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Encyclopedia > ISIS neutron source
ISIS experimental hall
ISIS experimental hall

The ISIS facility is a scientific research institution, situated at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire, UK. It contains a pulsed spallation neutron source, the most powerful in the world, which enables muon and neutron scattering science to probe the structure and properties of matter, from the atomic to the biological scales. It provides a powerful research tool for universities and companies across many disciplines, including physics, chemistry, materials engineering, biology and even archaeology. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 638 KB) Summary The experimental hall at the ISIS neutron source at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire, UK. The neutron-producing target station is to the left inside the blue shielding. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 638 KB) Summary The experimental hall at the ISIS neutron source at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire, UK. The neutron-producing target station is to the left inside the blue shielding. ... The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) at the Chilton/Harwell Science Campus is a UK scientific research laboratory near Didcot in Oxfordshire. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in south-east England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... In nuclear physics, spallation is the process in which a heavy nucleus emits a large number of nucleons as a result of being hit by a high-energy proton, thus greatly reducing its atomic weight. ... A neutron source is a device, used in solid state physics (see neutron diffraction), particle physics and to start nuclear chain reactions, that emits neutrons. ... The term Neutron Scattering encompasses all scientific techniques whereby neutrons are used as a scientific probe. ... A Superconductor demonstrating the Meissner Effect Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), nature) is the science of the natural world dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces. ... Multicolored chemicals are frequent hallmarks of chemistry. ... Materials engineering is a discipline related to materials science which focusses on materials design, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc. ... Biology is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...


Neutrons and muons

Neutrons are uncharged constituents of atoms and penetrate materials well, deflecting only from the nuclei of atoms. The statistical accumulation of deflected neutrons at different positions beyond the sample can be used to find the structure of a material, and the loss or gain of energy by neutrons can reveal the dynamic behaviour of parts of a sample, for example diffusive processes in solids. At ISIS the neutrons are created by accelerating 'bunches' of protons in a synchrotron, then colliding these with a heavy tantalum metal target, under a constant cooling load to dissipate the heat from the 160kW proton beam. The tantulum atoms slough off neutrons, and these are channelled through guides, or beamlines, to about 20 instruments, individually optimised for the study of different types of matter. The target station and most of the instruments are set in a large hall. The penetrating neutrons are a dangerous form of radiation so the target and beamlines are heavily shielded with concrete. Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek άτομον meaning indivisible) is the smallest possible particle of a chemical element that retains its chemical properties. ... A stylized representation of a lithium atom. ... Properties In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator in which the magnetic field (to turn the particles so they circulate) and the electric field (to accelerate the particles) are carefully synchronized with the travelling particle beam. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Atomic mass 180. ... Beamlines at synchrotrons are facilities at which researchers get access to synchrotron light, the tunable and high-energy X-ray beams used in synchrotron research. ...


ISIS produces muons by colliding a fraction of the proton beam with a graphite target, producing pions which decay rapidly into muons, delivered in a spin-polarised beam to sample stations. The moons shadow, as seen in muons 700m below ground at the Soudan 2 detector. ... Graphite (named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789, from the Greek γραφειν: to draw/write, for its use in pencils) is one of the allotropes of carbon. ... In particle physics, pion (short for the Greek pi meson = P middle) is the collective name for three subatomic particles discovered in 1947: π0, π+ and π−. Pions are the lightest mesons. ...


Science at ISIS

ISIS is administered and funded by the CCLRC in partnership with other countries. Experimental time is open to academic users from funding countries and is applied for through a twice-yearly 'call for proposals'. Research allocation, or 'beam-time', is allotted to applicants via a peer-review process. Users and their parent institutions do not pay for the running costs of the facility, which are as much as £11,000 per instrument per day. Their transport and living costs are also refunded whilst carrying out the experiment. Most users stay in a hostel on the site or at a CCLRC-run conference centre in Abingdon. Over 600 experiments by 1600 users are completed every year. The Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils (CCLRC or CLRC) is a UK government body that carries out civil research in science and engineering. ... There are several communities with this name. ...


A large number of support staff operate the facility, aid users, and carry out research. Instrument scientists oversee the running of each instrument and liaise with users, and other divisions provide sample environment, data analysis and computing expertise, maintain the accelerator, and run education programmes.


ISIS was opened by then Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in October 1985. The source had been approved in 1977 for the RAL site on the Harwell campus and recycled components from earlier UK science programmes including the accelerator hall. Among the important and pioneering work carried out was the discovery of the structure of high-temperature superconductors and the solid phase of buckminster-fullerene. Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) is a British politician and a former barrister and chemist. ... Harwell may refer to: Harwell - a village in Oxfordshire RAF Harwell - a World War II RAF airfield Harwell Laboratory of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, the site of Europes first nuclear reactor. ... Superconductivity is a phenomenon occurring in certain materials at low temperatures, characterised by the complete absence of electrical resistance and the damping of the interior magnetic field (the Meissner effect. ...


A second target station is funded and under construction, due to open in 2007. It will use low-energy neutrons to study soft condensed matter, biological systems, advanced composites and nanomaterials. To supply extra neutrons for this, the accelerator is being upgraded. The term composite can refer to several different things: A composite number is an integer greater than one that is not a prime number. ... A mite next to a gear set produced using MEMS, the precursor to nanotechnology. ...


The name ISIS is not an acronym: it refers to the Ancient Egyptian goddess and the local name for the River Thames. It has been suggested that Isis in literature be merged into this article or section. ... The Thames (pronounced //) is a river flowing through southern England and connecting London with the sea. ...


External links

  • ISIS facility
  • ISIS Second Target Station

  Results from FactBites:
 
Spallation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (356 words)
Nuclear spallation is one of the processes by which a particle accelerator may be used to produce a beam of neutrons.
A mercury, tantalum or other heavy metal target is used, and 20 to 30 neutrons are expelled after each impact.
Although this is a far more expensive way of producing neutron beams than by a chain reaction of nuclear fission in a nuclear reactor, it has the advantage that the beam can be pulsed with relative ease.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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