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Encyclopedia > ISDB
List of digital video broadcast standards
DVB Family (Europe)
DVB-S (Satellite)
DVB-T (Terrestrial)
  • DVB-T2
DVB-C (Cable)
DVB-H (Mobile)

ATSC Family (USA)
ATSC (Terrestrial)

ISDB Family (Japan)
ISDB-S (Satellite)
ISDB-T (Terrestrial)
ISDB-C (Cable)

DMB Family (China)
DMB-T

Codecs
MPEG-2
MPEG-4

Frequency bands
VHF
UHF
SHF

Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital radio format that Japan has created to allow radio and television stations there to convert to digital. DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted, open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project, an industry consortium with more than 300 members, and published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC... DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted, open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project, an industry consortium with more than 300 members, and published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... DVB-S2 is a newer specification of the DVB-S (Digital Video Broadcasting) standard. ... DVB-T stands for Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. ... Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV or DTT) is an implementation of digital technology to provide a greater number of channels and/or better quality of picture and sound using aerial broadcasts to a conventional antenna (or aerial) instead of a satellite dish or cable connection. ... DVB-T stands for Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. ... DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted, open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project, an industry consortium with more than 300 members, and published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC... Cable TV redirects here. ... DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting - Handheld) is one of three prevalent mobile TV formats. ... ATSC redirects here. ... ATSC redirects here. ... Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV or DTT) is an implementation of digital technology to provide a greater number of channels and/or better quality of picture and sound using aerial broadcasts to a conventional antenna (or aerial) instead of a satellite dish or cable connection. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) format. ... Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV or DTT) is an implementation of digital technology to provide a greater number of channels and/or better quality of picture and sound using aerial broadcasts to a conventional antenna (or aerial) instead of a satellite dish or cable connection. ... A picture of ISDB-T (taken during a tour of the NHK Osaka broadcasting station) Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital radio format that Japan has created to allow radio and television stations there to convert to digital. ... Cable TV redirects here. ... Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) is a digital radio transmission system for sending multimedia (radio, TV, and datacasting) to mobile devices such as mobile phones. ... A video codec is a device or software that enables video compression and or decompression for digital video. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... MPEG-4 is a collection of methods defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radio waves. ... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. ... Ultra high frequency (UHF) designates a range (band) of electromagnetic waves whose frequency is between 300 MHz and 3. ... Microwave Slang for small waves, like at a beach, often used by surfers. ... Digital television (DTV) refers to the sending and receiving of moving images and sound by means of discrete (digital) signals, in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV. Introduced in the late 1990s, this technology appealed to the television broadcasting business and consumer electronics industries as offering new... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... This article is about a television transmitting location or company. ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Introduction

DTT broadcasting systems. Countries using ISDB are shown in green.
DTT broadcasting systems. Countries using ISDB are shown in green.
A picture of ISDB-T (taken during a tour of the NHK Osaka broadcasting station)
A picture of ISDB-T (taken during a tour of the NHK Osaka broadcasting station)

ISDB is maintained by the Japanese organisation ARIB. The standards can be obtained for free at the Japanese organization DiBEG website and at ARIB. Picutre of ISDB-T Data Brodcasting [Local Weather page](November/2004 at facility observation tour of NHK Osaka broadcasting station by MASA) This is a screenshot of a copyrighted movie or television program. ... Picutre of ISDB-T Data Brodcasting [Local Weather page](November/2004 at facility observation tour of NHK Osaka broadcasting station by MASA) This is a screenshot of a copyrighted movie or television program. ... The Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, commonly known as ARIB, is a standardization organization in Japan. ... A picture of ISDB-T (taken during a tour of the NHK Osaka broadcasting station) Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) format that Japan has created to allow radio and television stations there to convert to digital. ... DiBEG(The Digital Broadcasting Experts Group) was founded in September 1997 to promote ISDB, the Digital Broadcasting System, in the world. ...


The core standards of ISDB are ISDB-S (satellite television), ISDB-T(terrestrial), ISDB-C (cable) and 2.6GHz band mobile broadcasting which are all based on MPEG-2 video and audio coding as well as the transport stream described by the MPEG-2 standard, and are capable of high definition television (HDTV). ISDB-T and ISDB-Tsb are for mobile reception in TV bands. 1seg is the name of an ISDB-T service for reception on cell phones, laptop computers and vehicles. A picture of ISDB-T (taken during a tour of the NHK Osaka broadcasting station) Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) format that Japan has created to allow radio and television stations there to convert to digital. ... A picture of ISDB-T (taken during a tour of the NHK Osaka broadcasting station) Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) format that Japan has created to allow radio and television stations there to convert to digital. ... A picture of ISDB-T (taken during a tour of the NHK Osaka broadcasting station) Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) format that Japan has created to allow radio and television stations there to convert to digital. ... A picture of ISDB-T (taken during a tour of the NHK Osaka broadcasting station) Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) format that Japan has created to allow radio and television stations there to convert to digital. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ... A picture of ISDB-T (taken during a tour of the NHK Osaka broadcasting station) Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) format that Japan has created to allow radio and television stations there to convert to digital. ... A picture of ISDB-T (taken during a tour of the NHK Osaka broadcasting station) Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) format that Japan has created to allow radio and television stations there to convert to digital. ... Official 1seg logo 1seg (Katakana: ワンセグ) is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan. ... Cellular redirects here. ... Laptop with touchpad. ... Vehicles are non-living means of transport. ...


The concept was named for its similarity to ISDN, because both allow multiple channels of data to be transmitted together (a process called multiplexing). This is also much like another digital radio system, Eureka 147, which calls each group of stations on a transmitter an ensemble; this is very much like the multi-channel digital TV standard DVB-T. ISDB-T operates on unused TV channels, an approach taken by other countries for TV but never before for radio. ISDN redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Eureka 147 is a protocol for digital radio broadcasting originally developed in Europe, but now being deployed in many countries around the world. ... DAB ensembles are groups of Digital audio broadcasting broadcasters transmitting multiple digital radio channels on a single radio transmission. ... DVB-T stands for Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. ...


