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The five-layer TCP/IP model
5. Application layer

DHCPDNSFTPGopherHTTPIMAP4IRCNNTPXMPPMIMEPOP3SIPSMTPSNMPSSHTELNETRPC • RTP • RTCPTLS/SSLSDPSOAPVPN • PPTP • L2TPGTP • … The TCP/IP model or Internet reference model, sometimes called the DoD model (DoD, Department of Defense), ARPANET reference model, is a layered abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design. ... The application layer is the seventh level of the seven-layer OSI model. ... (DHCP) is a set of rules used by a communications device such as a computer, router or network adapter to allow the device to request and obtain an IP address from a server which has a list of addresses available for assignment. ... On the Internet, the Domain Name System (DNS) stores and associates many types of information with domain names; most importantly, it serves as the phone book for the internet, translating human-friendly domain names and computer hostnames, e. ... “FTP” redirects here. ... Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol designed for the Internet. ... Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on the World Wide Web. ... The Internet Message Access Protocol (commonly known as IMAP or IMAP4, and previously called Internet Mail Access Protocol, Interactive Mail Access Protocol (RFC 1064), and Interim Mail Access Protocol [1] ) is an application layer Internet protocol that allows a local client to access e-mail on a remote server. ... Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of real-time Internet chat or synchronous conferencing. ... The Network News Transfer Protocol or NNTP is an Internet application protocol used primarily for reading and posting Usenet articles, as well as transferring news among news servers. ... Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol, or XMPP, is an open, XML-based protocol for near real-time extensible messaging and presence events. ... Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet Standard that extends the format of e-mail to support: text in character sets other than US-ASCII; non-text attachments; multi-part message bodies; and header information in non-ASCII character sets. ... In computing, local e-mail clients use the Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3), an application-layer Internet standard protocol, to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. ... The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions with one or more participants. ... Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the de facto standard for e-mail transmissions across the Internet. ... The simple network management protocol (SNMP) forms part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). ... Secure Shell or SSH is a network protocol that allows data to be exchanged over a secure channel between two computers. ... For the packet switched network, see Telenet. ... Remote procedure call (RPC) is a protocol that allows a computer program running on one computer to cause a subroutine on another computer to be executed without the programmer explicitly coding the details for this interaction. ... The Real-time Transport Protocol (or RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet. ... RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) is a sister protocol of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Session Description Protocol (SDP), is a format for describing streaming media initialization parameters. ... This article is about the computer protocol. ... A Virtual Private Network, or VPN, is a private communications network usually used within a company, or by several different companies or organizations, communicating over a public network. ... The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a method for implementing virtual private networks. ... In computer networking, the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs). ... GPRS Tunneling Protocol (or GTP) is an IP based protocol used within GSM and UMTS networks. ...

4. Transport layer

TCPUDPDCCPSCTP • … In computing and telecommunications, the transport layer is layer four of the seven layer OSI model. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite, often simply referred to as TCP/IP. Using TCP, applications on networked hosts can create connections to one another, over which they can exchange streams of data using Stream Sockets. ... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) is a message-oriented transport layer protocol that is currently under development in the IETF. Applications that might make use of DCCP include those with timingconstraints on the delivery of data such that reliable in-order delivery, when combined with congestion control, is likely... In the field of computer networking, the IETF Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN) working group defined the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) as a transport layer protocol in 2000. ...

3. Internet layer

IP (IPv4IPv6) • IGMPICMPRSVPBGPRIPOSPFISISIPsecARPRARP • … The network layer is level three of the seven level OSI model. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... Internet Protocol version 4 is the fourth iteration of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. ... Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks. ... The Internet Group Management Protocol is a communications protocol used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups. ... The (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), described in RFC 2205, is a transport layer protocol designed to reserve resources across a network for an integrated services Internet. ... The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the core routing protocol of the Internet. ... This article is chiefly about the Routing Information Protocol for IPv4 and IPv6. ... The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is a hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for routing in Internet Protocol, using a link-state in the individual areas that make up the hierarchy. ... Intermediate system to intermediate system (IS-IS), is an IGP routing protocol originally designed for CLNS as part of the OSI protocol stack and described in ISO 10589 . ... IPsec (IP security) is a suite of protocols for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet in a data stream. ... In computer networking, the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the method for finding a hosts hardware address when only its network layer address is known. ... Reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) is a protocol used to resolve an IP address from a given hardware address (such as an Ethernet address). ...

2. Data link layer

802.11ATMDTMEthernetFDDIFrame RelayGPRS • EVDO • HSPA • HDLC • PPP • … The data link layer is layer two of the seven-layer OSI model as well as of the five-layer TCP/IP reference model. ... IEEE 802. ... Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, Circuit switching network and data link layer protocol which encodes data traffic into small (53 bytes; 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information) fixed-sized cells. ... Dynamic synchronous Transfer Mode , or DTM for short, is a network protocol. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operates at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... In computer networking, fiber-distributed data interface (FDDI) is a standard for data transmission in a local area network that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles). ... In the context of computer networking, frame relay (also found written as frame-relay) consists of an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information quickly and cheaply in a relay of frames to one or many destinations from one or many end-points. ... General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to users of GSM and IS-136 mobile phones. ... Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data only, abbreviated as EV-DO or EVDO and often EV, is one telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access. ... High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is a collection of mobile telephony protocols that extend and improve the performance of existing UMTS protocols. ... High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... In computing, the Point-to-Point Protocol, or PPP, is commonly used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. ...

