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Encyclopedia > IQ and the Wealth of Nations
IQ and the Wealth of Nations
IQ and the Wealth of Nations

IQ and the Wealth of Nations is a controversial 2002 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, and Dr. Tatu Vanhanen, Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.[1] The book argues that differences in national income (in the form of per capita gross domestic product) correlate with differences in average national IQ. The authors interpret this correlation as showing that IQ is one important factor contributing to differences in national wealth and rates of economic growth, but that it is not the only determinant of these differences. The data, methodology, and conclusions have been criticized. Image File history File linksMetadata IQ_and_the_Wealth_of_Nations. ... Image File history File linksMetadata IQ_and_the_Wealth_of_Nations. ... A controversy is a contentious dispute, a disagreement over which parties are actively arguing. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Richard Lynn (born 1930) is a British Professor Emeritus of Psychology and a leading scholar of racial and ethnic differences,[1] known for his work on intelligence and differential psychology. ... The University of Ulster (UU) is a multi-centre university located in Northern Ireland and is the largest single university on the island of Ireland, discounting the federal National University of Ireland. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Tatu Vanhanen is a Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. ... University of Tampere is a university in Tampere, Finland. ... Tampere ( , Tammerfors in Swedish) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Nominal GDP per person (capita) in 2006. ... Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ... “IQ” redirects here. ...

Contents

Outline

The central thesis of IQ and the Wealth of Nations is that the average IQ of a nation correlates with its GDP[1] Above is a scatterplot with Lynn and Vanhanen's calculated IQ values (without estimates) and GDP data.[2] Data from Table 7.7 in the book - Real GDP per capita 1998, and IQ. Residual real GDP, and Fitted real GDP columns not displayed. Table 7.7 in the book titled, The Results of the Regression Analysis in which Real GDP Per Capita 1998 is Used as The Dependent Variable and National IQ is Used as the Independent Variable for 81 countries.

The book includes the authors' calculation of average IQ scores for 81 countries, based on their analysis of published reports. It reports their observation that national IQ correlates with gross domestic product per capita at 0.82, and with the rate of economic growth from 1950-1990 at 0.64. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2000x1309, 52 KB) IQ and GDP data from the Appendices of IQ and the Wealth of Nations self-made graph I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2000x1309, 52 KB) IQ and GDP data from the Appendices of IQ and the Wealth of Nations self-made graph I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Nominal GDP per person (capita) in 2006. ...


The authors believe that average IQ difference between nations are due to both genetic and environmental factors. They also believe that low GDP can cause low IQ, just as low IQ can cause low GDP. (See: Positive feedback) For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Positive feedback is a feedback system in which the system responds to the perturbation in the same direction as the perturbation (It is sometimes referred to as cumulative causation). ...


The authors write that it is the ethical responsibility of rich, high-IQ nations to financially assist poor, low-IQ nations, as it is the responsibility of rich citizens to assist the poor.


The book was cited several times in the popular press, notably the British conservative newspaper The Times. Because Tatu Vanhanen is the father of Matti Vanhanen, the Finnish Prime minister, his work has received wide publicity in Finland. It has also been severely criticized. The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... Matti Taneli Vanhanen ( ) (born November 4, 1955, in Jyväskylä) is the current Prime Minister of Finland, as well as Chairman of the Centre Party. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


National IQ estimates

Central to the book's thesis is a tabulation of what Lynn and Vanhanen believe to be the average IQs of the world's nations. Rather than do their own IQ studies (a potentially massive project), the authors average and adjust existing studies.


For 104 of the 185 nations, no studies were available. In those cases, the authors have used an estimated value by taking averages of the IQs of neighboring or comparable nations. For example, the authors arrived at a figure of 84 for El Salvador by averaging their calculations of 79 for Guatemala and 88 for Colombia. Including those estimated IQs, the correlation of IQ and GDP is 0.62.


