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Encyclopedia > ISO 9660
Optical disc authoring
Optical media types
Standards

ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), defines a file system for CD-ROM media. It aims at supporting different computer operating systems such as Unix, Windows and Mac OS, so that data may be exchanged. In computing, optical disc authoring, including CD authoring and DVD authoring, known often as burning, is the process of recording source material—video, audio or other data—onto an optical disc (compact disc or DVD). ... The optical lens of a compact disc drive. ... It has been suggested that ISO image be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Optical disc authoring software is computer software for authoring optical discs including CD-ROMs and DVDs. ... CD and DVD recorders for authoring optical discs such as CD-ROMs and DVDs have a history of various technologies. ... In optical disc authoring, there are multiple modes for recording, including Disc-At-Once, Track-At-Once, and Session-At-Once. ... Packet writing is an optical disc recording technology used to allow writeable CD and DVD media to be used in a similar manner to a floppy disk. ... Laserdisc (LD) was the first commercial optical disc storage medium, and was used primarily for the presentation of movies as to be viewed at home. ... A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. ... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ... A DVD+R disc The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... DVD-D is a self-destructing disposable DVD format. ... DVD-R DL (Dual Layer) (Also Known as DVD-R9) is a derivative of the DVD-R format standard. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... DVD+R DL (Double Layer), also known as DVD+R9, is a derivative of the DVD+R format created by the DVD+RW Alliance. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... JVC has announced they have gotten around to developing dual layered DVD-RW discs (DVD-RW DL). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... You can recognize a DVD-RAM immediately because visually there are lots of little rectangles distributed on the surface of the data carrier. ... A blank rewritable Blu-ray disc (a BD-RE) A Blu-ray Disc (also called BD) is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital media, including high-definition video. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... HD DVD-R is the writable disc variant of HD DVD, and is now currently available with a single-layer capacity of 15GB. Currently, HD DVD-R has slower write speeds than the competing BD-R format (1–2x vs 1–4x) and lower storage capacity. ... An example of proposed HD DVD-RAM media. ... Ultra Density Optical (UDO) is a next-generation optical disc format designed for high-density storage of high-definition video and data. ... A UMD The Universal Media Disc (UMD) is an optical disc medium developed by Sony for use on the PlayStation Portable. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Holographic memory. ... 3D Optical Data Storage is characterized by the ability to inscribe data within the volume of a data storage medium with three-dimensional resolution, as opposed to the two-dimensional resolution afforded by, for example, magnetic tape or CD. This innovation potentially allows very high data densities, but requires addressing... Although research into optical data storage has been ongoing for many decades, the first popular system was CD-ROM, introduced in 1982, adapted to data storage (the CD-ROM format) with the 1985 Yellow Book, and re-adapted as the first mass market optical storage medium with CD-R and... The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of Compact Discs. ... Joliet is the name of an extension to the ISO 9660 file system. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The El Torito Bootable CD Specification is an extension to the ISO 9660 CD-ROM specification. ... Overview Apple Macintosh computers use the HFS (or HFS+) file system on hard disks, mainly. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... The Mount Rainier logo Mount Rainier is a format for re-writable optical discs which provides for packet writing and defect management. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Crash counting be merged into this article or section. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... It has been suggested that Maintenance OS be merged into this article or section. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Windows redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


An extension to ISO 9660, the Joliet format, adds support to allow longer file names and non-ASCII character sets. Joliet is the name of an extension to the ISO 9660 file system. ...


DVDs may also use the ISO 9660 file system. However, the UDF file system is more appropriate on DVDs as it has better support for the larger media and is better suited for modern operating system needs. DVD is an optical disc storage media format that is used for playback of movies with high video and sound quality and for storing data. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ...

Contents

History

A CD-ROM may be mastered with any kind of information on it. Sun Microsystems, for example, uses the Berkeley UNIX UFS file systems on many CD-ROMs. Silicon Graphics' IRIX installation media uses EFS. Mac OS uses HFS. This restricts them to the producer's operating environment, which, while beneficial in the case of platform-specific software distributions, is not appropriate for widely distributing content. Hence, the need for one optical format that would play on a variety of equipment arose. Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... The UNIX file system (UFS) is a file system used by many Unix and Unix-like operating systems. ... Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... IRIX is a computer operating system developed by Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... EFS (Extent Filing System) is an older block filing system used in Silicon Graphics IRIX versions prior to the 5. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hierarchical File System (HFS), is a file system developed by Apple Computer for use on computers running Mac OS. Originally designed for use on floppy and hard disks, it can also be found on read-only media such as CD-ROMs. ...


