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Encyclopedia > IBM mainframe
IBM mainframe Architecture
700/7000 series varied
System/360
System/370 System/370
S/370-XA
ESA/370
System/390 ESA/390
zSeries z/Architecture
System z9
System z10
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SAS 8 on an IBM mainframe, seen here via one of its user interfaces, classic 3270 emulation.
SAS 8 on an IBM mainframe, seen here via one of its user interfaces, classic 3270 emulation.

IBM mainframes, though perceived as synonymous with mainframe computers in general due to their marketshare, are now technically and specifically IBM's line of business computers that can all trace their design evolution to the IBM System/360. A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... The IBM 700/7000 series was a series of incompatible large scale (mainframe) computer systems made by IBM through the 1950s and early 1960s. ... System/360 Model 65 operators console, with register value lamps and toggle switches (middle of picture) and emergency pull switch (upper right). ... The IBM System/370 (often: S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframes announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family. ... The IBM System/370 (often: S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframes announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family. ... The IBM System/370 (often: S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframes announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family. ... The IBM System/370 (often: S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframes announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family. ... IBM ESA/390 (Enterprise Systems Architecture/390) has been introduced in the 1990s and is IBMs last 31-bit-address/32-bit-data mainframe computing design, copied by Amdahl, Hitachi, and Fujitsu among other competitors. ... IBM ESA/390 (Enterprise Systems Architecture/390) has been introduced in the 1990s and is IBMs last 31-bit-address/32-bit-data mainframe computing design, copied by Amdahl, Hitachi, and Fujitsu among other competitors. ... IBM System z9 Enterprise Class System z9 is the newest and most powerful line of IBM mainframes. ... z/Architecture (formerly known as ESAME) refers to IBMs 64-bit computing architecture for its top-of-the-line enterprise servers. ... IBM System z9 Enterprise Class IBM System z9 is the newest and most powerful line of IBM mainframes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x739, 16 KB)IBM mainframe SAS 8 running under 3270 emulation (With blocky font and 80 cols for better rendering of thumbnail. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x739, 16 KB)IBM mainframe SAS 8 running under 3270 emulation (With blocky font and 80 cols for better rendering of thumbnail. ... The SAS System (originally Statistical Analysis System) is an integrated system of software products provided by SAS Institute that enables the programmer to perform: data entry, retrieval, management, and mining report writing and graphics statistical and mathematical analysis business planning, forecasting, and decision support operations research and project management quality... Clemson Universitys library catalog displayed in a 3270 emulation program The IBM 3270 is a class of terminals made by IBM since 1972 (known as Display Devices) normally used to communicate with IBM mainframes. ... Mainframes (often colloquially referred to as big iron) are large and expensive computers used mainly by government institutions and large companies for legacy applications, typically bulk data processing (such as censuses, industry/consumer statistics, ERP, and bank transaction processing). ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... System/360 Model 65 operators console, with register value lamps and toggle switches (middle of picture) and emergency pull switch (upper right). ...

Contents

First and second generation

From 1952 into the late 1960s, IBM manufactured and marketed several large computer models, known as the IBM 700/7000 series. The first-generation 700s were based on vacuum tubes, while the later, second-generation 7000s used transistors. These machines established IBM's dominance in electronic data processing. IBM had two model categories: one (701, 704, 709, 7090, 7040) for engineering and scientific use, and one (702, 705, 7080, 7070, 7010) for commercial or data processing use. The two categories, scientific and commercial, generally used common peripherals but had completely different instruction sets, and there were incompatibilities even within each category. Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... The IBM 700/7000 series was a series of incompatible large scale (mainframe) computer systems made by IBM through the 1950s and early 1960s. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... An instruction set is (a list of) all instructions, and all their variations, that a processor can execute. ...


