organic and inorganic substances and their interactions with other organic and inorganic substances. ... IUPAC logo The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ...


The rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book[1] and the Red Book[2] respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book,[3] describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book,[4] contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry[5] (in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry[6] and macromolecular chemistry[7]. These books are supplemented by shorter recommendations for specific circumstances which are published from time to time in the journal Pure and Applied Chemistry. A physical quantity is either a quantity within physics that can be measured (e. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of Physics. ... The Gold Book or Compendium of Chemical Terminology (ISBN 0865426848) is a book published by IUPAC containing internationally accepted definitions for terms in chemistry. ... The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). ... Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. ...


This article treats the system of nomenclature in general, notably its aims and historical development. Separate articles treat the naming of organic compounds and inorganic compounds in more detail. The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... The IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is a systematic way of naming inorganic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ...

Contents


Aims of chemical nomenclature

The primary function of chemical nomenclature is to ensure that the person who hears or reads a chemical name is under no ambiguity as to which chemical compound it refers: each name should refer to a single substance. It is considered less important to ensure that each substance should have a single name, although the number of acceptable names is limited.


It is also preferable that the name convey some information about the structure or chemistry of a compound. CAS numbers form an extreme example of names which do not perform this function: each refers to a single compound but none contain information about the structure. One might be tempted to add [7647-14-5] to one's meal, but not [133-43-9]—the former is sodium chloride, the latter sodium cyanide. CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ... Flash point Non-flammable R/S statement R: none S: none RTECS number VZ4725000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Sodium cyanide is a highly toxic chemical compound, also known as sodium salt of hydrocyanic acid and cyanogran. ...


The form of nomenclature which should be used depends on the public to which it is addressed: as such there is no single correct form, but rather different forms which are more or less appropriate in different circumstances.


A common name will often suffice to identify a chemical compound in a particular set of circumstances. There is little risk that the "salt" on a dinner table will be sodium cyanide (technically a salt itself)! To be more generally applicable, the name should indicate at least the chemical formula: hence table salt is referred to chemically as sodium chloride, which indicates by the rules of inorganic nomenclature that the formula is NaCl. To be more specific still, the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms may need to be specified: there are occasions where it might be necessary to distinuguish between sodium chloride (halite structure) (the common form) and sodium chloride (CsCl structure) (of theoretical interest only). In a few specific circumstances (such as the construction of large indices), it becomes necessary to ensure that each compound has a unique name: this requires the addition of extra rules to the standard IUPAC system (the CAS system is the most commonly used in this context), at the expense of having names which are longer and less familiar to most readers. Other system gaining popularity is International Chemical Identifier - InChI - while InChI symbols are not human readable they contain complete information about substance structure. That makes them more general then CAS numbers. A magnified crystal of salt In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... The IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is a systematic way of naming inorganic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society which produces the Chemical Abstracts, an index of the scientific literature in chemistry and related fields. ... The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI), developed by IUPAC and NIST, is a digital equivalent of the IUPAC name for any particular covalent compound. ...


The IUPAC system is often criticized for these above failures when they become relevant (for example in differing reactivity of sulfur allotropes which IUPAC doesn't distinguish). While IUPAC has a human-readable advantage over CAS numbering, it would be difficult to claim that the IUPAC name for some larger, relevant molecules (such as rapamycin) are human-readable, and so most researchers simply use the informal names. Sirolimus is a relatively new immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation, and is especially useful in kidney transplants. ...


History

The nomenclature of alchemy is rich in description, but does not effectively meet the aims outlined above. Opinions differ as to whether this was deliberate on the part of the practitioners of alchemy or whether it was a consequence of the particular (and often esoteric) theoretical framework in which they worked. While both explanations are probably valid to some extent, it is remarkable that the first "modern" system of chemical nomenclature appeared at the same time as the distinction (by Lavoisier) between elements and compounds, in the late eighteenth century. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1454, 47 KB) A scan of the opening page of Chymical Nomenclature from 1787 by Lavoisier, from a photocopy of a contemporary English translation. ... Alchemy is an early protoscience|protoscientific and philosophy|philosophical discipline combining the elements of chemistry, metallurgy, physics, medicine, astrology, semiotics, mysticism, and art. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... A chemical element, often called simply element, is a chemical substance that cannot be divided or changed into other chemical substances by any ordinary chemical technique. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance formed from two or more elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


The French chemist Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau published his recommendations[8] in 1782, hoping that his "constant method of denomination" would "help the intellegence and relieve the memory". The system was refined in collaboration with Berthollet, de Fourcroy and Lavoisier,[9] and promoted by the latter in a textbook which would survive long after his death at the guillotine in 1794.[10] The project was also espoused by Berzelius,[11] who adapted the ideas for the German-speaking world. Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Claude Louis Berthollet Claude Louis Berthollet (December 9, 1748 – November 6, 1822) was a French chemist. ... Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy (June 15, 1755 – December 16, 1809), French chemist, the son of an apothecary in the household of the duke of Orleans, was born at Paris. ... The Maiden, an older Scottish design Portrait of Dr. Guillotin Public guillotining in Lons-le-Saunier, 1897 Guillotine from Baden (reconstruction) The guillotine is a machine used for the mechanized application of capital punishment by decapitation. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Berzelius is the third-oldest secret society at Yale University. ...