1. Physical layer

Ethernet physical layerISDNModemsPLCSONET/SDHG.709WiMAX • … This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IEEE photograph of a diagram with the original terms for describing Ethernet drawn by Robert M. Metcalfe around 1976. ... // Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a circuit-switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds than that is available with the PSTN system. ... A modem (from modulate and demodulate) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... For other uses, see Power band. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled synchronous optical networking, SONET and SDH. (Discuss) Synchronous optical networking, is a method for communicating digital information using lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) over optical fiber. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... WiMAX is defined as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access by the WiMAX Forum, formed in June 2001 to promote conformance and interoperability of the IEEE 802. ...

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See also Ericsson IPX

Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is the OSI-model Network layer protocol in the IPX/SPX protocol stack. The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model for short) is a layered, abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design, developed as part of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) initiative. ... The network layer is level three of the seven level OSI model. ... For other senses of this word, see protocol. ... IPX/SPX stands for Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with communications protocol. ...

The IPX/SPX protocol stack is supported by Novell's NetWare network operating system. Because of Netware's popularity through the late 1980s into the mid 1990s, IPX became a popular internetworking protocol. Novell derived IPX from Xerox Network Services' IDP protocol. Novell was also the name of a road bicycle racing team. ... NetWare is a network operating system and the set of network protocols it uses to talk to client machines on the network. ... Network operating system (NOS): Software that (a) controls a network and its message (e. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Internetworking involves connecting two or more distinct computer networks together into an internetwork (often shortened to internet), using devices called routers to connect them together, to allow traffic to flow back and forth between them. ... Xerox network services (XNS) is a protocol stack which provided routing and packet delivery developed by Xerox at Xerox PARC in the later 1970s and early 1980s. ...

IPX usage is in general decline as the boom of the Internet has made TCP/IP nearly universal. Computers and networks can run multiple network protocols, so almost all IPX sites will be running TCP/IP as well to allow for Internet connectivity. It is also now possible to run Novell products without IPX, as they have supported both IPX and TCP/IP since NetWare reached version 5. The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ... In networking, a communications protocol or network protocol is the specification of a set of rules for a particular type of communication. ...

IPX addressing

  • Logical networks are assigned a unique 32-bit hexadecimal address in the range of 0x1 - 0xFFFFFFFE.
  • Hosts have a 48-bit node address which by default is set to the network interface card's MAC address. The node address is appended to the network address to create a unique identifier for the host on the network.

In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F, or a–f. ... In computer networking a Media Access Control address (MAC address) or hardware address or adapter address is a quasi-unique identifier attached to most network adapters (NICs). ...

Similarities with IP

The IPX network address is conceptually identical to the network part of the IP address (the parts with netmask bits set to 1); the node address then has the same meaning as the bits of IP address with netmask bits set to 0. As the node address is usually identical to the MAC address of the network adapter, the Address Resolution Protocol is not needed. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The word subnetwork has two related meanings. ... In computer networking, the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the method for finding a hosts hardware address when only its network layer address is known. ...

For routing, the entries in the IPX routing table are similar to IP routing tables; routing is done by network address, and for each network address a network:node of the next router is specified in a similar fashion an IP address/netmask is specified in IP routing tables. It has been suggested that Routing protocol be merged into this article or section. ... This article describes routing in computer networks, a method of finding paths from origins to destinations, along which information can be passed. ...

IPX over Ethernet

IPX can be transmitted over Ethernet using one of the following 4 encapsulation types:

  • 802.3 (raw) is used in legacy systems and involves IPX data starting immediately after 802.3 frame header. The packet starts with Destination Ethernet Address (6 bytes), Source Ethernet Address (6 bytes), Frame Length (2 bytes) followed by IPX data. Latter always starts with two 0xFF bytes (Checksum field), and this can be used to differentiate this type of IPX encapsulation from next two types.
  • 802.2 (Novell) comprises 802.3 frame header (destination, source, length) followed by LLC header (3 bytes - 0xE0, 0xE0, 0x03) followed by IPX data. 0xE0 fields of LLC header stand for 'Novell' protocol.
  • 802.2 (SNAP) comprises 802.3 frame header, LLC header (3 bytes - 0xAA, 0xAA, 0x03), SNAP header (5 bytes - 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x81, 0x37) and IPX data. 0xAA fields of LLC header stand for 'SNAP' protocol. First three bytes of SNAP header are OUI followed by 2 bytes of IPX EtherType.
  • Ethernet II comprises Ethernet II frame header (Destination, Source, EtherType) followed by IPX data.

  Results from FactBites:
RFC 1420 (rfc1420) - SNMP over IPX (703 words)
This specification describes the mapping of SNMP onto the Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) protocol [2] used in Novell NetWare environments.
Mapping SNMP onto IPX Mapping SNMP onto IPX is straight-forward since IPX provides a datagram service very similar to that provided by IP/UDP.
Furthermore, this limit is the maximum packet length guaranteed to traverse IPX routers which do not provide fragmentation.
Linux IPX-HOWTO (9909 words)
IPX is similar in functionality to the IP protocol used by the tcp/ip community.
IPX clients are given this number by the server when starting, they only require to know the correct frame type.
IPX does not use the concept of subnetworking and so the sort of associations that you have between network addresses and networks is different.
  More results at FactBites »



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