IBM initially sold its computers without any software, expecting customers to write their own; programs were manually initiated, one at a time. Later, IBM provided compilers for the newly developed higher-level programming languages Fortran and COBOL. The first operating systems for IBM computers were written by IBM customers who did not wish to have their very expensive machines ($2M USD in the mid-1950s) sitting idle while operators set up jobs manually, and so they wanted a mechanism for maintaining a queue of jobs. It is generally thought that the first operating system used for real work was GM-NAA I/O, produced by General Motors' Research division in 1956.[1] IBM enhanced one of GM-NAA I/O's successors and provided it to customers under the name IBSYS.[2][3] As software became more complex and important, the cost of supporting it on so many different designs became burdensome, and this was one of the factors which led IBM to develop System/360 and its operating systems.[4] A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... COBOL (pronounced //) is a Third-generation programming language, and one of the oldest programming languages still in active use. ... The GM-NAA I/O input/output system of General Motors and North American Aviation was the first operating system in the history of computer science. ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds most dominant automaker since 1931. ... IBSYS was the tape based operating system that IBM supplied with its IBM 7090 and IBM 7094 computers. ... System/360 Model 65 operators console, with register value lamps and toggle switches (middle of picture) and emergency pull switch (upper right). ...


The second generation (transistor-based) products were a mainstay of IBM's business and IBM continued to make them for several years after the introduction of the System/360. (Some IBM 7094s remained in service into the 1980s.) The IBM 7094 the fourth member of the most popular family of IBMs large second-generation transistorized mainframe computers and was designed for large-scale scientific and technological applications. The first 7094 installation was in September 1962. ...


Smaller machines

Prior to System/360, IBM also sold computers smaller in scale that were not considered mainframes, though they were still bulky and expensive by modern standards. These included:

  • IBM 650 (vacuum tube logic, decimal architecture, business and scientific)
  • IBM RAMAC 305 (vacuum tube logic, first computer with disk storage; see: Early IBM disk storage)
  • IBM 1400 series (business data processing; very successful and many 1400 peripherals were used with the 360s)
  • IBM 1620 (decimal architecture, engineering, scientific, and education)

IBM had difficulty getting customers to upgrade from the smaller machines to the mainframes because so much software had to be rewritten. The 7010 was introduced in 1962 as a mainframe-sized 1410. The later Systems 360 and 370 could emulate the 1400 machines. A desk size machine with a different instruction set, the IBM 1130, was released concurrent with the System/360 to address the 1620's niche. It used the same EBCDIC character encoding as the 360 and was mostly programmed in Fortran, which was relatively easy to adapt to larger machines when necessary. IBM 650 front panel, showing bi-quinary indicators IBM 650 front panel, rear view The IBM 650 was one of IBM’s early computers, and the world’s first mass-produced computer. ... IBM 305 at U. S. Army Red River Arsenal The IBM RAMAC 305 was the first commercial computer that used magnetic disk storage. ... Magnetic disk storage is a critical component of the computer revolution. ... The IBM 1400 series was a family of mid-range buisiness computers that IBM sold in the early 1960s as a replacement for unit record equipment. ... The IBM 1620 was announced by IBM on October 21, 1959 and marketed as an inexpensive scientific computer. It was withdrawn on November 19, 1970. ... IBM 1130 Console, restoration in progress. ...


Midrange computer is a designation used by IBM for a class of computer systems which fall in between mainframes and microcomputers. Midrange computer is a designation used by IBM for a class of computer systems which fall in between mainframes and microcomputers. ...


IBM System/360

All that changed with the announcement of the System/360 (S/360) in April, 1964[5]. The System/360 was a single series of compatible models for both commercial and scientific use. The number "360" suggested a "360 degree," or "all-around" computer system. System/360 incorporated features which had previously been present on only either the commercial line (such as decimal arithmetic and byte addressing) or the technical line (such as floating point arithmetic).[6] The System/360 was also the first computer in wide use to include dedicated hardware provisions for the use of operating systems. Among these were supervisor and application mode programs and instructions, as well as built-in memory protection facilities.[7] The new machine also had a larger address space than the older mainframes, 24 bits vs. a typical 18 bits. 360(Three hundred sixty) is the natural number following 359 and preceding 361. ... This article describes the unit of angle. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a physical or virtual memory register, a network host, peripheral device, disk sector or other logical or physical entity. ...


The smaller models in the System/360 line (e.g. the 360/30) were intended to replace the 1400 series while providing an easier upgrade path to the larger 360s. To smooth the transition from second generation to the new line, IBM used the 360's microprogramming capability to emulate the more popular older models. Thus 360/30s with this added cost feature could run 1401 programs and the larger 360/65s could run 7094 programs. To run old programs, the 360 had to be halted and restarted in emulation mode. Many customers kept using their old software and one of the features of the later System/370 was the ability to switch to emulation mode and back under operating system control. A microprogram is a program consisting of microcode that controls the different parts of a computers central processing unit (CPU). ...