Video and audio compression

ISDB has adopted the MPEG-2 video and audio compression system. ATSC and DVB also adopted the same system. DVB and ISDB also provide for other video compression methods to be used, including JPEG and MPEG-4, although JPEG is only a required part of the MHEG standard. MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... JPG redirects here. ... MPEG-4 is a collection of methods defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... MHEG-5 is a standard devised for the middleware of digital teletext services in the United Kingdom. ...


Transmission

The various flavors of ISDB differ mainly in the modulations used, due to the requirements of different frequency bands. The 12 GHz band ISDB-S uses PSK modulation, 2.6 GHz band digital sound broadcasting uses CDM and ISDB-T (in VHF and/or UHF band) uses COFDM with PSK/QAM.


Interaction

Besides audio and video transmission, ISDB also defines data connections (Data broadcasting) with the internet as a return channel over several media (10Base-T/100Base-T, Telephone line modem, Mobile phone, Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11) etc.) and with different protocols. This is used, for example, for interactive interfaces like data broadcasting (ARIB STD B-24) and electronic program guides (EPG).


Interfaces and Encryption

ISDB describes a lot of (network) interfaces, but most importantly the Common Interface for Conditional Access (ARIB STD-B25) with the Common Scrambling Algorithm MULTI2 required for (de-)scrambling TV. MULTI2 is a block cipher, developed by Hitachi in 1988. ...


The ISDB CAS system is operated by a company named B-CAS in Japan; the CAS card is called B-CAS card. The Japanese ISDB signal is always encrypted by the B-CAS system even if it is a free TV program. That is why it is commonly called "Pay per view system without charge". An interface for mobile reception is under consideration.


ISDB supports RMP (Rights management and protection). Since all DTV systems carry digital data content, a DVD or HD recorder could easily copy content losslessly, so that a great deal of pirated content could be circulating the market. Hollywood requested copy protection; this was the main reason for RMP. The content has three modes: “Copy once”, “Copy free” and “Copy never”. In “Copy once” mode a program can be stored on a hard disc recorder, but cannot be copied, only moved to another copy-protected media - and this move operation marks content “Copy one generation”, which permanently prevents further copying. “Copy never” programming may only be timeshifted and cannot be permanently stored. Currently Japanese government is evaluating using DTCP 'Encryption plus Non-Assertion' mechanism to allow making multiple copies of digital content between compliant devices[1]. Republican Moderate Party Risk Management Plan Royal Military Police - UK Military Police regiment. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... ... Time shifting is the recording of television shows to some storage medium to be viewed at a time convenient to the consumer. ... DTCP, or Digital Transmission Content Protection, which was issued by DTLA (Digital Transmission Licensing Administrator) to protect the multimedia distribution in the Digital Home. ...


Receiver

There are two types of ISDB receiver: TV and STB (Set top box). The aspect ratio of ISDB television is 16:9; televisions fulfilling these specs are called Hi-vision TVs. There are three TV types: CRT (Cathode ray tube), PDP (Plasma display panel) and LCD (Liquid crystal display), with LCD being the most popular Hi-Vision format on the Japanese market right now. Television set may refer to: Television, a device to display television programs Television studio, an installation in which television or video productions take place Set construction, theatrical scenery This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... A set-top box (STB) or set-top unit (STU) is a device that connects to a television and an external source of signal, turning the signal into content which is then displayed on the television screen. ... Hi-Vision is the hypocorism of HDTV. See also Digital television digital audio broadcasting ISDB,ATSC,DVB SDTV,EDTV,HDTV MPEG Categories: Digital television | Satellite television | Broadcast engineering | Broadband ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... An example of a plasma display A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display now commonly used for large TV displays (typically above 37-inch or 940 mm). ... LCD redirects here. ...


LCD share as measured by JEITA in November 2004 was about 60%. While PDP set occupies the high end market with units that are over 50 inches (1270 mm), PDP and CRT set shares are about 20% each. CRT set are considered low end for Hi-Vision. The Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA) is an electronics and IT industry trade organization. ...


STB is sometimes referred to as digital tuner. High-end ISDB STB have several interfaces:

  • B-CAS card interface to de-scramble.
  • IR interface jack for controlling a VHS or DVD player.

Male F Connector The F connector is a type of RF connector commonly used for over the air terrestrial television, cable television and universally for satellite television and cable modems, usually with RG-6/U cable or (in older installations) with RG-59/U cable. ... D4 is a type of analog video connector found on Japanese consumer electronics, typically HDTV, DVD, Bluray, D-VHS and HD-DVD devices. ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ... A 3 metres/119 inch projection screen with a high-definition television image. ... TOSLINK is a standardized optical fiber connection system. ... Multichannel audio is the name for a variety of techniques for expanding and enriching the sound of audio playback by recording additional sound channels that can be reproduced on additional speakers. ... The 6-pin and 4-pin FireWire 400 Connectors The alternative ethernet-style cabling used by 1394c FireWire is Apple Inc. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... A panel of four RCA jacks, and three RCA (cinch; phono) plugs of various quality RCA jack in PlayStation 2 An RCA jack, also referred to as a phono connector or CINCH/AV connector, is a type of electrical connector which is commonly used in the audio/video market. ... ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... A panel of four RCA jacks, and three RCA (cinch; phono) plugs of various quality RCA jack in PlayStation 2 An RCA jack, also referred to as a phono connector or CINCH/AV connector, is a type of electrical connector which is commonly used in the audio/video market. ... Label for 2. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... S-Video (also known as Y/C) is a baseband analog video format offering a higher quality signal than composite video, but a lower quality than RGB and component video. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... 10BASE-T cable 10BASE-T plug 10BASE-T is an implementation of Ethernet which allows stations to be attached via twisted pair cable. ... 100BASE-T is any of several Fast Ethernet 100 Mbit/s (12. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ...

Problems

Though ISDB is a feature-rich system, many problems have surfaced recently.