Before there was a standard on this matter some were using the High Sierra format on CD-ROM, which arranged file information in a dense, sequential layout to minimise nonsequential access.The High Sierra file system format uses a hierarchical (eight levels of directories deep) tree file system arrangement, similar to UNIX and MS-DOS. High Sierra has a minimal set of file attributes (directory or ordinary file and time of recording) and name attributes (name, extension, and version). The designers realised they could never get people to agree on a unified definition of file attributes, so the minimum common information was encoded, and a place for future optional extensions (system use area) was defined for each file. High Sierra is also a slang term used in computer science to refer to the ISO 9660 standard for storing computer files on compact discs. ...


High Sierra was adopted in december 1986 (with changes) as an international standard by Ecma International as Ecma-119 [1] and submitted for the fast tracking to the International Organization for Standardization, where it was eventually accepted as ISO 9660-1988. The ISO 9660 file system format is now used throughout the industry. Ecma International is an international membership-based standards organization for information and communication systems. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Specifications

CD-ROM Specifications

The smallest entity in the CD format is called a frame, and holds 24 bytes. Data in a CD-ROM is organized in frames and sectors. A CD-ROM sector contains 98 frames, and holds 2352 bytes. A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ...


CD-ROM Mode 1, usually used for computer data, divides the 2352 byte data area defined by the Red Book standards into 12 bytes of synchronisation information, 4 bytes of header data, 2048 bytes of user data and 288 bytes of error correction and detection codes. These codes help prevent the data from becoming corrupted, which could lead to errors for executable data. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rainbow Books. ...


CD-ROM Mode 2 Form 1, usually used for computer data, uses the same format as Mode 1. Its use is not recommended for compatibility reasons. [2] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rainbow Books. ...


CD-ROM Mode 2 Form 2, intended to be used for error-tolerant data such as audio and video, divides the 2352 bytes into 12 bytes of synchronisation information, 4 bytes of header data and 2336 bytes of user data. Mode 2 provides 14% more user data space than Mode 1 by omitting error correction, since a read error in audio or video will only cause a small flaw which may not even be detectable to humans. Video CDs are classified as Mode 2 Form 2. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rainbow Books. ... Audio can mean: Sounding that can be heard. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Video CD (aka VCD, VideoCD, View CD, Compact Disc digital video) is a standard digital format for storing video on a Compact Disc. ...


ISO 9660 Specifications

A reserved area of 32768 bytes at the beginning of the disk is present for use in booting CD-ROM on a computer (system area). As a matter of fact, its use was not specified by the ISO 9660 standard, but generally it is used for boot information.


Immediately afterwards, a series of volume descriptors details the contents and kind of information contained on the disk (something like the partition table of MS-DOS).


A volume descriptor describes the characteristics of the file system information present on a given CD-ROM, or volume. It is divided into two parts: the type of volume descriptor, and the characteristics of the descriptor.


The volume descriptor is constructed in this manner so that if a program reading the disk does not understand a particular descriptor, it can just skip over it until it finds one it recognises, thus allowing the use of many different types of information on one CD-ROM. Also, if an error were to render a descriptor unreadable, a subsequent redundant copy of a descriptor could then allow for fault recovery. When checking CD-ROMs with a dump utility we find each descriptor back in a single logical sector on itself, and also a backup of the descriptor a few logical sectors further.


An ISO 9660 compliant disk contains at least a primary descriptor describing the ISO 9660 file system and a terminating descriptor for indicating the end of the descriptor sequence. Joliet and UDF are examples of file systems adding more descriptors to this sequence. Joliet is the name of an extension to the ISO 9660 file system. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ...