Operating systems for the System/360 family and its successors included OS/360 (with PCP, MFT, and MVT), BOS, TOS, DOS, and SVS. The original OS/360 and early MVS and VM/CMS versions did not include a copyright literal in the object code and therefore not protected by U.S. Copyright Laws and are available for free use. OS/360 was a batch processing operating system developed by IBM for their then-new System/360 mainframe computer, announced in 1964. ... DOS/360 was the operating system announced by IBM at the low end for the System/360 in 1964 and delivered in 1965 or 1966. ... MVS (Multiple Virtual Storage) was the most commonly used operating system on the System/370 and System/390 IBM mainframe computers. ... VM/CMS (Virtual Machine/Conversational Monitor System, originally called CP/CMS when it first appeared) is a bundled pair of operating systems used on IBM System/360, System/370, System/390, zSeries, and System z9 mainframes (and compatible systems). ...


The System/360 later evolved into the System/370, the System/390, the zSeries, and the System z9. IBM logo The IBM System/370 (often: S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframes announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... An IBM z890 mainframe IBM eServer zSeries is a brand name of IBM which was designated to all IBM mainframes in 2000 with the e depicted in IBMs well-known red trademarked symbol. ... IBM System z9 System z9 is the newest and most powerful line of IBM mainframes. ...


Today's Systems

Main article: System z10

Processor units

The different processors on a current IBM mainframes are:

There are other supporting processors typically installed inside mainframes such as cryptographic accelerators (CryptoExpress), the OSA-Express networking processor, and FICON Express disk I/O processors. CPU redirects here. ... The Integrated Facility for Linux (IFL) is an IBM mainframe processor dedicated to running the Linux operating system, with or without z/VM. IFLs are one of two types of mainframe processors expressly designed to reduce software costs. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... VM is an early and influential virtual machine operating system from IBM, apparently the first true virtual machine system. ... In IBM mainframe computers, a Coupling Facility or CF is a piece of computer hardware which allows multiple processors to access the same data. ... In computing, a Parallel Sysplex is a cluster of IBM mainframes acting together in a single system image, usually with z/OS. A Parallel Sysplex combines data sharing (typically using Peer to Peer Remote Copy) and parallel computing to allow a cluster of up to 32 computers to share a... In computer science, channel I/O is a generic term that refers to an advanced, high-performance input/output architecture that is implemented in various forms on a number of computer architectures, especially on mainframe computers. ... zAAP is the zSeries Application Assist Processor, a mainframe processor introduced by IBM in 2004. ... Java language redirects here. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... zIIP is an acronym for the IBM System z9 Integrated Information Processor. ... DB2® is IBMs family of information management software products. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... IPsec (IP security) is a suite of protocols for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet in a data stream. ... Cryptography (from Greek kryptós, hidden, and gráphein, to write) is, traditionally, the study of means of converting information from its normal, comprehensible form into an incomprehensible format, rendering it unreadable without secret knowledge — the art of encryption. ... FICON (Fiber Connectivity) is the IBM proprietary name for the ANSI FC-SB-3 (Single-Byte Command Code Sets-3 Mapping Protocol) for Fibre Channel protocol. ...


Mainframes in General

Main article: mainframe computer

For other uses, see Mainframe. ...