The recommendations of Guyton covered only what would be today known as inorganic compounds. With the massive expansion of organic chemistry in the mid-nineteenth century and the greater understanding of the structure of organic compounds, the need for a less ad hoc system of nomenclature was felt just as the theoretical tools became available to make this possible. An international conference was convened in Geneva in 1892 by the national chemical societies, from which the first widely accepted proposals for standardization arose.[12] Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Geneva (French: Genève, German: Genf, Italian: Ginevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland, situated where Lake Geneva (French Lac Léman) flows into the Rhône River. ... 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


A commission was set up in 1913 by the the Council of the International Association of Chemical Societies, but its work was interrupted by World War I. After the war, the task passed to the newly formed International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, which first appointed commissions for organic, inorganic and biochemical nomenclature in 1921 and continues to do so to this day. 1913 (MCMXIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Combatants Entente Powers Central Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties > 5 million military deaths > 3 million military deaths World War I, also known as the First World War and (before 1939) the Great War, the War of the Nations, War to End All Wars was a world conflict... IUPAC logo The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Types of nomenclature

Compositional nomenclature

Stock nomenclature

Radical nomenclature

Substitutive nomenclature

Additive nomenclature

See also

A name is a label for a thing, person, place, product (as in a brand name) and even an idea or concept, normally used to distinguish one from another. ... Nomenclature is a system of naming and categorizing objects in a given category. ... The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... The IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is a systematic way of naming inorganic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... Chemical nomenclature, replete as it is with compounds with complex names, is a repository for some very peculiar and sometimes startling names. ...

References

  1. ^  Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, Oxford:Pergamon Press, 1979; A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds, Recommendations 1993, Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993.
  2. ^  Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, Recommendations 1990, Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications. (1990)
  3. ^  Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications. (1993)
  4. ^  Compendium of Chemical Terminology, IUPAC Recommendations (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications. (1997)
  5. ^  Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, London:Portland Press, 1992.
  6. ^  Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature, Definitive Rules 1997 (3rd Edn.), Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1998.
  7. ^  Compendium of Macromolecular Nomenclature, Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1991.
  8. ^  Guyton de Morveau, L. B. (1782). J. Phys. 19, 310.
  9. ^  Guyton de Morveau, L. B.; Lavoisier, A. L.; Berthollet, C. L.; de Fourcroy, A. F. (1787). Méthode de Nomenclature Chimique, Paris.
  10. ^  Lavoisier, A. L. (1801). Traité Elémentaire de Chimie (3e edn.), Paris:Deterville.
  11. ^  Berzelius, J. J. (1811). J. Phys. 73, 248.
  12. ^  Bull. Soc. Chim. (Paris) 3(7), xiii. (1892)

External links

  • IUPAC Provisional Recommendations for the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (2004) (online draft of an updated version of the "Red Book")
  • IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (online version of the "Blue Book")
  • IUPAC Recommendations on Organic & Biochemical Nomenclature, Symbols, Terminology, etc. (includes IUBMB Recommendations for biochemistry)
  • IUPAC Abbreviated list of quantities, units and symbols in physical chemistry (online version of the "Green Book")
  • IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology (online version of the "Gold Book", from IUPAC)
  • IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology (online version of the "Gold Book", from the RSC, allows free text searching)

  Results from FactBites:
 
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2310 words)
The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
In IUPAC nomenclature, a number of prefixes, suffixes and infixes are used to describe the type and position of functional groups in the compound.
The IUPAC nomenclature scheme becomes rapidly more elaborate for more complex cyclic structures, with notation for compounds containing conjoined rings, and many common names such as phenol, furan, indole, etc. being accepted as base names for compounds derived from them.
IUPAC nomenclature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1086 words)
IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general.
The primary function of chemical nomenclature is to ensure that the person who hears or reads a chemical name is under no ambiguity as to which chemical compound it refers: each name should refer to a single substance.
While IUPAC has a human-readable advantage over CAS numbering, it would be difficult to claim that the IUPAC name for some larger, relevant molecules (such as rapamycin) are human-readable, and so most researchers simply use the informal names.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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