Copy Protection Technology

Every TV broadcast (including free TV) is encrypted with "Copy-Once", which allows users to record to a digital media (D-VHS, DVD, HDD, etc) but does not allow dubbing to another digital media. On the other hand, the "Copy-Once" technology does not prohibit all types of dubbing. It is possible to dub to an analog media (such as standard VHS) and if recorded to an HDD, it will allow users to "Move" the contents to a D-VHS, but not copy. In contrast, 1seg digital broadcasts which are for low-bandwidth mobile reception and occupy 1/13th of a digital channel, are transmitted 'in the clear' and do not carry copy protection information. D-VHS logo DVHS redirects here. ... Official 1seg logo 1seg (Katakana: ワンセグ) is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan. ...


Many users are also very worried about the recent news of severe protection in the future. There are modes in ISDB to not allow the output of signal from an Analog connector (D-connector, Component, Composite, S-Video, etc). There are already plans to not allow analog output for "Copyright Protection" reasons. (Same as Blu-ray and HD DVD) This will make all currently sold STB Tuners, and the majority of LCD/Plasma TVs without HDMI inputs unusable. Plus all analog VHS, D-VHS that can only record via analog input, and all DVD players will also become unusable. These more limiting copy protection technologies will all start after analog broadcasting ends (when there won't be any choice for viewers). Currently, no financial assistance schemes have been announced, and viewers without proper devices will be forced to buy a new compatible TV or set top box in order to view ISDB broadcasts. Though not clear, it is said that there are also plans to protect all programs with "Copy-Never". Three cables, each with RCA plugs at both ends, are often used to carry analog component video Component video is a video signal that has been split into two or more components. ... Composite video, also called CVBS (Composite Video Blanking and Sync), is the format of an analog television (picture only) signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto an RF carrier. ... S-Video (also known as Y/C) is a baseband analog video format offering a higher quality signal than composite video, but a lower quality than RGB and component video. ... Blu-ray discs Blu-ray Disc is a next-generation optical disc format jointly developed by a group of leading consumer electronics and PC companies called the Blu_ray Disc Association (BDA), which succeeds the Blu_ray Disc Founders (BDF). ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data...


The copy protection on ISDB broadcasts can be circumvented with the proper hardware and software.[2]


B-CAS Card

The B-CAS card is required to decode all broadcasts. These cards are included with every digital TV or Tuner at no charge. To use this card, you must agree to the statement written on the registration card. Despite the fact that the card must be inserted to watch TV, if you don't agree to the statement, then the user cannot watch digital broadcasts. Essentially, users are "forced" to agree with the statement. Though registration is not required, it is recommended to fully enjoy interactive programs. Unregistered B-CAS card displays a watermark in a corner of the screen, suggesting the user to register. However, many viewers worry about the leaking of personal information, and the power/rights the TV stations have to access personal information for almost every citizen in Japan. In case of loss or destruction, new B-CAS card of the same number can be issued for a fee of 2,000 yen.[3] This article is about physical paper watermarks. ... Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ...


Services

  1. One HDTV or up to three SDTV services within one channel.
  2. Provides Data broadcasting.
  3. Interactive services such as games or shopping, via telephone line or broadband internet.
  4. EPG (Electronic Program Guide)
  5. Ability to send firmware patches for the TV/tuner over the air.

Datacasting is the broadcasting of data over a wide area via radio waves. ... The Sky Digital EPG in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. ...

ISDB-S

History

Japan started digital broadcasting using the DVB-S standard by PerfecTV in October/1996, and DirecTV in December/1997, with communication satellites. Still, DVB-S did not satisfy the requirements of Japanese broadcasters, such as NHK, key commercial broadcasting stations like Nippon Television, TBS, Fuji Television, tv asahi, TV Tokyo, and WOWOW (Movie-only Pay-TV broadcasting). Consequently, ARIB developed the ISDB-S standards. The requirements were HDTV capability, interactive services, network access and effective frequency utilization, and other technical requirements. The DVB-S standard allows the transmission of a bit stream of roughly 34 Mbit/s with a satellite transponder, which means the transponder can send one HDTV channel. Unfortunately, the NHK broadcasting satellite had only four vacant transponders, which led ARIB and NHK to develop ISDB-S: The new standard could transmit at 51 Mbit/s with a single transponder, which means that ISDB-S is 1.5 times more efficient than DVB-S and that one transponder can transmit two HDTV channels, along with other independent audio and data. Digital satellite broadcasting (BS digital) was started by NHK and followed commercial broadcasting stations on 1 December 2000. Today, SKY PerfecTV!, successor of Skyport TV, and Sky D, CS burn, Platone, EP, DirecTV, J Sky B, and PerfecTV!, adopted the ISDB-S system for use on the 110 degree (east longitude) wide-band communication satellite. NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ... Nippon Television Tower (headquarters) in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan Nippon Television Network Corporation ) (TYO: 9404 ) is a television network in Shiodome area of Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan owned by the Yomiuri Shimbun. ... Image:Tokyo Broadcasting System(年末瑞穂第一小学校) in Akasaka . ... Fuji Television Network, Inc. ... TV Asahi Corporation ) (TYO: 9409 ), also known as EX and Tele-Asa ), is a television network headquartered in Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo, Japan. ... The logo of TV Tokyo. ... WOWOW was the first private satellite broadcasting and pay TV station in Japan. ... The Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, commonly known as ARIB, is a standardization organization in Japan. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... SKY Perfect Communications Inc. ...


Technical specification

Summary of ISDB-S (Satellite digital broadcasting)

Transmission channel coding Modulation TC8PSK, QPSK, BPSK (Hierarchical transmission)
Error correction coding Inner coding Trellis [TC8PSK] and Convolution
Outer coding RS(204,188)
TMCC Convolution coding+RS
Time domain multiplexing TMCC
Conditional Access Multi-2
Data broadcasting ARIB STD B-24 (BML, ECMA script)
Service information ARIB STD B-10
Multiplexing MPEG-2 Systems
Audio coding MPEG-2 Audio(AAC
Video coding MPEG-2 Video

Reed-Solomon error correction is an error-correcting code that works by oversampling a polynomial constructed from the data. ... Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a type of digital or (rarely) analog multiplexing in which two or more signals or bit streams are transferred apparently simultaneously as sub-channels in one communication channel, but physically are taking turns on the channel. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... Look up AAC in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Channel

Frequency and channel specification of Japanese Satellites using ISDB-S

Method BS digital broadcasting Wide band CS digital broadcasting
Frequency band 11.7 to 12.2 GHz 12.2 to 12.75 GHz
Transmission bit rate 51 Mbit/s (TC8PSK) 40 Mbit/s (QPSK)
Transmission band width 34.5 MHz* 34.5 MHz
*Compatible with 27 MHz band satellite transponder for analog FM broadcasting.

