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The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. Every health condition can be assigned to a unique category and given a code, up to six characters long. Such categories can include a set of similar diseases. It has been suggested that Refractory disease be merged into this article or section. ...


The International Classification of Diseases is published by the World Health Organization (a.k.a. WHO). The ICD is used world-wide for morbidity and mortality statistics, reimbursement systems and automated decision support in medicine. This system is designed to promote international comparability in the collection, processing, classification, and presentation of these statistics. The ICD is a core classification of the WHO Family of International Classifications (WHO-FIC). The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... In medicine, epidemiology and actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of being diseased (from Latin morbidus: sick, unhealthy), the degree or severity of a disease, the prevalence of a disease: the total number of cases in a particular population at a particular point in time, the...


An important alternative to ICD coding is the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), which is the primary diagnostic system for psychiatric and psychological disorders within the United States and is used as an adjunct diagnostic system in many other countries. Since the 1990s, the APA and WHO have worked to bring the DSM and the relevant sections of ICD into concordance, but some small differences remain. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the most influential world-wide. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The poopDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States. ...


The ICD is revised periodically and is currently in its tenth edition. The ICD-10, as it is therefore known, was developed in 1992 to track mortality statistics. Annual minor updates and three yearly major updates are published by WHO.

Contents

History

In 1893, a French physician, Jacques Bertillon, introduced the Bertillon Classification of Causes of Death at the International Statistical Institute in Chicago. A number of countries adopted Dr. Bertillon’s system, and in 1898, the American Public Health Association (APHA) recommended that the registrars of Canada, Mexico, and the United States also adopt it. The APHA also recommended revising the system every ten years to ensure the system remained current with medical practice advances. As a result, the first international conference to revise the International Classification of Causes of Death convened in 1900; with revisions occurring every ten years thereafter. At that time the classification system was contained in one book, which included an Alphabetic Index as well as a Tabular List. The book was small compared with current coding texts. Jacques Bertillon (1851-1922) was a French statistician and demographer. ... The American Public Health Association (APHA) is a professional organization for public health professionals in the United States. ...


The revisions that followed contained minor changes, until the sixth revision of the classification system. With the sixth revision, the classification system expanded to two volumes. The sixth revision included morbidity and mortality conditions, and its title was modified to reflect the changes: Manual of International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death (ICD). Prior to the sixth revision, responsibility for ICD revisions fell to the Mixed Commission, a group composed of representatives from the International Statistical Institute and the Health Organization of the League of Nations. In 1948, the World Health Organization (WHO) assumed responsibility for preparing and publishing the revisions to the ICD every ten years. WHO sponsored the seventh and eighth revisions in 1957 and 1968, respectively. The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ...


In 1959, the U.S. Public Health Service published The International Classification of Diseases, Adapted for Indexing of Hospital Records and Operation Classification (ICDA). It was completed in 1962 and a revision of this adaptation – considered to be the seventh revision of ICD – expanded a number of areas to more completely meet the indexing needs of hospitals. The U.S. Public Health Service later published the Eighth Revision, International Classification of Diseases, Adapted for Use in the United States. Commonly referred to as ICDA-8, this classification system fulfilled its purpose to code diagnostic and operative procedural data for official morbidity and mortality statistics in the United States. The United States Public Health Service (PHS) was founded first by President John Adams as a loose network of hospitals to support the health of American seamen. ...


ICD-9

The ICD-9 was published by the WHO in 1977. At this time, the National Center for Health Statistics created an extension of it so the system could be used to capture more morbidity data and a section of procedure codes was added [1]. This extension was called "ICD-9-CM", with the CM standing for "Clinical Modification". National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is one of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... In medicine, epidemiology and actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of being diseased (from Latin morbidus: sick, unhealthy), the degree or severity of a disease, the prevalence of a disease: the total number of cases in a particular population at a particular point in time, the... Procedure codes are numbers or alphanumeric codes used to identify specific health interventions taken by medical professionals. ...


ICD-9 consists of two or three volumes:

  • Volumes 1 and 2 contain diagnosis codes. (Volume 1 is a tabular listing, and volume 2 is an index.) Extended for ICD-9-CM
  • Volume 3 contains procedure codes. ICD-9-CM only

According to the World Health Organization Department of Knowledge Management and Sharing, the WHO no longer publishes or distributes the ICD-9 which is now public domain.[citation needed] The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... In medicine, Diagnostic codes are used to group and identify diseases, disorders, symptoms, and medical signs, and are used to measure morbidity and mortality. ... ICD-9-CM Volume 3 is a system of Procedural codes. ... Procedure codes are numbers or alphanumeric codes used to identify specific health interventions taken by medical professionals. ...


ICD-9-CM

The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) is based on the World Health Organization's Ninth Revision, International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9). ICD-9-CM is the official system of assigning codes to diagnoses and procedures associated with hospital utilization in the United States.


The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services are the U.S. governmental agencies responsible for overseeing all changes and modifications to the ICD-9-CM.

See also: List of ICD-9-CM codes

ICD-10

Work on ICD-10 began in 1983 and was completed in 1992 [2].) 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


Links to diseases can be assessed from: List of ICD-10 codes. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ...