Operating Systems

The primary operating systems in use on current IBM mainframes include z/OS (which followed MVS and OS/390), z/VM (previously VM/CMS), z/VSE, z/TPF, and Linux on zSeries. A few systems run MUSIC/SP and UTS (Mainframe UNIX). There are software-based emulators for the System/370, System/390, zSeries, and System z9 hardware, including FLEX-ES and the freely available Hercules emulator which runs under Linux and Microsoft Windows. As of mid-2007, Sine Nomine Associates expects to introduce OpenSolaris on System z.[8] An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... z/OS Welcome Screen seen through a terminal emulator The title of this article begins with a capital letter due to technical limitations. ... MVS (Multiple Virtual Storage) was the most commonly used operating system on the System/370 and System/390 IBM mainframe computers. ... OS/390 is an IBM operating system for the System/370 and System/390 IBM mainframe computers. ... VM is an early and influential virtual machine operating system from IBM, apparently the first true virtual machine system. ... VM/CMS (Virtual Machine/Conversational Monitor System, originally called CP/CMS when it first appeared) is a bundled pair of operating systems used on IBM System/360, System/370, System/390, zSeries, and System z9 mainframes (and compatible systems). ... VSE (Virtual Storage Extended) is an operating system on the IBM System/370 and System/390 mainframe computers. ... TPF is also the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder project. ... Linux on zSeries (or Linux on System z9) is the preferred collective term for the Linux operating system and GNU/Linux software compiled to run on IBM mainframes, especially zSeries servers. ... MUSIC/SP (Multi-User System for Interactive Computing / System Product) was developed at McGill University in the late 1960s from an IBM system called RAX (Remote Access). ... UTS is an implementation of the UNIX System V, Release 4 (SVR4) operating system for IBM mainframe (and compatible) computers. ... Hercules logo The Hercules emulator is an emulator for the IBM mainframe hardware: the System/370, System/390 and zSeries computers. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Windows redirects here. ...


Middleware

Current IBM mainframes run all the major enterprise transaction processing environments and databases, including CICS, IMS, WebSphere Application Server, DB2, and Oracle. In many cases these software subsystems can run on more than one mainframe operating system. In computer science, transaction processing is information processing that is divided into individual, indivisible operations, called Each transaction must succeed or fail as a complete unit; it cannot remain in an intermediate state. ... This article is about computing. ... CICS (Customer Information Control System) is a transaction server that runs primarily on IBM mainframe systems under z/OS or z/VSE. CICS on distributed platforms is called TXSeries and it is available on AIX, Windows, Solaris and HP-UX. CICS is also available on other operating systems, notably i5... Information Management System (IMS) is a joint hierarchical database and information management system. ... WebSphere refers to a brand of proprietary IBM software products, although the term also popularly refers to one specific product: WebSphere Application Server (WAS). ... DB2 is one of IBMs lines of relational database management system (or, as IBM now calls it, data server) software products within IBMs broader Information Management Software line. ... The term Oracle database may refer either to the database management system (DBMS) software released by Oracle Corporation as Oracle RDBMS, or to any of the individual databases managed by such software. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ...


See also

The following is a list of products from the International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation and its predecessor corporations, beginning in the 1890s, and spanning punched card machinery, time clocks, and typewriters, via mainframe computers and minicomputers, to microprocessors, PCs, laptop PCs, and more. ... Amdahl Corporation was founded by Dr. Gene Amdahl, a former IBM employee, in 1970, and specializes in IBM mainframe-compatible computer products. ... Midrange computer is a designation used by IBM for a class of computer systems which fall in between mainframes and microcomputers. ...

References

  • Prasad, Nallur (1994). IBM Mainframes: Architecture and Design, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. ISBN 0-07-050691-4.[9]

External links

  • Official IBM mainframe page (zSeries/z9)

Notes

  1. ^ A Brief History of Linux
  2. ^ IBM 7090/94 IBSYS Operating System
  3. ^ Gray, G. (1999). "EXEC II" 1 (3).
  4. ^ Chuck Boyer, The 360 Revolution
  5. ^ IBM Archives: System/360 Announcement
  6. ^ Some of the arithmetic units and addressing features were optional on some models of the System/360. However, models were upward compatible and most were also downward compatible.
  7. ^ Hardware memory protection was provided to protect the operating system from the user programs (tasks) and the user tasks from each other.
  8. ^ http://www.sinenomine.net/node/607, retrieved September 12, 2007.
  9. ^ Now dated. For details on the significant 64-bit architectural changes, refer to IBM technical publications (see z/Architecture).
In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... z/Architecture (formerly known as ESAME) refers to IBMs 64-bit computing architecture for its top-of-the-line enterprise servers. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
EBCDIC - definition of EBCDIC in Encyclopedia (564 words)
Outside of such IBM systems and compatible systems from other companies, ASCII (and its descendants such as Unicode) are normally used instead; EBCDIC is generally considered an anachronism.
EBCDIC was devised in the 1963-1964 timeframe by IBM and was announced with the release of the IBM System/360 line of mainframe computers at the apex of IBM’s mainframe monopoly.
Some mainframe applications can support Unicode, but it is not nearly as good as it could be.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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