ISDB-T

History

HDTV was invented at NHK STRL (Japan Broadcasting Corporation's Science & Technical Research Laboratories). The research of HDTV started as early as in the 1960s, though only in 1973 a standard was proposed to the ITU-R (CCIR). In the 1980s, the television camera, high definition cathode-ray tube, video tape recorder and editing equipment among others were developed. In 1982 NHK developed MUSE (Multiple sub-nyquist sampling Encoding), the first HDTV video compression and transmission system. MUSE adopted digital video compression system, but for transmission frequency modulation had been adopted after a digital-to-analog converter converted the digital signal. In 1987, NHK made demonstration of MUSE in the Washington D.C and NAB. The demonstration made great impression on the U.S. As a result of this, the U.S. developed ATSC, a terrestrial digital DTV system. Europe also developed their own DTV system, DVB. Japan started R&D of a completely digital system in the 1980s that led to ISDB. Japan started terrestrial digital broadcasting using ISDB-T standard by NHK and commercial broadcasting stations on the 1 December 2003. NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ... STRL (NHK Science & Technical Research Laboratories) See also NHK This article does not cite its references or sources. ... // Definition Multiple sub-nyquist sampling Encoding (MUSE) is the first HDTV compression and transmission system. ... In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. ... ATSC redirects here. ... DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted, open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project, an industry consortium with more than 300 members, and published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Feature

Treeview of ISDB-T, channels, Segments and arranging multiple program broadcasting.
Treeview of ISDB-T, channels, Segments and arranging multiple program broadcasting.

ISDB-T is characterized by the following features:

  • ISDB-T (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting-Terrestrial) use UHF470 MHz-770 MHz, bandwidth of 300 MHz, allocate 50 channels, namely ch.13-ch.62, each channel is 6 MHz width (actually 5.572 MHz effective bandwidth and 430 kHz guard band between channels).
  • These 50 channels, ch.13-ch.62, are called "physical channel(物理チャンネル)".
  • ISDB-T single channel bandwidths 5.572 MHz has number of carriers 5,617 with interval of 0.99206 kHz.
  • ISDB-T allows to switch to two or three SDTV channels instead of one HDTV channel (multiplexing SDTV channels).
  • Each channel is further divided into 13 segments. 1seg uses only single segment, and the remainder can be allocated as (1) one 12-segments HDTV program, (2) three 4-segments SDTV programs, or (3) one 8-segments (Medium Definition) program and one 4-segments SDTV program, broadcasted from a single TV station as a multiple-program arrangement (マルチ編成 in Japanese) in simultaneous broadcasting (see figure).
  • The combination of these services (1), (2) or (3) can be changed at anytime. Mostly NHK Educational TV and Open University of Japan broadcasts with these 3 modes appropriately.
  • ISDB-T transmits a HDTV channel and a mobile TV channel 1seg within the 6 MHz bandwidth.
  • ISDB-T provides interactive services with data broadcasting.
  • ISDB-T provides EPG (Electronic Program Guides).
  • ISDB-T supports internet access as a return channel that works to support the data broadcasting. Internet access is also provided on mobile phones.
  • ISDB-T provides SFN (Single frequency Network) and on-channel repeater technology. SFN makes efficient utilization of the frequency resource (spectrum).
  • ISDB-T can be received indoors with a simple indoor antenna.
  • ISDB-T provides robustness to multipath interference ("ghosting").
  • ISDB-T provides robustness to co-channel analog television interference.
  • ISDB-T is claimed to allow HDTV to be received on moving vehicles at over 100 km/h (this has not yet been proven in real-world operation); DVB-T can only receive SDTV on moving vehicles, and it is claimed that ATSC can not be received on moving vehicles at all (however, in early 2007 there were reports of successful reception of ATSC on laptops using USB tuners in moving vehicles).
  • 1seg is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video broadcasting service in Japan. Although 1seg is designed for mobile usage, reception has proved problematic in moving vehicles. Because of reception on high speed vehicle, UHF transmission is shaded by buildings and hills frequently, but reported well receiving in Shinkansen as far as run in flat or rural area.

Ultra high frequency (UHF) designates a range (band) of electromagnetic waves whose frequency is between 300 MHz and 3. ... Official 1seg logo 1seg (Katakana: ワンセグ) is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan. ... High-definition television (HDTV) means broadcast of television signals with a higher resolution than traditional formats (NTSC, SECAM, PAL) allow. ... ... NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo Domo-kun, the mascot of NHK satellite channel BS-2 NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ... Official 1seg logo 1seg (Katakana: ワンセグ) is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan. ... The Sky Digital EPG in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. ... SFN may refer to: Single-frequency network Society for Neuroscience SFN (scienceforums. ... A single-frequency network or SFN is a type of radio network that operates several transmitters on a single frequency. ... PRIMERGY MultiPath PRIMERGY MultiPath supports redundant Fiber Channel paths, the configured connections between server and subsystem that are such an important component of disaster-tolerant servers and clusters. ... Co-channel interference is interference from 2 different radio stations on the same frequency. ... Electromagnetic interference (or EMI, also called radio frequency interference or RFI) is a (usually undesirable) disturbance caused in a radio receiver or other electrical circuit by electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source. ... DVB-T stands for Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. ... ... ATSC redirects here. ... Official 1seg logo 1seg (Katakana: ワンセグ) is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan. ... Ultra high frequency (UHF) designates a range (band) of electromagnetic waves whose frequency is between 300 MHz and 3. ... For the record label, see Shinkansen Records. ...

