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Encyclopedia > IBM PC
IBM PC (model 5150)
Type Personal computer
Released August 12, 1981
Discontinued April 2, 1987
Processor Intel 8088 @ 4.77 MHz
Memory 16KB ~ 640KB
OS IBM BASIC / PC-DOS 1.0

The IBM PC (Personal Computer), was the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It was introduced on August 12, 1981. The original model was designated the IBM 5150. It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida. Download high resolution version (1024x740, 91 KB) IBM PC 5150 with keyboard and green monochrome monitor (5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... One of the first PCs from IBM - the IBM PC model 5150. ... In computing, a platform describes some sort of framework, either in hardware or software, which allows software to run. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Philip Donald Estridge (1937 - August 2, 1985), known as Don Estridge, led development of the original IBM Personal Computer (PC), and thus is known as father of the IBM PC. His decisions dramatically changed the computer industry, resulting in a vast increase in the number of personal computers sold and... Big Blue redirects here. ... Location of Boca Raton in Palm Beach County, Florida. ...


The phrase "Personal Computer" was common currency before 1981, and was used as early as 1972 to characterize Xerox PARC's Alto. However, because of the success of the IBM PC, what had been a generic term came to mean specifically a microcomputer compatible with IBM's specification. Bold text // Headline text Link title This article is about the computer research center. ... A Xerox Alto Computer System The Xerox Alto, developed at Xerox PARC in 1973, was the first personal computer and the first computer to use the desktop metaphor and graphical user interface (GUI). ... The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling home computer of all time. ...


During the second quarter of 2005, the Chinese Lenovo Group secured the rights to produce IBM branded personal computers. This move reflects IBM's present focus on server/mainframe markets and business consulting and information technology services. Lenovo Group Limited (Chinese: 联想集团有限公司; Pinyin: Liánxiǎng Jítuán Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī), formerly known as Legend Group Ltd and New Technology Developer Incorporated (SEHK: 0992), is the largest personal computer manufacturer in the Peoples Republic of China, and as of 2004 is the third largest... In information technology, a server is a computer system that provides services to other computing systems—called clients—over a network. ... An IBM mainframe is a large, high-performance computer made by International Business Machines (IBM). ... A business consultant is a person that provides support and information to assist in the running or future strategy of a business, generally in the form of project work. ... Information technology (IT)[1] is a broad subject concerned with technology and other aspects of managing and processing information, especially in large organizations. ...


Note the following distinctions within the general subject of personal computers:

  • For details on "PC compatible" computers (aka "PC clones" or just "PC"s, and making up the majority of today's computers), see IBM PC compatible
  • For a discussion of generic "personal computers", see personal computer
  • For details of the second generation of microcomputers, which largely died out with the Personal Computer revolution, see home computer

Contents

One of the first PCs from IBM - the IBM PC model 5150. ... TRS-80 Color Computer II The home computer is a consumer-friendly word for the second generation of microcomputers (the technical term that was previously used), entering the market in 1977 and becoming common during the 1980s. ...


The IBM PC concept

The original PC was an IBM attempt to get into the home computer market then dominated by the Apple II and a host of CP/M machines. The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... CP/M is an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 and Zilog Z80 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ...


Rather than going through the usual IBM design process, which had already failed to design an affordable microcomputer (the unsucessful IBM 5100), a special team was assembled with authorization to bypass normal company restrictions and get something to market rapidly. This project was given the code name Project Chess. The IBM 5100 Portable Computer The IBM 5100 Portable Computer was a desktop computer introduced in September 1975, six years before the IBM PC. A single integrated unit provided the keyboard, five-inch CRT display, tape drive, processor, several hundred Kbytes of read only memory containing system software, and up...