To obtain a figure for South Africa, the authors averaged IQ studies done on different ethnic groups, resulting in a figure of 72. The figures for Colombia, Peru and Singapore were arrived at in a similar manner. For People's Republic of China, the authors used a figure of 109.4 for Shanghai and adjusted it down by an arbitrary 6 points because they believed the average across China's rural areas was probably less than that in Shanghai. Another figure from a study done in Beijing was not adjusted downwards. Those two studies formed the resultant score for China (PRC). For the figure of Macau, the average IQ is 104 which is obtained from the score of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and in such a way transformed into an IQ score [3]. For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... “Peking” redirects here. ... The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, the implementation of which is coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). ...


In some cases, the IQ of a country is estimated by averaging the IQs of countries that are not actually neighbors of the country in question. For example, Kyrgyzstan's IQ is estimated by averaging the IQs of Iran and Turkey, neither of which is close to Kyrgyzstan – China, which is a geographic neighbor, is not counted as such by Lynn and Vanhanen.


To account for the Flynn effect (an increase in IQ scores over time), the authors adjusted the results of older studies upward by a number of points. The Flynn effect is the rise of average Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test scores, an effect seen in most parts of the world, although at greatly varying rates. ...

Country IQ estimate Country IQ estimate Country IQ estimate
Hong Kong 107 Russia 96 Fiji 84
South Korea 106 Iran 96 Slovakia 84
Japan 105 Uruguay 96 Marshall Islands 84
Taiwan (ROC) 104 Portugal 95 Puerto Rico 84
Austria 102 Slovenia 95 Egypt 83
Germany 102 Israel 94 India 81
Italy 102 Romania 94 Ecuador 80
Netherlands 102 Bulgaria 93 Guatemala 79
Sweden 101 Ireland 93 Barbados 78
Switzerland 101 Greece 92 Nepal 78
Belgium 100 Malaysia 92 Qatar 78
China (PRC) 100 Thailand 91 Zambia 77
New Zealand 100 Croatia 90 Congo-Brazzaville 73
Singapore 100 Peru 90 Uganda 73
United Kingdom 100 Turkey 90 Jamaica 72
Hungary 99 Indonesia 89 Kenya 72
Poland 99 Suriname 89 South Africa 72
Spain 99 Colombia 89 Sudan 72
Australia 98 Brazil 87 Tanzania 72
Denmark 98 Iraq 87 Ghana 71
France 98 Mexico 87 Nigeria 67
Norway 98 Samoa 87 Guinea 66
United States 98 Tonga 87 Zimbabwe 66
Canada 97 Lebanon 86 Congo-Kinshasa 65
Czech Republic 97 Philippines 86 Sierra Leone 64
Finland 97 Cuba 85 Ethiopia 63
Argentina 96 Morocco 85 Equatorial Guinea 59

For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...

Special cases

In several cases, actual GDP did not correspond with that predicted by IQ. In these cases, the authors argued that differences in GDP were caused by differences in natural resources and whether the nation used a "planned" or "market" economy. This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ...


One example of this was Qatar, whose IQ was estimated by Lynn and Vanhanen to be about 78, yet had a disproportionately high per capita GDP of roughly USD $17,000. The authors explain Qatar's disproportionately high GDP by its high petroleum resources. Similarly, the authors think that large resources of diamonds explain the economic growth of the African nation Botswana, the fastest in the world for several decades. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... This article is about the gemstone. ...


The authors argued that the People's Republic of China's per capita GDP of roughly USD $4,500 could be explained by its use of a communist economic system for much of its recent history. The authors also predicted that communist nations who they believe have comparatively higher IQs, including the PRC, Vietnam, and North Korea, can be expected to gain GDP by moving from centrally-planned to market economic systems, while predicting continued poverty for African nations. Recent trends in the economy of the People's Republic of China and Vietnam seem to confirm this prediction, as China's GDP has grown rapidly since introducing market reforms. However, despite a supposedly higher average IQ and a market economy, South Korea still has a lower GDP/Capita than many Western nations. An economic system is a particular set of social institutions which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... The economies of the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau are separate from the rest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The economies of the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau are separate from the rest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita. ...


Related studies

IQ and the Wealth of Nations' was not peer-reviewed before publication but was published by a publisher of academic literature. Peer reviewed articles have used the IQ scores presented in the book and some have also commented on the claims in the book. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...