Adoption

ISDB-T was adopted for commercial transmissions in Japan in December 2003. It currently comprises a market of about 100 million television sets. ISDB-T had 10 million subscribers by the end of April 2005. Along with the wide use of ISDB-T, the price of STB is getting low. The price of ISDB-T STB in the lower end of the market is ¥19800, or the US dollar equivalent of $169 as of 19 April 2006. (Japanese) uniden. By November 2007 only a few older, low-end STB models could be found in the Japanese market (average price U$180,-) showing a tendency towards replacement by high end equipment like PVRs and TV sets with inbuilt tuners. The Dibeg web page (http://www.dibeg.org/news/news-5/news-e5.htm#dn068e) confirms this tendency by showing low significance of the digital tuner STB market in Japan.


Brazil, which currently uses an analogue TV system (PAL-M) that slightly differs from any other countries, has chosen ISDB-T modulation for its DTV format, calling it SBTVD-T (Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital-Terrestre). SBTVD-T differs from ISDB-T in that it uses the H.264 video codec instead of ISDB-T's MPEG2 and an improved tuner. Other than Brazil, there are a few countries, mainly from Mercosur, such as Argentina, Chile and Venezuela are considering ISDB-T-based SBTVD[citation needed] [2] which could provide common market benefits from the regional South American development of the technology instead of importing it, as is the case with the other standards. Also, it seems to have an advantage over ATSC and DVB-T in reception tests. Nevertheless, in August 2007 Uruguay officially chose DVB-T + DVB-H as its DTV standard. Chile, which was set to make an official decision on late December 2007 later delayed its decision until March 2008 [3]. There are several broadcast television systems in use in the world today. ... Digital television (DTV) refers to the sending and receiving of moving images and sound by means of discrete (digital) signals, in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV. Introduced in the late 1990s, this technology appealed to the television broadcasting business and consumer electronics industries as offering new... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... H.264 is a high compression digital video codec standard written by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) as the product of a collective partnership effort known as the Joint Video Team (JVT). ... Motto (Spanish) (Portuguese) (Guaraní) Our North is the South  â€¢  â€¢ Pro Tempore Secretariat Montevideo, Uruguay Largest city São Paulo, Brazil Official languages 3 Portuguese Spanish Guaraní Membership 5 Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  Carlos Álvarez Establishment  -  Declaration of Foz do Iguaçu 30 December 1985   -  Treaty of Asunción...


The ABERT/SET group in Brazil did system comparison tests of DTV under the supervision of the CPqD foundation. The comparison tests were done under the direction of a work group of SET (the Brazilian Television Engineering Society) and ABERT (the Brazilian Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters). The ABERT/SET group selected ISDB-T as the best choice in digital broadcasting modulation systems among ATSC, DVB-T and ISDB-T. ISDB-T was singled out as the most flexible of all for meeting the needs of mobility and portability. It is most efficient for mobile and portable reception. In June 29, 2006, Brazil announced ISDB-T-based SBTVD as the chosen standard for Digital TV transmissions, to be fully implemented by 2016. By November 2007 (one month prior DTTV launch), a few suppliers started to announce zapper STBs of the new Nippon-Brazilian SBTVD-T Standard, at that time without interactivity. Price ranges from U$300 to U$550 mainly depending on the ports offered to connect to the TV set (ranging from analog composite to HDMI). On December 24 2007, Samsung announced [4] the firm's first phone to work with the ISDB-T digital TV standard and GSM. It will feature a retractable antenna for digital TV reception and 3G HSDPA. In addition to a color display and 2MP digital camera, it will also feature MP3 playback, Bluetooth connectivity and a microSD slot for expansion. The release of this ISDB-T / GSM phone is expected during the first quarter of 2008. [5] The Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Telecomunicações (CPqD) is a Brazilian research and development institution in telecommunications. ... ABERT is the Brazilian Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters. ...


The Union of Independent Broadcasters in Brazil oppose the analogue cutoff date, and argue that the ISDB policy is misguided. [http://www.minpororen.jp/html/message/tyuushi.htm). Brazil's socialist PSOL party -which was formed after the expelling of several members from the Workers Party- and has one senator and three federal deputies in the National Congress is arguing at the Supreme Court (starting August 2007) the validity of the presidential decree selecting ISDB-T (http://www.stf.gov.br/portal/processo/verProcessoAndamento.asp?numero=3944&classe=ADI&origem=AP&recurso=0&tipoJulgamento=M). Among other charges PSOL points to the fact that there was no official justification for the decision in favor of ISDB-T and no release of the CPqD foundation's deep analysis.


Technical specification

Segment structure


ARIB has developed a segment structure called BST-OFDM (see figure). ISDB-T divides the frequency band of one channel into thirteen segments. The broadcaster can select which combination of segments to use; this choice of segment structure allows for service flexibility. For example, ISDB-T can transmit both LDTV and HDTV using one TV channel or change to 3 SDTV, a switch that can be performed at any time. ISDB-T can also change the modulation scheme at the same time. Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) — essentially identical to Coded OFDM (COFDM) — is a digital multi-carrier modulation scheme, which uses a large number of closely-spaced orthogonal sub-carriers. ... Low Definition Television. ...

s11 s 9 s 7 s 5 s 3 s 1 s 0 s 2 s 4 s 6 s 8 s10 s12

FIGURE: Spectrum of 13 segments structure of ISDB-T
(s0 is generally used for 1seg, s1-s12 are used for one HDTV or three SDTVs) Official 1seg logo 1seg (Katakana: ワンセグ) is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan. ... High-definition television (HDTV) means broadcast of television signals with a higher resolution than traditional formats (NTSC, SECAM, PAL) allow. ... ...


Summary of ISDB-T

Transmission
channel coding
Modulation 64QAM-OFDM,

16QAM-OFDM,
QPSK-OFDM,
DQPSK-OFDM

(Hierarchical transmission)
Error correction coding Inner coding,

Convolution 7/8,3/4,2/3,1/2

Outer coding :RS(204,188)
Guard interval 1/16,1/8,1/4
Interleaving Time, Frequency, bit, byte
Frequency domain multiplexing BST-OFDM (Segmented structure OFDM)
Conditional Access Multi-2
Data broadcasting ARIB STD B-24 (BML, ECMA script)
Service information ARIB STD B-10
Multiplexing MPEG-2 Systems
Audio coding MPEG-2 Audio (AAC)
Video coding MPEG-2 Video MPEG-4 AVC /H.264*
  • H.264 used in one segment (1seg) broadcasting for portables and Mobile phone.