The team consisted of just twelve people headed by Don Estridge. They succeeded in developing the PC in about a year. To achieve this they first decided to build the machine with "off-the-shelf" parts from a variety of different original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and countries. Previously IBM had developed their own components. Second, they decided on an open architecture so that other manufacturers could produce and sell peripheral components and compatible software. The ROM BIOS source code was published. IBM did not anticipate that its competitors would find ways to legally duplicate the entire system. Philip Donald Estridge (1937 - August 2, 1985), known as Don Estridge, led development of the original IBM Personal Computer (PC), and thus is known as father of the IBM PC. His decisions dramatically changed the computer industry, resulting in a vast increase in the number of personal computers sold and... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In computer engineering, computer architecture is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. ... Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... Phoenix AwardBIOS on a standard PC BIOS, in computing, stands for Basic Input/Output System or Basic Integrated Operating System. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ...


At the time, Don Estridge and his team considered using the 801 processor and its operating system that had been developed at the IBM research laboratory in Yorktown Heights, New York (The 801 was an early RISC microprocessor designed by John Cocke and his team at Yorktown Heights.) The 801 was at least an order of magnitude more powerful than the Intel 8088, and the operating system many years more advanced than the DOS operating system from Microsoft, that were finally selected. Ruling out an in-house solution made the team’s job much easier and may have avoided a delay in the schedule, but the ultimate consequences of this decision for IBM were far-reaching. The 801 was a RISC microprocessor architecture designed by IBM in the 1970s, and used in various roles in IBM until the 1980s. ... Yorktown Heights is an unincorporated hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) located in the town of Yorktown in Westchester County, New York. ... The 801 was a RISC microprocessor architecture designed by IBM in the 1970s, and used in various roles in IBM until the 1980s. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... It has been suggested that Criticism of Microsoft be merged into this article or section. ...


Other manufacturers soon reverse engineered the BIOS to produce their own non-infringing functional copies. Columbia Data Products introduced the first IBM-PC compatible computer in June 1982. Compaq Computer Corporation announced the Compaq Portable, the first portable IBM PC compatible in November 1982 (it did not ship until March 1983). Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical component, a software program, etc. ... June 1982: Columbia Data Products introduced the MPC - Multi Personal Computer. ... Compaq Computer Corporation was founded in February 1982 by Rod Canion, Jim Harris and Bill Murto, three senior managers from semiconductor manufacturer Texas Instruments. ... The Compaq Portable, sometimes referred to as the Compaq Portable XT, was the first product in the Compaq portable series to be brought out by Compaq Computer Corporation. ...


Once the IBM PC became a commercial success the PC came back under the usual IBM management control, with the result that competitors had little trouble taking the lead from them. (In this regard, IBM's tradition of "rationalizing" their product lines—deliberately restricting the performance of lower-priced models in order to prevent them from "cannibalizing" profits from higher-priced models—worked against them).


As of June 2006, IBM PC and XT models are still in use at the majority of U.S. National Weather Service upper-air observing sites. The computers are used to process data as it is returned from the ascending radiosonde, attached to a weather balloon. They are being phased out over a several year period, to be replaced by the Radiosonde Replacement System. The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ... radiosonde with measuring instruments A radiosonde (Sonde is German for probe) is a unit for use in weather balloons that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them to a fixed receiver. ... Rawinsonde weather balloon just after launch. ...


Commercial success

The first IBM PC was released on August 12, 1981. Although not cheap, at a base price of $1,565 (around $3,500 in 2006 figures) it was affordable for businesses — and it was business that purchased the PC. However it was not the corporate "computer department" that was responsible for this, for the PC was not seen as a 'proper' computer. It was generally well educated middle managers that saw the potential of the VisiCalc spreadsheet and 18 months later, its "killer app" successor Lotus 1-2-3. Reassured by the IBM name, they began buying the machines on their own budgets to help do the calculations they had learned at business school. August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... VisiCalc was the first spreadsheet program available for personal computers. ... A killer application (commonly shortened to killer app) is a computer program that is so useful that people will buy a particular computer hardware, gaming console, and/or an operating system simply to run that program. ... Lotus 1-2-3 is a spreadsheet program from Lotus Software (now part of IBM). ...