Several negative reviews have been published in the scholarly literature. Susan Barnett and Wendy Williams wrote that "we see an edifice built on layer upon layer of arbitrary assumptions and selective data manipulation. The data on which the entire book is based are of questionably validity and are used in ways that cannot be justified."[4] They also wrote that cross country comparisons are "virtually meaningless." Ken Richardson wrote "This is not so much science, then, as a social crusade. The Pioneer Fund of America, champion of many dubious causes in the past, will obtain little credit from having assisted this one."[5] Thomas Nechyba wrote of "relatively weak statistical evidence and dubious presumptions."[6] Astrid Ervik asked "are people in rich countries smarter than those in poorer countries?" and concluded that "the authors fail to present convincing evidence and appear to jump to conclusions."[7] The Pioneer Fund is a foundation that claims to have played a significant role in research on heredity and human personality differences since its 1937 founding, particularly in intelligence. ...


Denny Borsboom (2006) finds that mainstream contemporary test analysis does not reflect substantial recent developments in the field and "bears an uncanny resemblance to the psychometric state of the art as it existed in the 1950s." For example, it notes that IQ and the Wealth of Nations, in order to show that the tests are unbiased, uses outdated methodology, if anything indicative of that test bias exist.[8]


Thomas Volken wrote that the study is "neither methodologically nor theoretically convincing."[9] Although critical of the IQ data, for the sake of argument Volken assumes that the data is correct but then criticizes the statistical methods used, finding no effect on growth or income. Using the same assumption, Garett Jones and W. Joel Schneider report a strong connection between intelligence and economic growth.[10]


Erich Weede and Sebastian Kampf wrote that "there is one clear and robust result: average IQ does promote growth."[11] Edward Miller wrote that "the theory helps significantly to explain why some countries are rich and some poor."[12] Michael Palairet wrote that "Lynn and Vanhanen have launched a powerful challenge to economic historians and development economists who prefer not to use IQ as an analytical input."[13] In a reanalysis of the Lynn and Vanhanen's hypothesis, Dickerson (2006) finds that IQ and GDP data is best fitted by an exponential function, with IQ explaining approximately 70% of the variation in GDP.[14] Dickerson concludes that as a rough approximation "an increase of 10 points in mean IQ results in a doubling of the per capita GDP."


Whetzel and McDaniel (2006) conclude that the book's "results regarding the relationship between IQ, democracy and economic freedom are robust".[15] Moreover, they address "criticisms concerning the measurement of IQ in purportedly low IQ countries", finding that by setting "all IQ scores below 90 to equal 90, the relationship between IQ and wealth of nations remained strong and actually increased in magnitude." On this question they conclude that their findings "argue against claims made by some that inaccuracies in IQ estimation of low IQ countries invalidate conclusions about the relationship between IQ and national wealth."


Voracek (2004) used the national IQ data to examine the relationship between intelligence and suicide, finding national IQ was positively correlated with national male and female suicide rates.[16] The effect was not attenuated by controlling for GDP.


Barber (2005) found that national IQ was associated with rates of secondary education enrollment, illiteracy, and agricultural employment.[17] The effect on illiteracy and agricultural employment remained with national wealth, infant mortality, and geographic continent controlled.


Both Lynn and Rushton have suggested that high IQ is associated with colder climates. To test this hypothesis, Templer and Arikawa (2006) compare the national IQ data from Lynn and Vanhanen with data sets that describe national average skin color and average winter and summer temperatures.[18] They find that the strongest correlations to national IQ were −0.92 for skin color and −0.76 for average high winter temperature. They interpret this finding as strong support for IQ-climate association. Other studies using different data sets find no correlation [4][5]. Professor J. Philippe Rushton John Philippe (Phil) Rushton (born December 3, 1943) is a psychology professor at the University of Western Ontario, Canada, who is most widely known for his work on intelligence and racial differences, particularly his book Race, Evolution And Behavior. ...


Kanazawa (2006), "IQ and the wealth of states" (in press in Intelligence), replicates across U.S. states Lynn and Vanhanen's demonstration that national IQs strongly correlate with macroeconomic performance.[19] Kanazawa finds that state cognitive ability scores, based on the SAT data, correlate moderately with state economic performance, explaining about a quarter of the variance in gross state product per capita.


