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Encyclopedia > IPTV

IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) is a system where a digital television service is delivered by using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection. A general definition of IPTV is television content that, instead of being delivered through traditional broadcast and cable formats, is received by the viewer through the technologies used for computer networks. Iowa Public Television (IPTV) is a statewide public broadcasting network of television stations in the state of Iowa. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Digital television (DTV) is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound by means of digital signals, in contrast to analog signals used by analog (traditional) TV. DTV uses digital modulation data, which is digitally compressed and requires decoding by a specially designed television set, or a... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... Broadband in telecommunications is a term that refers to a signaling method that includes or handles a relatively wide range of frequencies, which may be divided into channels or frequency bins. ...


For residential users, IPTV is often provided in conjunction with Video on Demand and may be bundled with Internet services such as Web access and VoIP. The commercial bundling of IPTV, VoIP and Internet access is referred to as "Triple Play" service (adding mobility is called "Quadruple Play"). IPTV is typically supplied by a service provider using a closed network infrastructure. This closed network approach is in competition with the delivery of TV content over the public Internet, called Internet Television. In businesses, IPTV may be used to deliver television content over corporate LANs. Video on demand (VOD) systems allow users to select and watch video and clip content over a network as part of an interactive television system. ... An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a business or organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services. ... IP Telephony, also called Internet telephony, is the technology that makes it possible to have a telephone conversation over the Internet or a dedicated Internet Protocol (IP) network instead of dedicated voice transmission lines. ... In telecommunications, the Triple Play service is a marketing term for the provisioning of the three services: high-speed Internet, television (Video on Demand or regular broadcasts) and telephone service over a single broadband connection. ... Internet television (or Internet TV) is television distributed via the Internet. ...

Contents

History

In 1994, ABC's World News Now was the first television show to be broadcast over the Internet, using the CU-SeeMe videoconferencing software. Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... More insomniacs get their news from World News Now vanity card; clear parody of the late 1990s More Americans get their news from ABC News bumpers. ... A television program (US), television programme (UK) or simply television show is a segment of programming in television broadcasting. ... CU-SeeMe is an internet video-conferencing client written by students at Cornell University. ... It has been suggested that H.331 be merged into this article or section. ...


The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept designed and built an internet video product named "IP/TV". IP/TV was an MBONE compatible Windows and Unix based application that moved single and multi-source audio/video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both unicast and IP multicast RTP/RTCP. The software was written primarily by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, and Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the "IP/TV" trademark. Judith L. Estrin is President and Chief Executive Officer of Packet Design, LLC, a company that she co-founded in May 2000 to develop networking technology. ... Mbone (short for multicast backbone) is an experimental backbone for IP Multicast traffic across the Internet. ...


Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January, 1998 and KCTU-LP on January 10, 1998.[1] Internet radio (aka e-Radio) is an audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. ... Broadcast. ... Live television refers to television broadcasts of events or performances on a delay of between zero and fifteen seconds, rather than from video recordings or film. ... A webcast is a live media file distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology. ... WFAA-TV (WFAA 8) is the ABC television affiliate serving the Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas DMA (5th largest nationwide). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... KCTU-LP is the i network affiliate in Wichita, Kansas. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in UK, launched KIT (Kingston Interactive Television), a DSL-based broadband interactive TV service in September 1999 after conducting various TV and VoD trials. The operator re-launched its VoD service in October 2001 via Yes TV, a provider of IP-based VoD service and solutions. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VOD over ADSL. Kingston Communications PLC is a telecommunications provider based in Kingston upon Hull serving primarily the East Yorkshire area. ...


In the past, this technology has been restricted by low broadband penetration. In the coming years, however, residential IPTV is expected to grow at a brisk pace as broadband was available to more than 200 million households worldwide in the year 2005, projected to grow to 400 million by the year 2010. Many of the world's major telecommunications providers are exploring IPTV as a new revenue opportunity from their existing markets and as a defensive measure against encroachment from more conventional Cable Television services. In the mean time, there are thousands of IPTV installations within schools, corporations, and other institutions that do not require the use of wide area connectivity.