IBM PC models

The models of IBM's first-generation Personal Computer (PC) series have names:

A release photo of the original IBM PC (ca. 1981).
A release photo of the original IBM PC (ca. 1981).
  • The original PC had a version of Microsoft BASICIBM Cassette BASIC— in ROM. The CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) video card could use a standard television for display, or MDA adapter and monochrome display model 5151. The standard storage device was cassette tape. A floppy disk drive was an optional extra; no hard disk was available. It had only five expansion slots; maximum memory using IBM parts was 256 kB, 64 kB on the main board and three 64 kB expansion cards. The processor was an Intel 8088early 1978 version, later were 1978/81/2 versions of intel chip. (second-sourced AMDs were used after 1983) running at 4.77 MHz,I've seen hundreds of PC's and yet to see an AMD cpu in them?
 which could be replaced with a NEC V20 for a slight increase in processing speed. IBM sold it in configurations with 16 kB or 64 kB of RAM preinstalled using either 9 or 36, 16 kbit DRAM chips. 
  • The original PC proved too expensive for the home market, but was an unexpectedly large success with businesses. The "IBM Personal Computer XT" was an enhanced machine designed for business use. It had 8 expansion slots and a 10 megabyte hard disk. It could take 256 kB of memory on the main board (when 64 kbit DRAM was introduced); later models were expandable to 640 kB. (The 384 kB of BIOS ROM + video RAM space filled the rest of the one megabyte address space of the 8088 CPU.) It was usually sold with a Monochrome Display Adapter (MDA) video card. The processor was still a 4.77 MHz Intel 8088 and the expansion bus still 8-bit Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) with XT bus architecture.
  • The "IBM Personal Computer/AT", announced August 1984, used an Intel 80286 processor, originally at 6 MHz. It had a 16-bit ISA bus and 20 MB hard drive. A faster model, running at 8 MHz, was introduced in 1986. IBM made some attempt at marketing it as a multi-user machine, but it sold mainly as a faster PC for power users. Early PC/ATs were plagued with reliability problems, in part because of some software and hardware incompatibilities, but mostly related to the internal 20 MB hard disk. While some people blamed IBM's hard disk controller card and others blamed the hard disk manufacturer Computer Memories Inc. (CMI), the IBM controller card worked fine with other drives, including CMI's 33-megabyte model. The problems introduced doubt about the computer and, for a while, even about the 286 architecture in general, but after IBM replaced the 20 MB CMI drives, the PC/AT proved reliable and became a lasting industry standard.

The second generation IBM Personal System/2 (PS/2), are known by model number: Model 25, Model 30. Within each series, the models are also commonly referenced by their CPU clock rate. Image File history File links IBM_PC_5150_Image. ... Image File history File links IBM_PC_5150_Image. ... Microsoft BASIC is the foundation product of the Microsoft company. ... IBM Cassette BASIC was an early version of the BASIC programming language spun off my IBM for the IBM PC. It got its name by the fact that it was stored on cassettes. ... The Color Graphics Adapter (CGA), introduced in 1981, was IBMs first color graphics card, and the first color computer display standard for the IBM PC. The standard IBM CGA graphics card was equipped with 16 kilobytes of video memory. ... Typical 60-minute Compact Cassette. ... A 3,5 inch diskette, removed from its casing A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1024 or 1000 bytes. ... An Intel 8088 microprocessor The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... The NEC V20 was a processor made by NEC that featured approximately 29,000 transistors. ... Different types of RAM. From top to bottom: DIP, SIPP, SIMM 30 pin, SIMM 72 pin, DIMM, RIMM RAM redirects here. ... Dram can mean several things: For the imperial unit of volume see dram (unit), commonly used to describe a measure of Scotch whisky For the imperial unit of weight or mass see avoirdupois and apothecaries system (of mass) For the Armenian monetary unit see dram (currency) DRAM is a type... The IBM Personal Computer XT (IBM 5160), often shortened to the PC XT or simply XT, was IBMs successor to the original IBM PC. It was released on March 8, 1983, and was one of the first computers to come standard with a hard drive. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ... The Monochrome Display Adapter (MDA, also MDA card) introduced in 1981 was IBMs standard video display card and computer display standard for the PC. The MDA did not have any graphics mode of any kind; it only featured a single monochrome text mode (PC video mode 7), which could... An Intel 8088 microprocessor The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers. ... Industry Standard Architecture (in practice almost always shortened to ISA) is a computer bus standard for IBM compatible computers. ... Industry Standard Architecture (in practice almost always shortened to ISA) is a computer bus standard for IBM compatibles. ... The IBM Personal Computer/AT (IBM 5170), more commonly known as the IBM AT and also sometimes called the PC AT or PC/AT, was IBMs second-generation PC, designed around the Intel 80286 microprocessor running at 6 MHz and released in 1984. ... An Intel 80286 Microprocessor AMD 80286 with 12 Mhz. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... The disk controller (or hard disk controller) is the circuit which allows the CPU to communicate with a hard disk, floppy disk or other kind of disk drive. ... Computer Memories Inc. ... IBM PC Convertible The IBM Convertible was the follow-on to the IBM Portable, and was IBMs first attempt at a laptop computer. ... The IBM Portable was an early portable computer developed by IBM after the success of Compaqs suitcase-size portable machine (the Compaq Portable). ... The IBM PCjr was a relatively inexpensive home computer of the 1980s, and it was IBMs first attempt to enter the educational and home computer markets. ... The Personal System/2 or PS/2 was IBMs second generation of personal computers. ... The clock rate is the fundamental rate in cycles per second, measured in hertz, at which a computer performs its most basic operations such as adding two numbers or transferring a value from one processor register to another. ...