Hunt and Wittmann (in press) use data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) to conclude that "in spite of the weaknesses [in] several of their data points Lynn and Vanhanen's empirical conclusion was correct, but we question the simple explanation that national intelligence causes national wealth. We argue that the relationship is more complex".[20] The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a three-yearly world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1997. ...


The book was followed by Lynn's 2006 Race Differences in Intelligence, which expands the data by nearly four times and concludes the average human IQ is presently 90 when compared to a norm of 100 based on UK data, or two thirds of a standard deviation below the UK norm, and Lynn and Vanhanen's 2006 IQ and Global Inequality.[21] Race Differences in Intelligence Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis is a 2006 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland. ... Calculated and estimated national average IQ. IQ and Global Inequality is a controversial 2006 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, and Dr. Tatu Vanhanen, Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. ...


Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs and Steel instead argues that historical differences in economic and technological development for different areas can be explained by differences in geography (which affects factors like population density and spread of new technology) and differences in available crops and domesticatable animals. Richard Nisbett argues in his 2004 The Geography of Thought that some of these regional differences shaped lasting cultural traits, such as the collectivism required by East Asian rice irrigation, compared with the individualism of ancient Greek herding, maritime mercantilism, and money crops wine and olive oil (pp. 34-35). Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies cover Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 book by Jared Diamond, professor of physiology at UCLA. It won the Pulitzer Prize for 1998, as well as the Aventis Prize for best science book in the... Richard Nisbett Richard Nisbett is a distinguished professor of social psychology and co-director of the Culture and Cognition program at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ...


Criticism

Criticism of Research Funding Sources

Lynn has been frequently criticized as a Pioneer fund grantee. The Pioneer Fund is a foundation that claims to have played a significant role in research on heredity and human personality differences since its 1937 founding, particularly in intelligence. ...


Criticism of Dubious Data Sets

The figures were obtained by taking unweighted averages of different IQ tests. The number of studies is very limited; the IQ figure is based on one study in 34 nations, two studies in 30 nations. There were actual tests for IQ in 81 nations. In 104 of the world's nations there were no IQ studies at all and IQ was estimated based on IQ in surrounding nations.[22] The number of participants in each study was usually limited, often numbering under a few hundred. The exceptions to this were the United States and Japan, for which studies using more than several thousand participants are available. In statistics, given a set of data, X = { x1, x2, ..., xn} and corresponding weights, W = { w1, w2, ..., wn} the weighted mean is calculated as Note that if all the weights are equal, the weighted mean is the same as the arithmetic mean. ...


Many nations are very heterogeneous ethnically. This is true for many developing countries. It is very doubtful that an often limited number of participants from one or a few areas are representative for the population as whole. A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


Studies that were averaged together often used different methods of IQ testing, different scales for IQ values and/or were done decades apart. IQ in children is different although correlated with IQ later in life and many of the studies tested only young children.


A test of 108 9-15-year olds in Barbados, of 50 13-16-year olds in Colombia, of 104 5-17-year olds in Ecuador, of 129 6-12-year olds in Egypt, of 48 10-14-year olds in Equatorial Guinea, and so on, all were taken as measures of 'national IQ'.[23]


The notion that there is such a thing as a culturally neutral intelligence test is disputed.[24][25][26][27][28] There are many difficulties when one is measuring IQ scores across cultures, and in multiple languages. Use of the same set of exams requires translation, with all its attendant difficulties and possible misunderstandings in other cultures.[29] To adapt to this, some IQ test rely on non-verbal approaches, which involve pictures, diagrams, and conceptual relationships (such as in-out, big-small, and so on).


One common criticism is that many of the countries with the best average scores are those where testing (e.g. American SATs, baccalaureate examinations) is a crucial aspect of the educational process, and that many of these tests (esp. the SATs) have been shown to be very similar to IQ tests. In these nations, because students study extensively for the high-stakes examinations, it is quite possible that IQ scores are higher because people are subjected to frequent examinations for which they prepare extensively. For other uses, see SAT (disambiguation). ... A baccalaureate is an educational qualification. ...