The primary volume descriptor acts much like the superblock of the Unix File System, providing details on the ISO 9660 compliant portion of the disk. Contained within the primary volume descriptor is the root directory record describing the location of the contiguous root directory. (As in UNIX, directories appear as files for the operating system special use). Directory entries are successively stored within this region. Evaluation of the ISO 9660 filenames is begun at this location. The root directory is stored as an extent, or sequential series of sectors, that contains each of the directory entries appearing in the root. In addition, since ISO 9660 works by segmenting the CD-ROM into logical blocks, the size of these blocks is found in the primary volume descriptor as well. The UNIX file system (UFS) is a file system used by many Unix and Unix-like operating systems. ...


The first field in a Volume Descriptor is the Volume Descriptor Type (type), which can have the following values:

  • Number 0: shall mean that the Volume Descriptor is a Boot Record
  • Number 1: shall mean that the Volume Descriptor is a Primary Volume Descriptor
  • Number 2: shall mean that the Volume Descriptor is a Supplementary Volume Descriptor
  • Number 3: shall mean that the Volume Descriptor is a Volume Partition Descriptor
  • Number 255: shall mean that the Volume Descriptor is a Volume Descriptor Set Terminator.

The second field is called the Standard Identifier and is set to CD001 for a CD-ROM compliant to the ISO 9660 standard.


Another interesting field is the Volume Space Size which contains the amount of data available on the CD-ROM.


File attributes are very simple in ISO-9660. The most important file attribute is determining whether the file is a directory or an ordinary file. File attributes for the file described by the directory entry are stored in the directory entry and optionally, in the extended attribute record.

Overview of the ISO9660 Directory Structure
Overview of the ISO9660 Directory Structure

There are two ways to locate a file on an ISO 9660 file system. One way is to successively interpret the directory names and look through each directory file structure to find the file (much the way MS-DOS and UNIX work to find a file). The other way is through the use of a precompiled table of paths, where all the entries are enumerated in the successive contents of a file with the corresponding entries. Some systems do not have a mechanism for wandering through directories and they obtain a match by consulting the table. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 455 pixelsFull resolution (859 × 489 pixel, file size: 29 KB, MIME type: image/png) i am the author source is http://littlesvr. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 455 pixelsFull resolution (859 × 489 pixel, file size: 29 KB, MIME type: image/png) i am the author source is http://littlesvr. ...


While a large linear table seems a bit arcane, it can be of great value, as you can quickly search without wandering across the disk (thus reducing seek time).


All multi-byte values are stored twice, in little-endian and big-endian format, either one-after-another in what the specification calls "both-endian format", or in duplicated data structures such as the path table. It is therefore theoretically possible to author an ISO-9660 image which delivers different content on different architectures. In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ... In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ...


Restrictions

File and directory name restrictions

There are different levels to this standard.

  • Level 1 : File names are restricted to eight characters with a three-character extension, upper case letters, numbers and underscore; maximum depth of directories is eight.
  • Level 2 : File names are not limited to 8.3 format, but may be up to the maximum allowed by the 1 byte counter in the dir entry and the filename length byte counter. Typically this is close to 180 characters depending on how many extended attributes are present.
  • Level 3 : Files allowed to be fragmented (mainly to allow packet writing, or incremental CD recording).

Other name restrictions: In computer storage, there are three related uses of the term fragmentation: external fragmentation, internal fragmentation, and data fragmentation, all related to storage. ... Packet writing is an optical disc recording technology used to allow writeable CD and DVD media to be used in a similar manner to a floppy disk. ...

  • All levels restrict names to upper case letters, digits, underscores ("_") and a dot. Linux converts uppercase letters to lower case while mounting ISO filesystems.
  • File name cannot start or end with dot.
  • File name cannot have more than one dot.
  • Directory names cannot use dots at all.

Some CD authoring applications allow the user to use almost any ASCII character. While this does not strictly conform to the ISO 9660 standard, most operating systems that can read ISO 9660 file systems support the use of most ASCII characters as an extension. Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ...


Directory depth limit

The restrictions on filename length and directory depth (to 8 levels including the main directory) have been seen by many as a more serious limitation of the file system. Many CD authoring applications attempt to work around this by truncating filenames automatically, but at the risk of breaking applications that rely on a specific file structure.


The 2 GiB (or 4.2GB depending on implementation) file size limit

All numbers in ISO 9660 filesystems except the single byte value used for the GMT offset are unsigned numbers. Some operating systems may be incorrect and this way cause a 2 GB limit for single extent files.