Official 1seg logo 1seg (Katakana: ワンセグ) is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan. ...

Channel

Specification of Japanese terrestrial digital broadcasting using ISDB-T

Method terrestrial digital broadcasting
Frequency band VHF/UHF, Super high band
Transmission bit rate 19 Mbit/s(64QAM)
Transmission band width 5.6 MHz*
  • Compatible to 6 MHz band terrestrial analog TV broadcasting.

2.6 GHz Mobile satellite digital audio/video broadcasting

MobaHo! is the name of the services that uses the Mobile satellite digital audio broadcasting specifications. MobaHo! started its service on 20 October, 2004. // MobaHo! The name of Mobile satellite digital audio/video broadcasting in Japan. ... // MobaHo! The name of Mobile satellite digital audio/video broadcasting in Japan. ...


ISDB-Tsb

ISDB-Tsb is the terrestrial digital sound broadcasting specification. The technical specification is the same as ISDB-T. ISDB-Tsb supports the coded transmission of OFDM siginals. Orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM, also called orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) is a technique for the modulation of digital information onto an analog carrier electromagnetic (e. ...


ISDB-C

ISDB-C is cable digital broadcasting specification. The technical specification is developed by JCTEA.


ISDB-Tmm

ISDB-Tmm (Terrestrial mobile multi-media) will use suitable number of segments by station with video coding MPEG-4 AVC /H.264. With multiple channel, ISDB-Tmm will serve for dedicating contents such as sport, movie, music channel and other with CD quality sound.This service will use VHF band, 170-222 MHz after analog television close down in July 2011. CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. ... Analog television (or analogue television) encodes television and transports the picture and sound information as an analog signal, that is, by varying the amplitude and/or frequencies of the broadcast signal. ...


Standards

ARIB and JCTEA developed the following standards. Some part of standards are located on the pages of ITU-R and ITU-T. The Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, commonly known as ARIB, is a standardization organization in Japan. ... The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is a standards body subcommittee of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) relating to radio communication. ... The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ...

Channel Communication Satellite television digital broadcasting Broadcasting

/Communication
Satellite
television

digital
broadcasting
Terrestrial television digital broadcasting Satellite Sound digital broadcasting Terrestrial Sound digital broadcasting Cable

television

digital broadcasting
Nick name - ISDB-S ISDB-T 2.6 GHz mobile broadcasting ISDB-Tsb 64QAM,

Trans-modulation

(ISDB-C)
Transmission DVB-S ARIB

STD-B20,

ITU-R BO.1408
ARIB

STD-B31,

ITU-R BT.1306-1
ARIB STD-B41 ARIB STD-B29, ITU-R BS.1114 ITU-T J.83 Annex C, J.183
Receiver ARIB STD-B16 ARIB STD-B21 ARIB STD-B42 ARIB STD-B30 JCTEA STD-004, STD-007
Server type broadcasting - ARIB STD-B38 -
Conditional access - ARIB STD-B25 (Multi-2) JCTEA STD-001
Service information - ARIB STD-B10 JCTEA STD-003
Data broadcasting - ARIB STD-B24 (BML), ARIB STD-B23 (EE or MHP like) -
Video/Audio compression and multiplexing MPEG-2 ARIB STD-B32 (MPEG) -
Technical report - ARIB TR-B13 ARIB TR-B14 - - -

Table of terrestrial HDTV transmission systems


Table 1: Main characteristics of three DTTB systems
Systems ATSC 8-VSB DVB COFDM ISDB BST-COFDM
Source coding
Video Main profile syntax of ISO/IEC 13818-2 (MPEG-2 - video)
Audio ATSC Standard A/52 (Dolby AC-3) ISO/IEC 13818-2 (MPEG-2 – layer II audio) and Dolby AC-3 ISO/IEC 13818-7 (MPEG-2 – AAC audio)
Transmission system
Channel coding -
Outer coding R-S (207, 187, t = 10) R-S (204, 188, t = 8)
Outer interleaver 52 R-S block interleaver 12 R-S block interleaver
Inner coding Rate 2/3 trellis code Punctured convolution code: Rate 1/2, 2/3,3/4, 5/6, 7/8 Constraint length = 7, Polynomials (octal) = 171, 133
Inner interleaver 12 to 1 trellis code interleaver Bit-wise interleaving and frequency interleaving Bit-wise interleaving, frequency interleaving and selectable time interleaving
Data randomization 16-bit PRBS
Modulation 8-VSB and 16-VSB COFDM
QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM
Hierarchical modulation: multi-resolution constellation (16QAM and 64 QAM)
Guard interval: 1/32, 1/16, 1/8 & 1/4 of OFDM symbol
2 modes: 2k and 8k FFT
BST-COFDM with 13 frequency segments
DQPSK, QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM
Hierarchical modulation: choice of three different modulations on each segment
Guard interval: 1/32, 1/16, 1/8 & 1/4 of OFDM symbol
3 modes: 2k, 4k and 8k FFT



Countries and territories using ISDB-T

Asia/Pacific

Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ...

Americas

Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ...

See also

General category

Transmission technology Digital television (DTV) refers to the sending and receiving of moving images and sound by means of discrete (digital) signals, in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV. Introduced in the late 1990s, this technology appealed to the television broadcasting business and consumer electronics industries as offering new... Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV or DTT) is an implementation of digital technology to provide a greater number of channels and/or better quality of picture and sound using aerial broadcasts to a conventional antenna (or aerial) instead of a satellite dish or cable connection. ... Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a technology for broadcasting of audio using digital radio transmission. ... Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) is a digital radio transmission system for sending multimedia (radio, TV, and datacasting) to mobile devices such as mobile phones. ... Official 1seg logo 1seg (Katakana: ワンセグ) is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan. ... Datacasting is the broadcasting of data over a wide area via radio waves. ... Standard-definition television or SDTV refers to television systems that have a lower resolution than HDTV systems. ... Enhanced-definition television, extended-definition television, or EDTV is a CEA marketing shorthand term for certain digital television (DTV) formats. ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section should be merged with Kanto region The Kanto plain is the relatively flat region of Japan where Tokyo is located. ...