It is important to note that historically there have been many different definitions of "IPTV" including elementary streams over IP networks, transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems. Although (in Mid 2007) it is premature to say that there is a full consensus of exactly what IPTV should mean, there is no doubt that the most widely used definition today is for single or multiple program transport streams which are sourced by the same network operator that owns or directly controls the "Final Mile" to the consumer's premises. This control over delivery enables a guaranteed quality of service, and also allows the service provider to offer an enhanced user experience such as better program guide, interactive services etc.


By contrast "Internet TV" generally refers to transport streams sent over IP networks (normally the Internet) from outside the network that connects to the users premises. An Internet TV provider has no control over the final delivery and so broadcasts on a "best effort" basis. Elementary streams over IP networks and proprietary variants as used by websites such as YouTube are now rarely considered to be IPTV services.


Architecture of IPTV

Broadcast IPTV has two major architecture forms: free and fee based. As of June 2006, there are over 1,300 free IPTV channels available. This sector is growing rapidly and major television broadcasters worldwide are transmitting their broadcast signal over the Internet. These free IPTV channels require only an Internet connection and an Internet enabled device such as a personal computer, HDTV connected to a computer or even a 3G cell/mobile phone to watch the IPTV broadcasts. See also: Internet television Mobile TV Internet television (or Internet TV) is television distributed via the Internet. ... Mobile TV is a name used to describe a service to subscribers via mobile telecommunications networks, most probably the mobile phone carriers. ...


In December 2005, independently produced mariposaHD became the first original IPTV broadcast available in an HDTV format. Various Web portals offer access to these free IPTV channels. Some cite the ad-sponsored availability of TV series such as Lost and Desperate Housewives as indicators that IPTV will become more prevalent. mariposaHD is the first high definition television program made to be distributed directly over the internet. ... “LOST” redirects here. ... Desperate Housewives is an American television comedy-drama series, created by Marc Cherry, who also serves as show runner, and produced by ABC Studios - The Walt Disney Companys main television studio - and Cherry Productions. ...


Because IPTV uses standard networking protocols, it promises lower costs for operators and lower prices for users. Using set-top boxes with broadband Internet connections, video can be streamed to households more efficiently than current coaxial cable. ISPs are upgrading their networks to bring higher speeds and to allow multiple High Definition TV channels. A set-top box (STB) or set-top unit (STU) is a device that connects to a television and an external source of signal, turning the signal into content which is then displayed on the television screen. ...


In 2006, AT&T launched its U-Verse IPTV service. Comprised of a national head end and regional video serving offices, AT&T offered over 300 channels in 11 cities with more to be added in 2007 and beyond. While using IP protocols, AT&T has built a private IP network exclusively for video transport. This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... AT&T U-verse is the brand name for a group of services provided over Internet Protocol (IP), including television service, Internet access, and eventually voice telephone service. ...


Local IPTV, as used by businesses for Audio Visual AV distribution on their company networks is typically based on a mixture of: a) Conventional TV reception equipment and IPTV encoders b) IPTV Gateways that take broadcast MPEG channels and IP wrap them to create multicast streams. AV may mean: Adult video, see Pornography AltaVista, a search engine Alterac Valley, a player versus player instance dungeon in the MMORPG World of Warcraft Alternative Vote, see Instant-runoff voting Angela Via, a singer Anguilla (FIPS 10-4 code) Anti-virus, see Anti-virus software Artificial vagina, a sex... An encoder is a device used to encode a signal (such as a bitstream) or data into a form that is acceptable for transmission or storage. ... Routing Schemes anycast broadcast multicast unicast Multicast is sometimes also used to refer to a multiplexed broadcast, although that is a very different thing and should not be confused. ...


IPTV uses a two-way digital broadcast signal sent through a switched telephone or cable network by way of a broadband connection and a set-top box programmed with software (much like a cable or DSS box) that can handle viewer requests to access to many available media sources.


Currently, California based UTStarcom, Inc. and Tennessee based Worley Consulting are two companies offering end-to-end networking infrastructure for IPTV-based services. UTStarcom is a Fortune 1000 company specialising in IP-based networking products. ...