Criticism of Data Set Sources and their Accuracy

There are also errors in the raw data presented by authors. The results from Vinko Buj's 1981 study of 21 European cities and the Ghanaian capital Accra used different scaling from Lynn and Vanhanen's. A comparison of the reported to actual data from only a single study found 5 errors in 19 reported IQ scores.[30][31] Accra, population 1,970,400 (2005), is the capital of Ghana. ...


Criticism of Subjective Statistical Manipulation by Authors

As noted earlier, in many cases arbitrary adjustments were made by authors to account for the Flynn effect or when the authors thought that the studies were not representative of the ethnic or social composition of the nation. The Flynn effect is the rise of average Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test scores, an effect seen in most parts of the world, although at greatly varying rates. ...


One critic writes: "Their scheme is to take the British Ravens IQ in 1979 as 100, and simply add or subtract 2 or 3 to the scores from other countries for each decade that the relevant date of test departs from that year. The assumptions of size, linearity and universal applicability of this correction across all countries are, of course, hugely questionable if not breathtaking. Flynn's original results were from only 14 (recently extended to twenty) industrialised nations, and even those gains varied substantially with test and country and were not linear. For example, recent studies report increases of eight points per decade among Danes; six points per decade in Spain; and 26 points over 14 years in Kenya (confirming the expectation that newly developing countries would show more rapid gains)."[32]


There is controversy about the definition and usage of IQ and intelligence. See also race and intelligence. IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... The study of race and intelligence is the controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. ...


It is generally agreed many factors, including environment, culture, demographics, wealth, pollution, and educational opportunities, affect measured IQ. See also Health and intelligence. Several factors can lead to significant cognitive impairment, particularly if they occur during pregnancy and childhood when the brain is growing and the blood-brain barrier is less effective. ...


Finally, the Flynn effect may well reduce or eliminate differences in IQ between nations in the future. One estimate is that the average IQ of the US was below 75 before factors like improved nutrition started to increase IQ scores. Some predict that considering that the Flynn effect started first in more affluent nations, it will also disappear first in these nations. Then the IQ gap between nations will diminish. However, even assuming that the IQ difference will disappear among the babies born today, the differences will remain for decades simply because of the composition of the current workforce. Steve Sailer noted as much when discussing the workforce in both India and China (see second diagram) [6]. The Flynn effect is the rise of average Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test scores, an effect seen in most parts of the world, although at greatly varying rates. ... Steve Sailer Steven Ernest Sailer (born December 20, 1958) is an American journalist and movie critic for The American Conservative, ex-correspondent for UPI, and VDARE.com columnist. ...


End material

See also

Calculated and estimated national average IQ. IQ and Global Inequality is a controversial 2006 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, and Dr. Tatu Vanhanen, Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. ... The Bell Curve is a controversial, best-selling 1994 book by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray exploring the role of genes in American life. ... The study of race and intelligence is the controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. ... Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ...