Normally, a file on an ISO 9660 formatted disc cannot be larger than 232-1 in size, as the file's size is stored in a unsigned 32 bit value, for which 232-1 is the maximum.


It is, however, possible to circumvent this limitation by using the multi-extent (fragmentation) feature of ISO 9660 Level 3. With this, files larger than 4GB can be split up into multiple extents (sequential series of sectors), each not exceeding the 4GB limit. The free software mkisofs is able to create filesystems that use multi-extent files to support file sizes up to 8 TB. cdrtools (formerly known as cdrecord) is a collection of free software/open source computer programs that was, until 2006, the standard set of CD and DVD authoring tools for most free Unix operating systems such as Linux and FreeBSD. The collection included many features, such as: support for creation of...


Empirical tests with a 4.2 GB fragmented file on a DVD media have shown that Microsoft Windows XP supports this, while Mac OS X (as of 10.4.8) does not handle this case properly. In the case of Mac OS X the reason is that its driver apparently does not support file fragmentation at all (i.e. it only supports ISO 9660 Level 2 but not Level 3). Linux does not allows to read the end of such a file, FreeBSD only shows and reads the last extent of a multi-extent file. Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ...


It appears that the spec does allow 4.2GB files that are not fragmented. From the ECMA-119 Spec (same as ISO9660) we find that the file size is: 9.1.4 Data Length (BP 11 to 18) This field shall specify as a 32-bit number the data length of the File Section. This field shall be recorded according to 7.3.3. ---And 7.3.3 Both-byte orders A numerical value represented by the hexadecimal representation (st uv wx yz) shall be recorded in an eight-byte field as (yz wx uv st st uv wx yz).


For an unsigned number the file size limit is actually (232)-1, or 4.2GB. Windows XP has been tested with single-extent files up to the 4.2GB size and they do work.


However, this 4.2G limit only works for non-multi-extent files. For multi-extent files (level 3 ISO) the maximum size for each file part excapt the last one must be limited to 4GB-one sector (0xFFFFF800 bytes). This is because each part of the file must completely fill each set of sectors to keep the file parts contiguous. A file size of 0xffffffff does not allow this since it will not fit in an integer number of sectors.


Note also that some other OS and file systems might place other limits on file sizes. For example, some versions of FAT and Macintosh HFS (not HFS+) are limited to 2G files.


Limit of number of directories

There is also the other, less known limitation: There is a structure in the ISO image called "path table". For each directory in the image the path table provides identifier of its parent directory. The problem is, that the directory identifier is a 16-bit number, which restricts the number of parent directories to 65535. Content of each directory is written also in a different place, therefore path table is redundant, and intended only for fast searching. Some operating systems (Windows) use it, while the other (Linux) don't. If an ISO image or disk consists of more than 65535 directories, it will be readable in Linux, and in Windows environment all files from the additional directories will be visible, but empty (zero length). A popular applications using ISO format, mkisofs (os independent) aborts if there is a path table overflow. Nero Burning ROM (Windows) doesn't check if the problem occurs, and produce an invalid ISO file or disk without any warning. isovfy cannot easily report this problem. There is no other place in the ISO format, where a 16-bit number is used. cdrtools (formerly known as cdrecord) is a collection of free software/open source computer programs that was, until 2006, the standard set of CD and DVD authoring tools for most free Unix operating systems such as Linux and FreeBSD. The collection included many features, such as: support for creation of... Nero Burning ROM is a popular optical disc authoring program for Microsoft Windows and Linux by Nero AG, formerly Ahead Software. ...


Version number

According to the standard, a version number in the format ";1" must be appended to each file name. However, this may cause problems in some situations.


ISO 9660:1999

ISO 9660:1999 is the latest update to the ISO 9660 standard. It improves on various restrictions imposed by the old standard, such as extending the maximum path length to 207 characters, removing the eight-level maximum directory nesting limit, and removing the special meaning of the dot character in filenames. This has not seen general adoption in operating systems until around 2004, but developers are generally starting to catch onto the standard.