Protocols

IPTV covers both live TV (multicasting) as well as stored video (Video on Demand VOD). The playback of IPTV requires either a personal computer or a set-top box connected to a TV. Video content is typically compressed using either a MPEG-2 or a MPEG-4 codec and then sent in an MPEG transport stream delivered via IP Multicast in case of live TV or via IP Unicast in case of Video on Demand. IP Multicast is a method in which information can be sent to multiple computers at the same time. The newly released (MPEG-4) H.264 codec is increasingly used to replace the older MPEG-2 codec. Live television refers to television broadcasts of events or performances as they are happening, or on a delay of several seconds, rather than from video recordings or film. ... Multicast is the delivery of information to multiple destinations simultaneously using the most efficient strategy to deliver the messages over each link of the network only once and only create copies when the links to the destinations split. ... A set-top box (STB) or set-top unit (STU) is a device that connects to a television and an external source of signal, turning the signal into content which is then displayed on the television screen. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... Multiple MPEG programs are combined then sent to a transmitting antenna. ... IP Multicast is a method of forwarding IP datagrams to a group of interested receivers. ... H.264 is a standard for video compression. ...


In standards-based IPTV systems, the primary underlying protocols used for:


Live TV is using IGMP version 2 for connecting to a multicast stream (TV channel) and for changing from one multicast stream to another (TV channel change). The Internet Group Management Protocol is a communications protocol used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups. ...


VOD is using the Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP). The Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), developed by the IETF and created in 1998 as RFC 2326, is a protocol for use in streaming media systems which allows a client to remotely control a streaming media server, issuing VCR-like commands such as play and pause, and allowing time-based...


Currently, the only alternatives to IPTV are traditional TV distribution technologies such as terrestrial, satellite and cable. However, cable can be upgraded to two-way capability and can thus also carry IPTV. Terrestrial television (also known as over-the-air, OTA or broadcast television) was the traditional method of television broadcast signal delivery prior to the advent of cable and satellite television. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cable (disambiguation). ...


NPVR (network-based Personal Video Recorder) NPVR is an acronym for Network Personal Video Recoder. ...


Network Personal Video Recording is a consumer service where real-time broadcast television is captured in the network on a server allowing the end user to access the recorded programs on the schedule of their choice, rather than being tied to the broadcast schedule. The NPVR system provides time-shifted viewing of broadcast programs, allowing subscribers to record and watch programs at their convenience, without the requirement of a truly personal PVR device. It could be compared as a "PVR that is built into the network" -- however that would be slightly misleading unless the word "Personal" is, of course, changed to "Public" for this context. PVR may refer to: Personal Video Recorder, also known as Digital Video Recorder. ...


Subscribers can choose from the programmes available in the network-based library, when they want, without needing yet another device or remote control. However, many people would still prefer to have their own PVR device, as it would allow them to choose exactly what they want to record. This bypasses the strict copyright and licensing regulations, as well as other limitations, that often prevent the network itself from providing "on demand" access to certain programmes (see Heroes, below). Heroes is an American science fiction drama television series created by Tim Kring. ...


In the UK, Virgin Media (the cable TV brand which also provides telephone, Internet and cellular services) has such an NPVR service called "Virgin On Demand". It currently provides access to a limited-but-growing volume of documentaries, films, drama series and music videos "on cue"; however it is important to take into account the technological limitations which can result in noticeable delays during playback, and in response to the "pause", "rewind" and "fast forward" features that it shares in common with VCRs and DVD Players. There is a smaller library of selected programmes that is available to all customers of the cable TV service for no additional fee, but it is more limited in variety and is intended as a "Catch Up" archive consisting only of programmes that aired within the last seven days. Virgin Media Inc. ... A pause is a rest, break, or temporary stop. ... Look up rewind in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fast Forward was an Australian commercial television sketch comedy show that ran for 95 episodes from 12 April 1989 to 26 November 1992. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... The inside of a DVD player A DVD player is a device not only playing discs produced under the DVD Video standard but also playing discs under the standard of DVD Audio. ...