All IBM personal computers are software compatible with each other in general, but not every program will work in every machine. Some programs are time sensitive to a particular speed class. Older programs will not take advantage of newer higher-resolution display standards. Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ...


Technology

Electronics

The main circuit board in an IBM PC is called the motherboard. This carries the CPU and memory, and has a bus with slots for expansion cards. The ABIT KT7, an ATX format motherboard A motherboard is a printed circuit board used in a personal computer. ... CPU redirects here. ... The terms storage (U.K.) or memory (U.S.) refer to the parts of a digital computer that retain physical state (data) for some interval of time, possibly even after electrical power to the computer is turned off. ... In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers. ...


The bus used in the original PC became very popular, and was subsequently named ISA. It is in use to this day in computers for industrial use. Later, requirements for higher speed and more capacity forced the development of new versions. IBM introduced the MCA bus with the PS/2 line. The VESA Local Bus allowed for up to three, much faster 32-bit cards, and the EISA architecture was developed as a backward compatible standard including 32-bit card slots, but it only sold well in high-end server systems. The lower-cost and more general PCI bus was introduced in 1994 and has now become ubiquitous. Industry Standard Architecture (in practice almost always shortened to ISA) is a computer bus standard for IBM compatible computers. ... Graphics Card IBM XGA-2. ... The VESA Local Bus (usually shortened to VLB) is a local bus defined by the Video Electronics Standards Association, mostly used in personal computers based on the Intel 80486 CPU. VESA Local Bus worked alongside the ISA bus; it acted as a high-speed conduit for memory-mapped I/O... EISA means: Extended Industry Standard Architecture European Imaging and Sound Association (EISA Awards). ... 32-bit PCI expansion slots on a motherboard 64-bit PCI expansion slots inside a Power Macintosh G4 The Peripheral Component Interconnect standard (in practice almost always shortened to PCI) specifies a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ...


The motherboard is connected by cables to internal storage devices such as hard disks, floppy disks and CD-ROM drives. These tend to be made in standard sizes, such as 3.5" (90 mm) and 5.25" (133.4 mm) widths, with standard fixing holes. The case also contains a standard power supply unit (PSU) which is either an AT or ATX standard size. Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... A 3,5 inch diskette, removed from its casing A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... An electronic power supply, often referred to somewhat incorrectly as an AC adaptor, is an electronic device that produces direct current of a particular voltage and current from a source of electricity such as a battery or wall-socket power. ...


