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Encyclopedia > IQ and Global Inequality
Calculated and estimated national average IQ.
     ≤65      70      75      80      85      90      95      100      ≥105      N/A

IQ and Global Inequality is a controversial 2006 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, and Dr. Tatu Vanhanen, Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.[1] IQ and Global Inequality is follow-up to their 2002 book IQ and the Wealth of Nations[2], an expansion of the argument that that international differences in current economic development are due in part to differences in average national intelligence as measured by average national IQ, and a response to critics. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 35 KB, MIME type: image/png) based on BlankMap-World-v5. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 35 KB, MIME type: image/png) based on BlankMap-World-v5. ... A controversy is a contentious dispute, a disagreement over which parties are actively arguing. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Richard Lynn (born 1930) is a British Professor Emeritus of Psychology and a leading scholar of racial and ethnic differences,[1] known for his work on intelligence and differential psychology. ... The University of Ulster (UU) is a multi-centre university located in Northern Ireland and is the largest single university on the island of Ireland, discounting the federal National University of Ireland. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Tatu Vanhanen is a Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. ... University of Tampere is a university in Tampere, Finland. ... Tampere ( , Tammerfors in Swedish) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... IQ and the Wealth of Nations IQ and the Wealth of Nations is a controversial 2002 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, and Dr. Tatu Vanhanen, Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. ... Intelligence is a property of mind that encompasses many related mental abilities, such as the capacities to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ...


Some of Lynn's research has been funded by the Pioneer Fund. As with Lynn's book Race Differences in Intelligence, the book was not published by an academic publisher but by a private publisher run by an editorial board member of the Occidental Quarterly. It has also reprinted "'classic' Aryan and eugenic tracts including a homily to the antisemitic philosopher Count de Gobineau as a pioneer of genetics."[1] The Pioneer Fund is a foundation that claims to have played a significant role in research on heredity and human personality differences since its 1937 founding, particularly in intelligence. ... Race Differences in Intelligence Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis is a 2006 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland. ... The Occidental Quarterly is a white nationalist journal that seeks to direct American conservatism in the direction of an Anglo-Saxon cultural and racialist ideology. ...

Contents

Summary

IQ and Global Inequality


Chapter 1 summarizes theories of economic growth. Chapter 2 defines and describes intelligence. Chapter 3 argues that the scientific literature indicates that intelligence is a determinant of incomes and related phenomena among individuals within a number of countries. Chapter 4 describes the collection and determination of national IQ, presenting calculated IQs for 113 countries and estimated IQs for an additional 79 countries. This represents all countries with population greater than 40,000. Chapter 5 introduces a new statistic, the quality of human condition index (QHC) and 12 alternative variables that measure human conditions. Chapter 7 focuses on the relationship between national IQ and QHC, which Lynn and Vanhanen report to be strongly correlated. Chapter 8 examines the relationship between national IQ and 12 alternative variables, which Lynn and Vanhanen report are also correlated with national IQ. Chapter 9 discusses the genetic and environmental contributions to differences in national intelligence, and argues that racial composition of the population is a major factor. Chapter 10 considers the causal relationship between national IQ and important variables related to global inequality. Chapter 11 discusses and responds to criticisms made to Lynn and Vanhanen's theory by reviewers. Chapter 12 summarizes the book and discusses policy recommendations. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


National IQ and economic development

Quality of human conditions index

The quality of human conditions (QHC) index.
     11      15      20      30      40      50      60      70      80      85      89      N/A

The quality of human conditions (QHC) index was computed from five variables. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 34 KB, MIME type: image/png) based on BlankMap-World-v5. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 34 KB, MIME type: image/png) based on BlankMap-World-v5. ...

  1. purchasing power parity Gross National Income (PPP-GNI) per capita 2002
  2. adult literacy rate 2002
  3. gross tertiary enrollment ratio
  4. life expectancy at birth 2002
  5. the level of democratization 2002 (Tatu Vanhanen's Index of Democratization)

Values of the index range from 10.7 (Burkina Faso) to 89 (Norway). Lynn and Vanhanen write that they would have preferred to include a sixth measure, an indicator of income inequality, but that statistical data for that variable was not available for all countries. They write that the QHC index differs significantly from other widely used indexes (such as the Human Development Index) in that QHC also measures democratization. The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... Literacy is the ability to read and write. ... The gross enrolment ratio (GER) or gross enrolment index (GEI) is a statistical measure used in the education sector. ... In demography, life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average, or mathematical expected value, of the remaining lifetime of an individual in the given group. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Democratization (British English: Democratisation) is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ...