Adoption was relatively swift in most of the world, but not in the United States. Since 1988, the USA had required ICD-9-CM codes for Medicare and Medicaid claims, and most of the rest of the American medical industry followed suit. President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... Medicaid is the US health insurance program for individuals and families with low incomes and resources. ...


On 1 January 1999 the ICD-10 (without clinical extensions) was adopted for reporting mortality, but ICD-9-CM was still used for morbidity. Meanwhile, NCHS received permission from the WHO to create a clinical modification of the ICD-10, and has produced drafts of the following two systems: January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... In medicine, epidemiology and actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of being diseased (from Latin morbidus: sick, unhealthy), the degree or severity of a disease, the prevalence of a disease: the total number of cases in a particular population at a particular point in time, the...

  • ICD-10-CM, for diagnosis codes, is intended to replace volumes 1 and 2. A draft was completed in 2003.
  • ICD-10-PCS, for procedure codes, is intended to replace volume 3. A final draft was completed in 2000.

However, neither of these systems is currently in place. There is not yet an anticipated implementation date to phase out the use of ICD-9-CM. There will be a two year implementation window once the final notice to implement has been published in the Federal Register. [3]. A detailed timeline is provided here. In medicine, Diagnostic codes are used to group and identify diseases, disorders, symptoms, and medical signs, and are used to measure morbidity and mortality. ... The ICD-10 Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) is a system of medical classification used for Procedural codes. ... Procedure codes are numbers or alphanumeric codes used to identify specific health interventions taken by medical professionals. ... The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ...


Other countries have created their own extensions to ICD-10. For example, Australia introduced their first edition of "ICD-10-AM" in 1998, and Canada introduced "ICD-10-CA" in 2000.


Current use

ICD has become the most widely used statistical classification system in the world. Although some countries found ICD sufficient for hospital indexing purposes, many others felt that it did not provide adequate detail for diagnostic indexing. The original revisions of ICD also did not provide procedure codes for classification of operative or diagnostic procedures. As a result, interested persons in the United States began to develop their own adaptation of ICD for use in the United States. Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Procedure codes are numbers or alphanumeric codes used to identify specific health interventions taken by medical professionals. ...


Hospitals and other healthcare facilities index healthcare data by referring and adhering to a classification system published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). The Clinical Modification or CM system was developed and implemented in order to better describe the clinical picture of the patient. The CM codes are more precise than those needed only for statistical groupings and trend analysis. The diagnosis component of ICD-9-CM is completely consistent with ICD-9 codes.


Note that ICD-10 was adopted in 1999 for reporting mortality, but the ICD-9-CM remains the data standard for reporting morbidity. Revisions of the ICD-10 have progressed to incorporate both clinical code (ICD-10-CM) and procedure code (ICD-10-PCS) with the revisions completed in 2003. However, ICD-9 has not been phased out by the new revision.


Public data reporting

The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) is a US based non-profit organization formed in 1951 with a mission to maintain and elevate the standards of healthcare delivery through evaluation and accreditation of healthcare organizations. ... It has been suggested that Health Care Financing Administration be merged into this article or section. ...

USA

The years for which causes of death in the United States have been classified by each revision as follows:

  • ICD-1 - 1900
  • ICD-2 - 1910
  • ICD-3 - 1921
  • ICD-4 - 1930
  • ICD-5 - 1939
  • ICD-6 - 1949
  • ICD-7 - 1958
  • ICD-8A - 1968
  • ICD-9 - 1979
  • ICD-10 - 1999

See also

The Current Procedural Terminology is the list maintained by the American Medical Association to provide unique billing codes for services rendered. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The poopDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th. ... In general, a diagnosis (plural diagnoses) covers a broad spectrum, or spectra, of testing in some form of analysis; such tests based on some collective reasoning is called the method of diagnostics, leading then to the results of those tests by ideal (ethics) would then be considered a diagnosis, but... Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) are a classification of hospital case types into groups expected to have similar hospital resource use. ... The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) is a classification method for primary care encounter classification. ... Medical classification systems are used for a variety of applications in medicine and medical informatics statistical analysis of diseases and therapeutic actions reimbursement e. ... MedDRA or Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities is the international medical terminology for all phases of the drug development process. ...

External links

ICD-9

Overview

Look up codes

ICD-10

Overview

Look up codes

Updates

Conversion between ICD-9-CM-A and ICD-10-AM

  • Excel spreadsheets with ICD-10-AM to ICD-9-CM-A and vice versa

  Results from FactBites:
 
WHO | International Classification of Diseases (ICD) (295 words)
WHO took over the responsibility for the ICD at its creation in 1948 when the Sixth Revision, which included causes of morbidity for the first time, was published.
The ICD has become the international standard diagnostic classification for all general epidemiological and many health management purposes.
In addition to enabling the storage and retrieval of diagnostic information for clinical and epidemiological purposes, these records also provide the basis for the compilation of national mortality and morbidity statistics by WHO Member States.
OpenClinical: ICD: International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (1023 words)
The history of the ICD extends back to the late 19th century, when the need for standardizing classification concepts and terminology was recognized by the medical community in Europe.
ICD is divided into categories based on a five digit code (which limits the size of the vocabulary), where round numbers represent the more general concepts.
The purpose of the ICD is to permit the systematic analysis, interpretation and comparison of mortality and morbidity data collected in different countries or areas and at different times.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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