External links

Intelligence is a scientific journal dealing with intelligence and psychometrics. ... Professor J. Philippe Rushton John Philippe (Phil) Rushton (born December 3, 1943) is a psychology professor at the University of Western Ontario, Canada, who is most widely known for his work on intelligence and racial differences, particularly his book Race, Evolution And Behavior. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97510-X
  2. ^ See Intelligence and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations by Richard Lynn
  3. ^ See Prenzel, Manfred et al. (eds).: PISA 2003. Münster: Waxmann 2004, p. 70, Table 2.9; or: PISA 2003: A Profile of Student Performance in Mathematics
  4. ^ Barnett, Susan M. and Williams, Wendy (August 2004). "National Intelligence and the Emperor's New Clothes". Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books 49 (4): 389-396. 
  5. ^ Heredity April 2004, Volume 92, Number 4, Pages 359-360
  6. ^ Nechyba, T. (2004). Review of IQ and the Wealth of Nations. Journal of Economic Literature, 42, 220–221. (p. 220)
  7. ^ Ervik, A. O. (2003). IQ and the Wealth of Nations. The Economic Journal, 113, No. 488, F406–F407.
  8. ^ The attack of the psychometricians. DENNY BORSBOOM. PSYCHOMETRIKA VOL 71, NO 3, 425–440. SEPTEMBER 2006.
  9. ^ The Impact of National IQ on Income and Growth [1]
  10. ^ Jones, G, Schneider, WJ (2006). "Intelligence, Human Capital, and Economic Growth: An Extreme-Bounds Analysis". Journal of Economic Growth Forthcoming. 
  11. ^ Weede, E. and Kämpf, S. (2002). The Impact of Intelligence and Institutional Improvements on Economic Growth. Kyklos, 55, Fasc. 3, 361–380. (p. 376)
  12. ^ Miller, E. (2002). Differential Intelligence and National Income. A review of IQ and the Wealth of Nations. Journal of Social, Political & Economic Studies, 27, 413–524. (p. 522)
  13. ^ Palairet, M. R. (2004). Book review, IQ and the Wealth of Nations. Heredity, 92, 361–362.
  14. ^ Dickerson, R. E. (May-June 2006). "Exponential correlation of IQ and the wealth of nations". Intelligence 34 (3): 291-295. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2005.09.006. 
  15. ^ Whetzel, D. L. & McDaniel, M. A. (September-October 2006). "Prediction of national wealth". Intelligence 34 (5): 449-458. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2006.02.003. 
  16. ^ Voracek, M. (2004). "National intelligence and suicide rate: an ecological study of 85 countries". Personality and Individual Differences 37 (3): 543-553. 
  17. ^ Barber, N. (2005). "Educational and ecological correlates of IQ: A cross-national investigation". Intelligence 33 (3): 273-284. 
  18. ^ Templer, D. I. and Arikawa, H. (2006). "Temperature, skin color, per capita income, and IQ: An international perspective". Intelligence 34 (2): 121-139.  see also discussion [2]
  19. ^ Kanazawa, S. (2006). "IQ and the wealth of states". Intelligence 34 (6): 593-600. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2006.04.003. 
  20. ^ Hunt, E., Wittmann, W. (in press). "National intelligence and national prosperity". Intelligence. 
  21. ^ Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2006). IQ and global inequality. Athens, GA: Washington Summit Books. see also Lynn, R., & Mikk, J.. "National differences in intelligence and educational attainment". Intelligence In Press, Corrected Proof.. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2006.06.001. 
  22. ^ The Impact of National IQ on Income and Growth: A Critique of Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanens Recent Book by Thomas Volken
  23. ^ Book Review: IQ and the Wealth of Nations Heredity April 2004, Volume 92, Number 4, Pages 359-360. K Richardson.
  24. ^ The Cultural Context of Learning and Thinking: An Exploration in Experimental Anthropology Gay, Glick and Sharp (1971) made the following observation: "Cultural differences in cognition reside more in the situations to which particular cognitive processes are applied than in the existence of a process in one cultural group, and its absence in another." A similar position is held by Berry in Acculturative Stress 1974 [3]
  25. ^ Educational Handicap, Public Policy, and Social History: A Broadened Perspective on Mental Retardation ISBN 0029279208 Sarason and Doris (1979) view intelligence as a cultural invention that does not hold true across cultures.
  26. ^ Case for Non-Biased Intelligence Testing Against Black Africans Has Not Been Made: A Comment on Rushton, Skuy, and Bons (2004) 1*, Leah K. Hamilton1, Betty R. Onyura1 and Andrew S. Winston International Journal of Selection and Assessment Volume 14 Issue 3 Page 278 - September 2006
  27. ^ Culture-Fair Cognitive Ability Assessment Steven P. Verney Assessment, Vol. 12, No. 3, 303-319 (2005)
  28. ^ Cross-cultural effects on IQ test performance: a review and preliminary normative indications on WAIS-III test performance. Shuttleworth-Edwards AB, Kemp RD, Rust AL, Muirhead JG, Hartman NP, Radloff SE. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2004 Oct;26(7):903-20.
  29. ^ Instruments developed to quantify smartness are culturally based and cannot simply be "transplanted" to a culture with different values (Greenfield, 1997). In Culture as process: Empirical methods for cultural psychology
  30. ^ Richard Lynn's Massaged IQ Data
  31. ^ Greek IQ by Dienekes Pontikos
  32. ^ Book Review: IQ and the Wealth of Nations Heredity April 2004, Volume 92, Number 4, Pages 359-360. K Richardson.

 
 

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