Advantages

The IP-based platform offers significant advantages, including the ability to integrate television with other IP-based services like high speed Internet access and VoIP.


A switched IP network also allows for the delivery of significantly more content and functionality. In a typical TV or satellite network, using broadcast video technology, all the content constantly flows downstream to each customer, and the customer switches the content at the set-top box. The customer can select from as many choices as the telecomms, cable or satellite company can stuff into the “pipe” flowing into the home. A switched IP network works differently. Content remains in the network, and only the content the customer selects is sent into the customer’s home. That frees up bandwidth, and the customer’s choice is less restricted by the size of the “pipe” into the home. This also implies that the customer's privacy could be compromised to a greater extent than is possible with traditional TV or satellite networks. It may also provide a means to hack into, or at least disrupt (see Denial of Service) the private network. A denial-of-service attack (also, DoS attack) is an attack on a computer system or network that causes a loss of service to users, typically the loss of network connectivity and services by consuming the bandwidth of the victim network or overloading the computational resources of the victim system. ...


Interactivity

An IP-based platform also allows significant opportunities to make the TV viewing experience more interactive and personalized. The supplier may, for example, include an interactive program guide that allows viewers to search for content by title or actor’s name, or a picture-in-picture functionality that allows them to “channel surf” without leaving the program they’re watching. Viewers may be able to look up a player’s stats while watching a sports game, or control the camera angle. They also may be able to access photos or music from their PC on their television, use a wireless phone to schedule a recording of their favorite show, or even adjust parental controls so their child can watch a documentary for a school report, while they’re away from home. Picture in Picture (PIP) allows you to watch more than one TV program(channel) at the same time on television sets or other devices. ...


Note that this is all possible, to some degree, with existing digital terrestrial, satellite and cable networks in tandem with modern set top boxes. The term set-top box describes a device that connects to a television and some external source of signal, and turns the signal into content then displayed on the screen. ...


VoD

VoD stands for Video on Demand. VoD permits a customer to browse an online programme or film catalogue, to watch trailers and to then select a selected recording for playback. The playout of the selected movie starts nearly instantaneously on the customer's TV or PC. Playout is a term in broadcasting for the transmission of radio or TV channels from the broadcaster into the networks that delivers them to the audience. ...


Technically, when the customer selects the movie, a point-to-point unicast connection is set up between the customer's decoder (SetTopBox or PC) and the delivering streaming server. The signalling for the trick play functionality (pause, slow-motion, wind/rewind etc.) is assured by RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol). Point-to-Point telecommunications is most recently (2003) referenced regarding wireless data communications for Internet or Voice over IP via radio frequencies in the multi-gigahertz range. ...


The most common codecs used for VoD are MPEG-2, MPEG-4 and VC-1. VC-1 is the informal name of the SMPTE 421M video codec standard initially developed by Microsoft. ...


In an attempt to avoid content piracy, the VoD content is usually encrypted. Whilst encryption of satellite and cable TV broadcasts is an old practice, with IPTV technology it can effectively be thought of as a form of Digital Rights Management. A film that is chosen, for example, may be playable for 24 hours following payment, after which time it becomes unavailable. Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and other copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ...


IPTV based Converged Services

Another advantage of an IP-based network is the opportunity for integration and convergence. Converged services implies interaction of existing services in a seamless manner to create new value added services. One good example is On-Screen Caller ID, getting Caller ID on your TV and the ability to handle it (send it to voice mail, etc). IP-based services will help to enable efforts to provide consumers anytime-anywhere access to content over their televisions, PCs and cell phones, and to integrate services and content to tie them together. Within businesses and institutions, IPTV eliminates the need to run a parallel infrastructure to deliver live and stored video services.


Limitations

Because IPTV requires real-time data transmission and uses the Internet Protocol, it is sensitive to packet loss and delays if the IPTV connection is not fast enough or picture break-up or loss if the streamed data is unreliable. This latter problem has proved particularly troublesome when attempting to stream IPTV across wireless links. Improvements in wireless technology are now starting to provide equipment to solve the problem.