Intel 8086 and 8088-based PCs require EMS (expanded memory) boards to work with more than one megabyte of memory. The original IBM PC AT used an Intel 80286 processor which can access up to 16 megabytes of memory (though standard DOS applications cannot use more than one megabyte without using additional APIs.) Intel 80286-based computers running under OS/2 can work with the maximum memory. Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... An Intel 8088 microprocessor The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... EMS or Expanded Memory Specification is an IBM PC memory paging scheme enabling access to memory other than conventional memory in real mode, through the use of an add-on peripheral holding the additional memory. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ... An Intel 80286 Microprocessor AMD 80286 with 12 Mhz. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... OS/2 is an operating system created by Microsoft and IBM, later developed by IBM exclusively. ...


Keyboard

The original 1981 IBM PC's keyboard was severely criticised by typists for its non-standard placement of the return and left shift keys. In 1984, IBM corrected this on its AT keyboard, but shortened the backspace key, making it harder to reach. In 1987, it introduced the enhanced keyboard, which relocated all the function keys and the Ctrl keys. The Esc key was also relocated to the opposite side of the keyboard. A computer keyboard is a peripheral modeled after the typewriter keyboard. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The enhanced keyboard was first made by IBM; it has over 101 keys and is now the standard keyboard for PCs. ...


An "IBM PC compatible" may have a keyboard which does not recognize every key combination a true IBM PC does, e.g. shifted cursor keys. In addition, the "compatible" vendors sometimes used proprietary keyboard interfaces, preventing the keyboard from being replaced.


See also: Keyboard layout Computers and other typing devices offer many different keyboard layouts, for people to be able to input data in different languages. ...


Character set

The original IBM PC used the 7-bit ASCII alphabet as its basis, but extended it to 8 bits with nonstandard character codes. This character set was not suitable for some international applications, and soon a veritable cottage industry emerged providing variants of the original character set in various national variants. In IBM tradition, these variants were called code pages. These codings are now obsolete, having been replaced by more systematic and standardized forms of character coding, such as ISO 8859-1, Windows-1251 and Unicode. For other uses, see ASCII (disambiguation). ... Code page is the traditional IBM term used for a specific character encoding table: a mapping in which a sequence of bits, usually a single octet representing integer values 0 through 255, is associated with a specific character. ... ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding originally developed by ISO, but later jointly maintained by ISO and IEC. The standard, when supplemented with additional character assignments, is the... Windows-1251 is an 8-bit character encoding, designed to cover languages that use the Cyrillic alphabet such as Russian and other languages. ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


This was the original IBM PC character set:

-0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -A -B -C -D -E -F
0- 0-
1- § 1-
2- ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . / 2-
3- 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? 3-
4- @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O 4-
5- P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ ] ^ _ 5-
6- ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o 6-
7- p q r s t u v w x y z { } ~ 7-
8- Ç ü é â ä à å ç ê ë è ï î ì Ä Å 8-
9- É æ Æ ô ö ò û ù ÿ Ö Ü ¢ £ ¥ ƒ 9-
A- á í ó ú ñ Ñ ª º ¿ ¬ ½ ¼ ¡ « » A-
B- B-
C- C-
D- D-
E- α ß Γ π Σ σ µ τ Φ Θ Ω δ φ ε E-
F- ± ÷ ° · ² F-
-0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -A -B -C -D -E -F
For more details on this topic, see Code page 437.

IBM PC or MS-DOS code page 437, often abbreviated CP437 and also known as DOS-US or OEM-US, is the original character set of the IBM PC, circa 1981. ...

Storage media

Officially, the standard storage medium for the original IBM PC model 5150 was a cassette drive. Technologically obsolete even by 1981 standards, it was seldom used, and few (if any) IBM PCs left the factory without a floppy disk drive installed. The 1981 PC had one or two 160 kilobyte 5¼ inch single-sided double-density floppy disk drives; XTs generally had one double-sided 360 kB drive (next to the hard disk). The Compact Cassette logo inspired that of the Compact Disc two decades later. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1024 or 1000 bytes. ... A 3,5 inch diskette, removed from its casing A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ...


The first IBM PC that included a fixed, non-removable, hard disk was the XT. Hard disks for IBM compatibles soon became available with very large storage capacities. If a hard disk was added that was not compatible with the existing disk controller, a new controller board had to be plugged in; some disks were integrated with their controller in a single expansion board, commonly called a "Hard Card." The disk controller (or hard disk controller) is the circuit which allows the CPU to communicate with a hard disk, floppy disk or other kind of disk drive. ...