Disc images

Main articles: ISO image and Optical disc image

ISO 9660 file system images (ISO images) are a common way to electronically transfer the contents of CD-ROMs. They often have the filename extension .iso (.iso9660 is less common, but also in use) and are commonly referred to as "ISOs". It should be noted an .iso file may be: This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that ISO image be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to show its format. ...

  1. A single ISO 9660 file system image
  2. A multi-track disc image with a table of contents

Extensions

There are common extensions to ISO 9660 to deal with the limitations. Rock Ridge supports the preservation of Unix-style permissions and longer ASCII-coded names; Joliet supports names stored in Unicode, thus allowing almost any character to be used, even from non-Latin scripts; El Torito enables CDs to be bootable on PC; Apple ISO9660 Extensions adds support for Mac OS specific file properties such as Resource forks, file backup date and more. The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... Joliet is the name of an extension to the ISO 9660 file system. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The El Torito Bootable CD Specification is an extension to the ISO 9660 CD-ROM specification. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... Overview Apple Macintosh computers use the HFS (or HFS+) file system on hard disks, mainly. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


ISO 13490 is basically ISO 9660 with multisession support. ISO/IEC 13490 is the next version of ISO 9660 (level 3), intended to describe the file system of a CD-ROM. ISO 13490 has several improvements over its predecessor. ...


For operating systems which do not support any extensions, there is a name translation file TRANS.TBL. It should be located in each directory, including root directory. Now obsolete. An extension for ISO-9660 filesystem (aka CDFS), typically used in *nix systems. ...


Operating system support

Most operating systems support reading of ISO 9660 formatted discs, and most new versions support the extensions such as Rock Ridge and Joliet. Operating systems that do not support the extensions usually show the basic (non-extended) features of a plain ISO 9660 disc.


Here are some operating systems and their support for ISO 9660 and extensions:

  • DOS: access with extensions, such as MSCDEX.EXE (Microsoft CDROM Extension) or CORELCD.EXE
  • Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows ME: can read ISO 9660 Level 1, 2, 3, and Joliet
  • Microsoft Windows NT 4, Windows 2000
  • Windows XP can read ISO 9660 Level 1, 2, 3, Joliet, and ISO 9660:1999
  • Linux and BSD: ISO 9660 Level 1, 2, 3, Joliet, Rock Ridge, and ISO 9660:1999
  • Mac OS 7 to 9: ISO Level 1, 2. Optional free software supports Rock Ridge and Joliet (including ISO Level 3): Joke Ridge and Joliet Volume Access.
  • Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar, 10.3 Panther, 10.4 Tiger: ISO Level 1, 2, Joliet and Rock Ridge Extensions. Level 3 is not currently supported, although some users have been able to mount these disks by issuing a command via the Terminal. http://www.macosxhints.com/article.php?story=2004041301593855
  • AmigaOS supports the "AS" extensions (which preserve the Amiga protection bits and file comments)

Instructions on how to use the directory command. ... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis and formerly known as Windows 97[2]) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me (IPA pronunciation: [miː], [ɛm iː]), is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit graphical operating system released on September 14, 2000 by Microsoft. ... Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system that was designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor 32-bit Intel x86 computers. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is the Unix derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley, starting in the 1970s. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ...

See also

A disk image emulator is computer software designed to emulate a disk image, usually of a CD or DVD, on a local hard drive. ... Hybrid CD This term relates to The PC/Computer industry. ...

References

  1. ^ " Volume and File Structure of CDROM for Information Interchange. Ecma International (december 1987).
  2. ^ Media Sciences - Mode and Form differences

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
MagicISO - Burn ISO, BIN, NRG (0 words)
ISO Level 1 means that the names cannot be more than 11 characters long for DOS and Windows 3.1(8 for the name and 3 for the extension).
ISO Level 2 means that the names can be up to 31 characters long for Windows 95 and higher.
Joliet is an extension of the ISO 9660 standard, developed by Microsoft to allow CD and DVD to be recorded using long filenames, and using the Unicode international character set.
ISO - International Organization for Standardization (1035 words)
ISO 9660, Volume and file structure of CD-ROM for information exchange, is a standard CD-ROM file system that allows you to read the CD whether you're on a MS-DOS, Windows, Unix, Linux or Macintosh platform.
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