See also

JumpTV is an online television service provider. ... Babelgum is software developed by Babel Networks, a venture of Silvio Scaglia (one of the founders of Fastweb) started in 2005 with the aim to develop interactive software for distributing TV shows and other forms of video over the Web using peer-to-peer tv technology. ... BT Vision is a service provided in the United Kingdom supplied by BT Group. ... DVB-IPTV is an open DVB standard that enable Audio/Video services to be delivered to and through the home via Internet Protocol networking. ... Hanaro Telecom, Inc. ... Internet television (or Internet TV) is television distributed via the Internet. ... Veoh is a San Diego, California-based company that has created a peercasting network for video clip distribution. ... Joost (IPA pronunciation: [1] jew-st) is a system for distributing TV shows and other forms of video over the Web using peer-to-peer TV technology, created by Niklas Zennström and Janus Friis (founders of Skype and Kazaa). ... Continuous Computing is a company headquartered in San Diego, California that provides integrated systems and services to telecom equipment manufacturers. ... The LinuxTV project is an informal group of volunteers who develop software related to digital television for the Linux operating system. ... Mobile TV is a name used to describe a service to subscribers via mobile telecommunications networks, most probably the mobile phone carriers. ... Microsoft Mediaroom is the latest update of the Microsoft TV IPTV Edition platform software, intended for use in a set-top box to access on-demand as well as live television programming on an IPTV network. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... nunet is a global provider of mobile and IPTV video management solutions for broadcasters, media brands and Mobile Network Operators. ... The term P2PTV refers to peer-to-peer software applications designed to redistribute video streams or files on a p2p network, typically TV stations across the world. ... Tiscali TV is a UK-based consumer Video on Demand service, operated by the European telephony company, Tiscali SpA. The service, originally known as Homechoice, was provided by Video Networks Limited (VNL), based in Shepherds Bush in West London, until it was purchased by Tiscali UK in August 2006... AT&T U-verse is the brand name for a group of services provided over Internet Protocol (IP), including television service, Internet access, and eventually voice telephone service. ... VDC Corporation, based in Northbrook, Illinois, is the first company to deliver Television On the Desktop, or TOD, programming over IP to desktop computers, cell phones, and mobile devices. ... Zattoo is a proprietary peer-to-peer Internet Protocol Television system (P2PTV) with current focus on European channels, licensed content, and Digital Rights Management. ... IPTriplePlay Ltd or IPTP - is young Telecommunication company. ...

References

  1. ^ http://wichita.bizjournals.com/wichita/stories/1998/02/16/focus1.html
  • Securing Converged IP Networks, Tyson Macaulay, Auerbach 2006 (ISBN 0849375800)
  • "Does Video Delivered Over A Telephone Network Require A Cable Franchise?" AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
IPTV World Forum Asia - Home (950 words)
IPTV is evolving and the demand for triple-play and quad-play bundles, for integrated telecoms/media services like voicemail and instant messaging on the TV, and for content portability across multiple networks, is a common theme.
Linear schedules are still important but the real differentiator for IPTV is on-demand video, interactive TV, interactive advertising, on-demand advertising, time-shifting and the way service providers can help content owners target their advertiser audience in an age of media fragmentation and niche audience groups.
It will also help delegates prepare for phase two of IPTV, which is when broadband service providers have the chance to turn their telecoms heritage from a disadvantage in the content/media world to a compelling benefit in an era that will be dominated by convergence and network intelligence.
An introduction to IPTV: Page 1 (1488 words)
IPTV describes a system capable of receiving and displaying a video stream encoded as a series of Internet Protocol packets.
When most people discuss IPTV, though, they're talking about watching traditional channels on your television, where people demand a smooth, high-resolution, lag-free picture, and it's the telcos that are jumping headfirst into this market.
For IPTV to become a viable whole-house solution, it will also need to support enough simultaneous channels to allow televisions in different rooms to display different content, and juggling resulting bandwidth issues is one of the trickiest parts of implementing an IPTV network that will be attractive to consumers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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