All countries Calculated IQ
(113 countries)
Estimate IQ
(79 countries)
Total
(192 countries)
QHC 0.805 0.725 0.791
PPP GNI per capita 2002 0.693 0.342 0.616
Adult literacy rate 2002 0.642 0.655 0.655
Tertiary enrollment ratio 0.746 0.699 0.745
Life expectancy at birth 2002 0.765 0.690 0.750
Index of Democratization 2002 0.569 0.322 0.530
Excluding smallest countries Calculated IQ
(98 countries)
Estimate IQ
(62 countries)
Total
(160 countries)
QHC 0.846 0.800 0.839
PPP GNI per capita 2002 0.739 0.266 0.649
Adult literacy rate 2002 0.710 0.746 0.733
Tertiary enrollment ratio 0.778 0.734 0.780
Life expectancy at birth 2002 0.833 0.753 0.817
Index of Democratization 2002 0.598 0.408 0.584

Other measures of global inequality

The relationship of national IQ to twelve other measures of global inequality were examined.

  1. Human Development Index (HDI)
  2. Gender-related Development Index (GDI)
  3. Economic growth rate (EGR)
  4. Gini index of inequality in income or consumption (Gini)
  5. Population below $2 a day international poverty line (Poverty)
  6. Measures of undernourishment (PUN)
  7. Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR)
  8. Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)
  9. Economic freedom ratings (EFR)
  10. the Index of Economic Freedom (IEF)
  11. Population pyramids (MU-index)
  12. Human happiness and life-satisfaction.

All twelve measures of global inequality are significantly correlated with the QHC index. Eleven of the twelve measures are significantly correlated with national IQ. The measures of human happiness and life satisfaction are not significantly correlated with national IQ. Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of a distribution. ... This article contains a list of countries by percentage of the population living below poverty line and a list of countries by population living under $2 a day and $1 a day. ... The Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is a measure of the risk of death once a woman has become pregnant. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... The annual surveys Economic Freedom of the World and Index of Economic Freedom are two indices which attempt to measure the degree of economic freedom, using a definition for this similar to laissez-faire capitalism, in the worlds nations. ... The annual surveys Economic Freedom of the World and Index of Economic Freedom are two indices which attempt to measure the degree of economic freedom, using a definition for this similar to laissez-faire capitalism, in the worlds nations. ...

Correlations IQ QHC
HDI 0.776 0.940
GDI 0.849 0.951
EGR 3 0.747 0.840
EGR 4 0.709 0.871
Gini -0.538 -0.464
Poverty -0.653 -0.799
PUN 1 -0.500 -0.648
MMR -0.730 -0.759
IMR -0.771 -0.861
CPI 0.591 0.762
EFR 0.606 0.674
IEF 0.418 0.620
MU-index 0.806 0.902
Happiness 0.029 0.315
Life satisfaction 0.033 0.396

Latitude and temperature

Correlation Latitude Temperature
Degrees latitude 1 -0.885
Annual mean temperature -0.885 1
National IQ 0.677 -0.632
QHC 0.659 -0.562
PPP GNI per capita 2002 0.528 -0.407
Adult literacy rate 2002 0.482 -0.467
Tertiary enrollment ratio 0.718 -0.649
Life expectancy at birth 2002 0.505 -0.379
Index of Democratization 2002 0.512 -0.460