In 1984, IBM introduced the 1.2 megabyte dual sided floppy disk along with its AT model. Although often used as backup storage, the high density floppy was not often used for interchangeability. In 1986, IBM introduced the 720 kB double density 3.5" microfloppy disk on its Convertible laptop computer. It introduced the 1.44 MB high density version with the PS/2 line. These disk drives could be added to existing older model PCs. In 1988 IBM introduced a drive for 2.88 MB "DSED" diskettes in its top-of-the-line models; it was an instant failure and is all but forgotten today (but survives as a possible "size" choice in disk-formatting utilities). Double Density usually refers to a physical format in a magnetic storage system that uses twice as many bits per length unit as the basic format. ... High density for data storage like diskette,cd or dvd refers to the amount of information they manage. ... Formatting a hard drive using MS-DOS This article needs cleanup. ...


Software

All IBM PCs includes a relatively small piece of software stored in ROM. The original IBM PC 40 kB ROM included 8 kB for power-on self-test (POST) and basic input/output system (BIOS) functions plus 32 kB BASIC in ROM (Cassette BASIC). The ROM BASIC interpreter was the default user interface if no DOS boot disk was present. BASICA was distributed on floppy disk and provided a way to run the ROM BASIC under PC-DOS control. Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... Power-on self-test (POST) is the common term for a computers or printers pre-boot sequence. ... Phoenix AwardBIOS on a standard PC BIOS, in computing, stands for Basic Input/Output System or Basic Integrated Operating System. ... BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of high-level programming languages. ... IBM Cassette BASIC was an early version of the BASIC programming language spun off my IBM for the IBM PC. It got its name by the fact that it was stored on cassettes. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... A boot disk is a removable media, normally read-only, that can boot an operating system or utility. ... Microsoft BASICA (short for Advanced BASIC) is a simple disk-based BASIC interpreter written by Microsoft for PC-DOS. BASICA allows use of the ROM-resident BASIC on the PC while DOS is loaded (the ROM BASIC itself runs when nothing is loaded when booting) and adds functionality such as... IBM PC-DOS was one of the three major operating systems that dominated the personal computer market from about 1985 to 1995. ...


IBM PC and PS/2 models

The IBM PC range:
Model name Introduced CPU Features
PC Aug 1981 8088 Floppy disk system
XT Mar 1983 8088 Slow hard disk
XT/370 Oct 1983 8088 System/370 mainframe emulation
3270 PC Oct 1983 8088 With 3270 terminal emulation
PCjr Nov 1983 8088 Floppy-based home computer
PC Portable Feb 1984 8088 Floppy-based portable
AT Aug 1984 80286 Medium-speed hard disk
Convertible Apr 1986 8088 Microfloppy laptop portable
XT 286 Sep 1986 80286 Slow hard disk, but zero wait state memory on the motherboard. This 6 MHz machine was actually faster than the 8 MHz ATs (when using planar memory) because of the zero wait states
The PS/2 series:
Model Introduced CPU Features
25 August 1987 8086 PC bus (limited expansion)
30 April 1987 8086 PC bus
30 August 1987 80286 PC bus
50 April 1987 80286 Micro Channel Architecture bus
50Z June 1988 80286 Faster Model 50
55 SX May 1989 80386SX MCA bus
60 April 1987 80286 MCA bus
70 June 1988 80386 Desktop, MCA bus
P70 May 1989 80386 Portable, MCA bus
80 April 1987 80386 Tower, MCA bus
IBM PC compatible specifications:
CPU Clock
speed
(MHz)
CPU
bus
width (bits)
System
Bus
width (bits)
RAM
(megabytes)
Floppy
disk drive
Hard drive
(megabytes)
Operating
system
8088 4.77–9.5 16 8 1 (1) 5.25", 360 KB
3.5", 720 KB
3.5", 1.44 MB
10–40 PC-DOS
8086 6–12 16 20–60
80286 6–25 1–8 (1) 5.25", 360 KB
5.25", 1.2 MB
20–300 PC-DOS, OS/2
80386 16–33 32 32 1–16 (2) 3.5", 720 KB
3.5", 1.44 MB
40–600 UNIX
80386SX 16
  1. Under DOS, RAM is expanded beyond 1 MB with EMS memory boards
  2. Under DOS, RAM is expanded beyond 1 MB with normal "extended" memory and a memory management program.