  • ATSC Standards - Advanced Television Systems Committee Standard
  • DMB-T - Digital Multimedia Broadcast-Terrestrial
  • DVB-T - Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial
  • MPEG
  • SFN, multi-frequency network

ATSC redirects here. ... DVB-T stands for Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. ... The Moving Picture Experts Group or MPEG is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. ... A single-frequency network or SFN is a type of radio network that operates several transmitters on a single frequency. ... MFN is an abbreviation for Most favored nation multi-frequency network This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

References

  1. ^ JEITA、地デジのコンテンツ保護策として暗号方式 EPN を提案:ニュース - CNET Japan
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ B-CAS*各種手続き* (Japanese). Retrieved on 2007-09-01.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • DiBEG - Digital Broadcasting Experts Group
  • Technical explanation by NHK
  • ISDB-T & ISDB-Tmm (Terrestrial mobile multi-media)
There are several video formats in use worldwide: Analogue NTSC PAL SECAM Digital ATSC DVB ISDB These are strictly the format of the video itself, and not for the modulation used for transmission. ... Analog television (or analogue television) encodes television and transports the picture and sound information as an analog signal, that is, by varying the amplitude and/or frequencies of the broadcast signal. ... In video, lines are a measurement of display resolution or image resolution. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and some other countries (see map). ... NTSC-J is a videogame region which covers Japan. ... PAL-M is the TV system used in Brazil. ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... PALplus is an extension of the PAL analogue broadcasting system for transmitting 16:9 programs without sacrificing vertical resolution. ... SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for Sequential Color with Memory), is an analog color television system first used in France. ... Symbol for 5. ... Multichannel television sound, better known as MTS (often still as BTSC, for the Broadcast Television Systems Committee that created it), is the method of encoding three additional channels of audio into an NTSC-format audio carrier. ... NICAM (known also as NICAM 728, after the 728 kbit/s bitstream it is sent over), Near Instantaneous Companded Audio Multiplex, is a format for digital sound on analogue television transmissions. ... Zweikanalton (two channel sound) is a television sound transmission system used in Germany and other countries. ... Bilingual and stereo sound television programs started being broadcast in Japan in October 1978 using a system developed by NHK Technical Research Labs. ... A commonly-used symbol indicating that a program or movie is closed-captioned. ... A BBC Ceefax page from January 9, 2007. ... CGMS-A (Copy Generation Management System Analogue) is a copy protection mechanism for analog television signals. ... Ghost-canceling reference, or GCR, is a special sub-signal on a television channel that receivers can use to attenuate the ghosting effect of a television signal split into multiple paths between transmitter and receiver. ... This article is about PDC/StarText teletext programme listings. ... The vertical blanking interval (VBI), also known as the vertical interval or VBLANK, is the time difference between the last line of one frame or field of a raster display, and the beginning of the next. ... Video Encoded Invisible Light (VEIL) is a technology for encoding low-bandwidth digital data bitstream in video signal, developed by VEfL Interactive Technologies. ... Vertical interval timecode (VITC, pronounced vitsee or sometimes vits) is a form of SMPTE timecode embedded as black-and-white bars in a pair of the normally unseen vertical interval lines in a television signal. ... In television technology, widescreen signaling (WSS) is a digital stream embedded in the TV signal describing qualities of the broadcast, in particular the intended aspect ratio of the image. ... Extended Data Services (now XDS, previously EDS), is an American standard classified under Electronic Industries Alliance standard EIA-766 for the delivery of any ancillary data (metadata) to be sent with an analog television program, or any other NTSC video signal. ... A number of experimental and broadcast pre World War II television systems were tested. ... Historically the term high-definition television was first used to refer to television standards developed in the 1930s to replace early experimental systems with as few as 12 lines. ... This schematic shows the circular paths traced by the holes in a Nipkow disk. ... Multiplexed Analogue Components (MAC) is a high-definition television transmission standard, originally proposed in 1995 for European HDTV. MAC transmits luminance and chrominance data separately in time rather than separately in frequency (as other analog television formats do, such as composite video). ... Japan had the earliest working HDTV system, with design efforts going back to 1979. ... Digital television (DTV) refers to the sending and receiving of moving images and sound by means of discrete (digital) signals, in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV. Introduced in the late 1990s, this technology appealed to the television broadcasting business and consumer electronics industries as offering new... Interlace is a technique of improving the picture quality of a video signal without consuming any extra bandwidth. ... Standard-definition television or SDTV refers to television systems that have a lower resolution than HDTV systems. ... 480i is the shorthand name for a video mode. ... 576i is the shorthand name for a video mode. ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ... 1080i is a shorthand name for a category of video modes. ... Progressive scan Progressive or noninterlaced scanning is any method for displaying, storing or transmitting moving images in which the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. ... Low-definition television or LDTV refers to television systems that have a lower resolution than Standard Definition Television systems. ... ... ... Official 1seg logo 1seg (Katakana: ワンセグ) is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan. ... Enhanced-definition television, extended-definition television, or EDTV is a CEA marketing shorthand term for certain digital television (DTV) formats. ... 480p is the shorthand name for a video mode. ... 576p is the shorthand name for a video mode. ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ... JOHN HERMAN SUCKS FAT DICK ... 1080p is the shorthand name for a category of display resolutions. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... ATSC redirects here. ... DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted, open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project, an industry consortium with more than 300 members, and published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC... DMB-T/H or DTMB (GB 20600-2006) is the Peoples Republic of Chinas (PRC) terrestrial digital television standard and will cover fixed and mobile terminals. ... H.264 is a standard for video compression. ... DMB-T/H or DTMB (GB 20600-2006) is the Peoples Republic of Chinas (PRC) terrestrial digital television standard and will cover fixed and mobile terminals. ... DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted, open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project, an industry consortium with more than 300 members, and published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Official 1seg logo 1seg (Katakana: ワンセグ) is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan. ... Symbol for 5. ... Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies by Dolby Laboratories. ... Multichannel audio is the name for a variety of techniques for expanding and enriching the sound of audio playback by recording additional sound channels that can be reproduced on additional speakers. ... MPEG Multichannel is the multichannel Extension to the MPEG-2 Audio Specification it is backwards compatible to the MPEG-1 Multichannel Extension. ... PCM redirects here. ... Linear Pulse Code Modulation used in communications (or LPCM) is a format that is a popular choice in music production. ... Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. ... A commonly-used symbol indicating that a program or movie is closed-captioned. ... A BBC Ceefax page from January 9, 2007. ... This is the Content Protection and Copy Management standard being developed by the DVB Project (http://www. ... A broadcast flag is a set of status bits (or flags) sent in the data stream of a digital television program that indicates whether or not it can be recorded, or if there are any restrictions on recorded content. ... In television technology, Active Format Descriptor or Active Format Description (AFD) is a signal that broadcasters will transmit with the picture to enable 4:3 and 16:9 television sets to display picture in the intended aspect ratio. ... The Sky Digital EPG in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about digital presentation. ... Super Hi-Vision, also known as Ultra High Definition Video or UHDV is a digital video format, currently proposed by NHK of Japan. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Super Hi-Vision, also known as Ultra High Definition Video or UHDV and UHD is a digital video format, currently proposed by NHK of Japan. ... Digital Cinema Initiatives or DCI is a consortium of studios and vendors formed to establish a standard architecture for Digital Cinema systems. ... Multiple MPEG programs are combined then sent to a transmitting antenna. ... Reverse Standards Conversion or RSC is a process developed by the BBC for the restoration of video recordings which have already been converted between different video standards using early conversion techniques. ... Converting between a different numbers of pixels and different frame rates in video pictures is a complex technical problem. ... Video processing techniques are used in video codecs, video players and other devices. ... Video on demand (VOD) systems allow users to select and watch video and clip content over a network as part of an interactive television system. ... HDTV Blur is a common term used to describe a number of different artifacts on consumer modern high definition television sets: Pixel response time on LCD displays (blur in the color response of the active pixel) Slower camera Shutter speeds common in hollywood production films (blur in the HDV content... This article is about high-definition video technology. ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ... Historically the term high-definition television was first used to refer to television standards developed in the 1930s to replace early experimental systems with as few as 12 lines. ... Historically, the term high-definition television was first used to refer to television standards developed in the 1930s to replace early experimental systems with as few as 12 lines. ... Multiplexed Analogue Components (MAC) is a high-definition television transmission standard, originally proposed in 1995 for European HDTV. MAC transmits luminance and chrominance data separately in time rather than separately in frequency (as other analog television formats do, such as composite video). ... Japan had the earliest working HDTV system, with design efforts going back to 1979. ... ATSC redirects here. ... DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted, open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project, an industry consortium with more than 300 members, and published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... DMB-T/H or DTMB (GB 20600-2006) is the Peoples Republic of Chinas (PRC) terrestrial digital television standard and will cover fixed and mobile terminals. ... Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies by Dolby Laboratories. ... Multichannel audio is the name for a variety of techniques for expanding and enriching the sound of audio playback by recording additional sound channels that can be reproduced on additional speakers. ... MPEG-1 Audio Layer II (MP2, sometimes Musicam) is an audio codec defined by ISO/IEC 11172-3. ... PCM redirects here. ... Linear Pulse Code Modulation used in communications (or LPCM) is a format that is a popular choice in music production. ... Digital eXtreme Definition (DXD) is an audio encoding scheme for professional use that was developed for editing high-resolution recordings because DSD, the audio standard used on Super Audio CD is not ideally suited for editing. ... Direct-Stream Digital (DSD) is an encoding technology to store audio signals on digital storage media and is used for the super audio compact disc (SACD). ... Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. ... For the HDV virus, see Hepatitis D. HDV is an inexpensive high-definition video recording format which uses MPEG2 compression to fit HD content onto the same DV or MiniDV tapes originally developed for standard definition recording. ... Digital Cinema Initiatives or DCI is a consortium of studios and vendors formed to establish a standard architecture for Digital Cinema systems. ... The first attempt at producing pre-recorded HDTV media was a scarce Japanese analog MUSE-encoded laser disc which is no longer produced. ... Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage media format. ... D-VHS logo DVHS redirects here. ... Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the Red Book audio CD. Introduced in 2000, it was developed by Sony and Philips Electronics, the same companies that created the Compact Disc. ... DVD-Audio is a digital format for delivering very high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. DVD-Audio includes no video and should not be confused with video DVDs containing concerts and music videos. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... H.264 is a standard for video compression. ... VC-1 is the informal name of the SMPTE 421M video codec standard initially developed by Microsoft. ... Three cables, each with RCA plugs at both ends, are often used to carry analog component video Component video is a video signal that has been split into two or more components. ... The High-Definition Multi-media Interface (HDMI) is an industry-supported, uncompressed, all-digital audio/video interface. ... DVI redirects here. ... DisplayPort is a new digital display interface standard (approved May 2006, current version 1. ... Unified Display Interface (UDI) is a newly-proposed interface specification designed for HDTV and PC usage, replacing the aging VGA analog interface while maintaining compatibility with existing HDMI and DVI standards. ... The transition to digital television is a process that follows different paces around the world. ...

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ISDB: Meetings (333 words)
The ISDB Congress is expected to be the premier Developmental Biology meeting and indeed this was the case.
The Network was established by Dr. Masatoshi Takeichi at the request of ISDB, and had its first large-scale meeting concomitantly with the Sydney Congress.
ISDB contributed start-up funds towards the new initiative used in part to fund Poster Prizes (named Mechanisms of Development/Elsevier/ISDB) for graduate students and postdocs of the region attending the Sydney Congress.
Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2234 words)
ISDB is maintained by the Japanese organisation ARIB.
The core standards of ISDB are ISDB-S (satellite television), ISDB-T(terrestrial), ISDB-C (cable) and 2.6GHz band mobile broadcasting which are all based on MPEG-2 video and audio coding as well as the transport stream described by the MPEG-2 standard, and are capable of high definition television (HDTV).
DVB and ISDB also provide for other video compression methods to be used, including JPEG and MPEG-4, although JPEG is only a required part of the MHEG standard.
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