National IQ and QHC values

Country IQ (2002)[2] IQ (2006)[1] PPP-GNI per capita 2002[1] QHC[1]
 Hong Kong 107 108 27,490 60.8
 Singapore 103 108 23,730 60.7
 North Korea 105* 106* 1,000 38
 South Korea 106 106 16,960 75.4
 Japan 105 105 27,380 71.4
 People's Republic of China 100 105 4,520 39.7
 Republic of China 104 105 23,400 79.4
 Italy 102 102 26,170 78.9
 Iceland 98* 101 29,240 80
 Mongolia 98* 101* 1,710 48.1
 Switzerland 101 101 31,840 82.2
 Austria 102 100 28,910 80.7
 Luxembourg 101* 100* 53,230 76.4
 Netherlands 102 100 28,350 82.8
 Norway 98 100 36,690 89
 United Kingdom 100 100 26,580 76.7
 Belgium 100 99 28,130 84.1
 Canada 97 99 28,930 77.8
 Estonia 97* 99 11,630 64.5
 Finland 97 99 26,160 85.1
 Germany 102 99 26,980 78
 New Zealand 100 99 20,550 76.2
 Poland 99 99 10,450 62.7
 Sweden 101 99 25,820 82.9
 Andorra N/A 98* 19,000 58.7
 Australia 98 98 27,440 82.8
 Czech Republic 97 98 14,920 64.5
 Denmark 98 98 30,600 85.4
 France 98 98 27,040 78.1
 Hungary 99 98 13,070 64.1
 Latvia 97* 98* 9,190 65.5
 Spain 97 98 21,910 75.8
 United States 98 98 36,120 86.6
 Belarus 96* 97* 5,500 57.2
 Malta 95* 97 17,710 66.4
 Russia 96 97 8,080 64.5
 Ukraine 96* 97* 4,800 61.8
 Moldova 95* 96* 1,600 46.2
 Slovakia 96 96 12,590 63.2
 Slovenia 95 96 18,480 72.4
 Uruguay 96 96 7,710 64
 Israel 94 95 19,000 75.3
 Portugal 95 95 17,820 67
 Armenia 93* 94* 3,230 50.2
 Georgia 93* 94* 2,270 51.2
 Kazakhstan 93* 94* 5,630 49
 Romania 94 94 6,490 53
 Vietnam 96* 94 2,300 39.5
 Argentina 96 93 10,190 64.7
 Bulgaria 93 93 7,030 59.1
 Greece 92 92 18,770 76.1
 Malaysia 92 92 29,570 78.5
 Republic of Ireland 93 92 8,500 52.1
 Brunei 92* 91* 19,210 50.8
 Cambodia 89* 91* 1,970 28.6
 Cyprus 92* 91* 18,650 67.6
 Lithuania 97* 91 10,190 65.4
 Republic of Macedonia 93* 91* 6,420 54.4
 Thailand 91 91 6,890 50.3
 Albania 90* 90* 4,960 51.2
 Bermuda N/A 90 36,000 75.8
 Bosnia and Herzegovina N/A 90* 5,800 51.4
 Chile 93* 90 9,420 59.5
 Croatia 90 90 10,000 61.7
 Kyrgyzstan 87* 90* 1,560 48.1
 Turkey 90 90 6,300 50.2
 Cook Islands N/A 89 5,000 45.7
 Costa Rica 91* 89* 8,650 53.7
 Laos 89* 89 1,660 24.9
 Mauritius 81* 89 10,820 52.2
 Serbia 93* 89 2,300 53.8
 Suriname 89 89 6,590 50.6
 Ecuador 80 88 3,340 47.4
 Mexico 87 88 8,800 52.9
 Samoa 87 88 5,570 49.7
 Azerbaijan 87* 87* 3,010 47.2
 Bolivia 85* 87 2,390 49.7
 Brazil 87 87 7,450 51.1
 East Timor N/A 87* 3,940 46.7
 Guyana 84* 87* 3,070 40.2
 Indonesia 89 87 1,600 28.1
 Iraq 87 87 1,027 30.7
 Myanmar 86* 87* 930 42.4
 Tajikistan 87* 87* 1,640 27.5
 Turkmenistan 87* 87* 4,780 41.7
 Uzbekistan 87* 87* 1,640 39.4
 Kuwait 83* 86 17,780 49.9
 Philippines 86 86 4,450 51.6
 Seychelles 81* 86* 18,232 60.6
 Tonga 87 86 6,820 40.5
 Cuba 85 85 5,259 46.2
 Fiji 84 85 5,330 51.9
 Kiribati 84* 85* 800 37.1
 New Caledonia N/A 85 21,960 54.9
 Peru 90 85 4,880 49.2
 Trinidad and Tobago 80* 85* 9,000 52
 Yemen 83* 85 800 24.5
 Afghanistan 83* 84* 700 13.2
 Belize 83* 84* 15,960 56.1
 Colombia 88 84 5,490 44.2
 Federated States of Micronesia 84* 84* 6,150 48.4
 Iran 110 110 86,690 90.2
 Jordan 87* 84 4,180 43.4
 Marshall Islands 84 84 1,600 44.2
 Morocco 85 84 2,000 39.9
 Pakistan 81* 84 3,730 31.7
 Panama 84* 84* 1,960 26.2
 Paraguay 85* 84 6,060 56.6
 Puerto Rico 84 84 4,590 45.2
 Saudi Arabia 83* 84* 15,800 63.6
 Solomon Islands 84* 84* 12,660 44.1
 The Bahamas 78* 84* 1,590 41.5
 United Arab Emirates 83* 84* 24,030 48.8
 Vanuatu 84* 84* 2,850 31.4
 Venezuela 88* 84 5,220 47.4
 Algeria 84* 83* 5,530 39.9
 Bahrain 83* 83* 16,190 49.3
 Libya 84* 83* 7,570 49.3
 Oman 83* 83* 13,000 40.6
 Papua New Guinea 84* 83 2,180 38.4
 Syria 87* 83 34,700 38.9
 Tunisia 84* 83* 6,440 40.6
 Bangladesh 81* 82* 1,720 29.8
 Dominican Republic 84* 82 6,270 46.8
 India 81 82 2,650 36.3
 Lebanon 86 82 4,600 55.8
 Madagascar 79* 82 730 28.6
 Egypt 83 81 3,810 37.3
 Honduras 84* 81 2,540 41.9
 Maldives 81* 81* 4,798 38.5
 Nicaragua 84* 81* 2,350 41.3
 Northern Mariana Islands N/A 81 12,500 51.3
 Barbados 78 80 14,660 60.9
 Bhutan 78* 80* 1,969 24.1
 El Salvador 84* 80* 4,790 42.6
 Guatemala 79 79 4,040 34.6
 Sri Lanka 81* 79 3,510 47.7
 Nepal 78 78 1,370 26.9
 Qatar 78 78 19,844 45.6
 Comoros 79* 77* 1,640 24.6
 Cape Verde 78* 76* 4,920 40.5
 Mauritania 73* 76* 1,790 20.5
 Uganda 73 73 1,360 25.4
 Kenya 72 72 1,010 27.3
 South Africa 72 72 9,810 38.3
 Tanzania 72 72 580 23.2
 Ghana 71 71 2,080 33.7
 Grenada 75* 71* 6,600 45.3
 Jamaica 72 71 3,680 46.5
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 75* 71 5,190 48.4
 Sudan 72 71 1,740 24.6
 Zambia 77 71 800 21.8
 Antigua and Barbuda 75* 70* 10,390 53.2
 Benin 69* 70* 1,060 20.5
 Botswana 72* 70* 7,740 29.4
 Namibia 72* 70* 6,880 31.1
 Rwanda 70* 70* 1,260 18.5
 Togo 69* 70* 1,450 26
 Burundi 70* 69* 630 15.2
 Côte d'Ivoire 71* 69* 1,450 18.1
 Malawi 71* 69* 570 24.3
 Mali 68* 69* 840 13.4
 Niger 67* 69* 800 13.5
 Nigeria 67 69 800 27.3
 Angola 69* 68* 1,840 13.7
 Burkina Faso 66* 68* 1,090 10.7
 Chad 72* 68* 1,010 20.4
 Djibouti 68* 68* 2,040 22
 Eritrea 68* 68* 1,040 21.4
 Somalia 68* 68* 500 15.2
 Swaziland 72* 68* 4,730 22.2
 Dominica 75* 67 4,960 48.8
 Guinea 63 67 2,060 22.5
 Guinea-Bissau 63* 67* 680 20.3
 Haiti 72* 67* 1,610 20.4
 Lesotho 72* 67* 2,970 24.3
 Liberia 64* 67* 1,000 21.2
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 75* 67* 10,750 45.5
 São Tomé and Príncipe 59* 67* 1,317 37.9
 Senegal 64* 66* 1,660 20.7
 Gambia 64* 66* 1,540 21.3
 Zimbabwe 66 66 2,180 25.2
 Republic of the Congo 73 65 630 17.9
 Cameroon 70* 64 1,910 23.1
 Central African Republic 68* 64 1,170 19.1
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 65 64 700 26.9
 Ethiopia 63 64 780 16.7
 Gabon 66* 64* 5,530 32.2
 Mozambique 72* 64 990 18
 Sierra Leone 64 64 500 13.8
 Saint Lucia 75* 62 4,950 51.1
 Equatorial Guinea 59 59 9,100 30.4
"*" Denotes estimated National IQ