The IBM Personal Computer XT (IBM 5160), often shortened to the PC XT or simply XT, was IBMs successor to the original IBM PC. It was released on March 8, 1983, and was one of the first computers to come standard with a hard drive. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... The System/370 is a model range of IBM mainframes introduced in the early 1970s as the successors to the System/360 family. ... An IBM mainframe is a large, high-performance computer made by International Business Machines (IBM). ... This article is about emulation in computer science. ... The IBM 3270 PC (model 5271), released in October 1983, was an IBM PC XT containing additional hardware which could emulate the behaviour of a 3270 terminal. ... Clemson Universitys Library Catalog The IBM 3270 is a class of terminals made by IBM (known as Display Devices) normally used to communicate with IBM mainframes. ... The IBM PCjr was a relatively inexpensive home computer of the 1980s, and it was IBMs first attempt to enter the educational and home computer markets. ... The IBM Portable was an early portable computer developed by IBM after the success of Compaqs suitcase-size portable machine (the Compaq Portable). ... The IBM Personal Computer/AT (IBM 5170), more commonly known as the IBM AT and also sometimes called the PC AT or PC/AT, was IBMs second-generation PC, designed around the Intel 80286 microprocessor running at 6 MHz and released in 1984. ... IBM PC Convertible The IBM Convertible was the follow-on to the IBM Portable, and was IBMs first attempt at a laptop computer. ... A wait state is a delay experienced by a computer processor when accessing external memory or another device that is slow to respond. ... The Personal System/2 or PS/2 was IBMs second generation of personal computers. ... Graphics Card IBM XGA-2. ... In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers. ... A bit refers to a digit in the binary numeral system (base 2). ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ... A 3,5 inch diskette, removed from its casing A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... IBM PC-DOS was one of the three major operating systems that dominated the personal computer market from about 1985 to 1995. ... IBM PC-DOS was one of the three major operating systems that dominated the personal computer market from about 1985 to 1995. ... OS/2 is an operating system created by Microsoft and IBM, later developed by IBM exclusively. ... Unix or UNIX is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T Bell Labs employees including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy. ... Expanded Memory was a trick invented around 1984 that provided more memory to byte-hungry, business-oriented MS-DOS programs. ... Extended memory refers to memory above the first megabyte of address space in an IBM PC with an 80286 or later processor. ...

Trivia

  • Much of the original development team, including Don Estridge, perished on August 2, 1985, during the crash of Delta Air Lines Flight 191. As a result of this disaster, IBM and many other companies set limits on the number of employees allowed on a single flight.

August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... Delta Air Lines Flight 191 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

See also

One of the first PCs from IBM - the IBM PC model 5150. ... The following is a list of products from the International Business Machines (IBM) office and data processing equipment company, spanning from early-to-mid-20th-century punched card machinery, time clocks, and typewriters, via mainframe computers and minicomputers, to microprocessors, PCs, laptop PCs, and more. ...

References

  • Norton, Peter (1986). Inside the IBM PC. Revised and enlarged. New York. Brady. ISBN 0-89303-583-1.
  • August 12, 1981 press release announcing the IBM PC (PDF format).
  • Mueller, Scott (1992) Upgrading and Repairing the PCs, Second Edition, Que Books, ISBN 0-88022-856-3

August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

External links

This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL.

  Results from FactBites:
 
IBM PC - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2167 words)
However, because of the success of the IBM PC, what had been a generic term came to mean specifically a microcomputer compatible with IBM's specification.
IBM sold it in configurations with 16 kB or 64 kB of RAM preinstalled using either 9 or 36, 16 kbit DRAM chips.
The original 1981 IBM PC's keyboard was severely criticised by typists for its non-standard placement of the return and left shift keys.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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