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Encyclopedia > IBM 704
An IBM 704 mainframe (image courtesy of LLNL)

The IBM 704,[1] the first mass-produced computer with floating point arithmetic hardware, was introduced by IBM in April, 1954. The 704 was significantly improved over the IBM 701 in terms of architecture as well as implementation, and was not compatible with its predecessor. Image File history File links Ibm704. ... Image File history File links Ibm704. ... For other uses, see Mainframe. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ... This article is about the machine. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The IBM 701, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was announced to the public on April 29, 1952, and was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer. ...


Changes from the 701 included the use of core memory (instead of Williams tubes) and addition of three index registers. To support these new features, the instructions were expanded to use the full 36-bit word. The new instruction set became the base for the IBM 700/7000 series scientific computers. A 16×16 cm area core memory plane of 128×128 bits, i. ... The Williams tube or (more accurately) the Williams-Kilburn tube (after Freddie Williams and coworker Tom Kilburn), developed about 1946 or 1947, was a cathode ray tube used to store electronic data. ... An index register in a computer CPU is a processor register used for modifying operand addresses during the run of a program, typically for doing vector/array operations. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled instruction set architecture. ... The IBM 700/7000 series was a series of incompatible large scale (mainframe) computer systems made by IBM through the 1950s and early 1960s. ...


To quote the IBM 704 Manual of operation (see external links below):

The type 704 Electronic Data-Processing Machine is a large-scale,
high-speed electronic calculator controlled by an internally stored
program of the single address type.

IBM stated that the device was capable of executing up to 40,000 instructions per second. IBM sold 123 type 704 systems from 1955 to 1960.


The programming languages FORTRAN and LISP were first developed for the 704, as was MUSIC, the first computer music program by Max Mathews. Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... For the programming language, see Lisp (programming language). ... MUSIC-N refers to a family of computer music programs and programming languages descended from or influenced by MUSIC, a program written by Max Mathews in 1957 at Bell Labs, it is widely considered to be the first computer program for making music (in actuality, sound) on a digital computer... Max Vernon Mathews was born in Columbus, Nebraska, on November 13, 1926. ...


In 1962 physicist John Larry Kelly, Jr created one of the most famous moments in the history of Bell Labs by using an IBM 704 computer to synthesize speech. Kelly's voice recorder synthesizer vocoder recreated the song Daisy Bell, with musical accompaniment from Max Mathews. Arthur C. Clarke of 2001: A Space Odyssey fame was coincidentally visiting friend and colleague John Pierce at the Bell Labs Murray Hill facility at the time of this remarkable speech synthesis demonstration and was so impressed that he used it in the climactic scene of his novel and screenplay for 2001: A Space Odyssey,[2] where the HAL 9000 computer sings the same song.[3] John Larry Kelly, Jr. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... A vocoder (name derived from voice encoder, formerly also called voder) is a speech analyzer and synthesizer. ... Daisy Bell is a popular song whose lyrics (Daisy, Daisy, Give me your answer do. ... Max Vernon Mathews was born in Columbus, Nebraska, on November 13, 1926. ... Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same name. ... Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. ... HAL 9000 (Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic computer) is a fictional character in Arthur C. Clarkes Space Odyssey saga. ...


Ed Thorp also used the IBM 704 as a research tool, investigating the probabilities of winning while developing his blackjack gaming theory.[4][5] He used Fortran to formulate the equations of his research model. Dr. Edward O. Thorp Dr. Edward Oakley Thorp (born in August 14, 1932, Chicago) is an American mathematics professor, author, and blackjack player. ... This article is about the gambling game. ...


The IBM 704 was used as the official tracker for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Operation Moonwatch in the fall of 1957. See The M.I.T. Computation Center and Operation Moonwatch. IBM provided four staff scientists to aid Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory scientists and mathematicians in the calculation of satellite orbits: Dr. Giampiero Rossoni, Satellite Coordinator of IBM Applied Science (Cambridge), Dr. John Greenstadt, Thomas Apple and Richard Hatch. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is a research institute of the Smithsonian Institution headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where it is joined with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) to form the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). ... Operation Moonwatch (also known as Project Moonwatch and, more simply, as Moonwatch) was an amateur science program formally initiated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in 1956. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... // The M.I.T. Computation Center, organized in 1956[1], housed an IBM 704 up until 1960[2]. After the successful launch of Sputnik on October 4th 1957, the race was on to calculate and predict where the first man-made satellites would appear in the sky. ... The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is a research institute of the Smithsonian Institution headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where it is joined with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) to form the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). ...

Contents

Instruction and data formats

The basic instruction format was a 3-bit prefix, 15-bit decrement, 3-bit tag, and 15-bit address. The prefix field specified the class of instruction. The decrement field often contained an immediate operand to modify the results of the operation, or was used to further define the instruction type. The three bits of the tag specified any combination of three "decrement registers", an early kind of index registers in which the contents of the registers were subtracted from the address to produce an effective address. The address field either contained an address or an immediate operand. In mathematics, an operand is one of the inputs (arguments) of an operator. ... An index register in a computer CPU is a processor register used for modifying operand addresses during the run of a program, typically for doing vector/array operations. ...

  • Fixed point numbers were stored in binary sign/magnitude format.
  • Single precision floating point numbers had a magnitude sign, an 8-bit excess-128 exponent and a 29 bit magnitude
  • Alphanumeric characters were 6-bit BCD, packed six to a word.

The term computer numbering formats refers to the schemes implemented in digital computer and calculator hardware and software to represent numbers. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... In computing and electronic systems, binary-coded decimal (BCD) is an encoding for decimal numbers in which each digit is represented by its own binary sequence. ...

References

  1. ^ 704 photos from IBM
  2. ^ Arthur C. Clarke online Biography
  3. ^ Bell Labs: Where "HAL" First Spoke (Bell Labs Speech Synthesis website)
  4. ^ Discovery channel documentary with interviews by Ed and Vivian Thorp
  5. ^ The Tech (MIT) "Thorpe, 704 Beat Blackjack" Vol. 81 No. I Cambridge, Mass., Friday, February 10, 1961

Further reading

Steven Levy Steven Levy (born 1951) is an American journalist who has written several books on computers, technology, cryptography, the Internet, cybersecurity, and privacy. ... Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (ISBN 0385191952) is a book by Steven Levy about the hacker culture. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > IBM 704 (236 words)
The IBM 704 was an improved version of the IBM 701.
The IBM 704, the first mass-produced computer with floating point arithmetic hardware, was introduced by IBM in April, 1956.
IBM stated that the device was capable of executing up to 40,000 instructions per second.
IBM 704 - Definition (585 words)
A large, scientific computer made by ibm and used by the largest commercial, government and educational institutions.
The 704, and ibm 709 which had the same basic architecture, represented a substantial step forward from the ibm 650's magnetic drum storage as they provided random access at electronic speed to core storage, typically 32k words of 36 bits each.
The 704 was oriented toward scientific work and included floating point hardware and the first fortran implementation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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