PPP-GNI = purchasing power parity gross national income. QHC = is a composite index called quality of human conditions. Image File history File links Flag_of_Hong_Kong. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... -1... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... 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Image File history File links Flag_of_Bahrain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Oman. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Madagascar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Northern_Mariana_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Qatar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Comoros. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cape_Verde. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kenya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tanzania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zambia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Benin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Botswana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Namibia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rwanda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Togo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burundi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cote_d'Ivoire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malawi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mali. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Niger. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Angola. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burkina_Faso. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Djibouti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Eritrea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Swaziland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Dominica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea-Bissau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lesotho. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liberia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sao_Tome_and_Principe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Senegal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_The_Gambia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cameroon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Central_African_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Gabon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mozambique. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sierra_Leone. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Lucia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Equatorial_Guinea. ... The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ...

See also

Race Differences in Intelligence Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis is a 2006 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen (2006). IQ and Global Inequality. Washington Summit Publishers: Augusta, GA. ISBN 1593680252
  2. ^ a b Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97510-X

See also

Race Differences in Intelligence Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis is a 2006 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland. ... IQ and the Wealth of Nations IQ and the Wealth of Nations is a controversial 2002 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, and Dr. Tatu Vanhanen, Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen (2006). IQ and Global Inequality. Washington Summit Publishers: Augusta, GA. ISBN 1593680252
  2. ^ a b Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97510-X

 
 

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