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International Business Machines Corporation
Type Public (NYSEIBM)
Founded 1889, incorporated 1911
Headquarters Armonk, New York, USA
Key people Samuel J. Palmisano, Chairman & CEO
Mark Loughridge SVP & CFO
Dan Fortin, President (Canada)
Frank Kern, President (Asia Pacific)
Nick Donofrio, EVP (Innovation & Technology)
Bruno Di Leo, President IOT Northeast Europe
Dominique Cerutti, President IOT Southwest Europe
Industry Computer hardware
Computer software
Consulting
IT Services
Products See products listing
Revenue $91.4 billion USD (+4% FY '05 to '06)
Net income $9.4 billion USD (+18% FY '05 to '06)
Employees 355,766 (2006)[2]
Subsidiaries ADSTAR
FileNet
Informix
Iris Associates
Lotus Software
Rational Software
Sequent Computer Systems
Tivoli Systems, Inc.
Apollo Computers
Slogan On Demand Business, in demand people
Website www.ibm.com

International Business Machines Corporation (known as IBM or "Big Blue"; NYSEIBM) is a multinational computer technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and offers infrastructure services, hosting services, and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology.[3] IBM might be an acronym or abbreviation for: Inclusion body myositis Integrated Bituminious Mining International Business Machines Corporation International Brotherhood of Magicians Interacting boson model Injection blow molding International Biscuit Makers ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... Image File history File links IBM_logo. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... Armonk is a census-designated place (CDP) located in the town of North Castle in Westchester County, New York. ... This article is about the state. ... Samuel J. Palmisano Samuel J. Palmisano (born July 29, 1951) is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the IBM Corporation. ... Mark Loughridge (born 1953 or 1954) is currently the chief financial officer and senior vice president of International Business Machines Corporation. ... Dan Fortins biography President of IBM Canada Ltd. ... Nicholas Michael Donofrio Senior Vice President, Technology and Manufacturing IBM Corporation Nick Donofrio leads the strategy for developing and commercializing advanced technology across IBMs global operations. ... Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. ... Software redirects here. ... A consultant (from the Latin consultare meaning to discuss from which we also derive words such as consul and counsel) is a professional who provides expert advice in a particular area of expertise such as accountancy, the environment, technology, the law, human resources, marketing, medicine, finance, public affairs, communication, engineering... IT Service Management (ITSM) is a discipline for managing large-scale information technology (IT) systems, philosophically centered on the ITSM stands in deliberate contrast to technology-centered approaches to IT management and business interaction. ... The following is a list of products from the International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation and its predecessor corporations, beginning in the 1890s, and spanning punched card machinery, time clocks, and typewriters, via mainframe computers and minicomputers, to microprocessors, PCs, laptop PCs, and more. ... For the tax agency in Ireland of the same name, see Revenue Commissioners. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... USD redirects here. ... A fiscal year (or financial year or accounting reference date) is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (yearly) financial statements in businesses and other organizations. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Net income is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs and expenses from the total revenue. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... USD redirects here. ... A fiscal year (or financial year or accounting reference date) is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (yearly) financial statements in businesses and other organizations. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about work. ... A subsidiary, in business, is an entity that is controlled by another entity. ... ADSTAR was a hardware storage division of IBM. ADSTAR was sold to Tivoli Systems, Inc. ... Informix is a family of relational database management system products from IBM, acquired in 2001 from a company (also called Informix or Informix Software) which dates its origins back to 1980. ... Iris Associates was a software development company founded in Littleton, Massachusetts on December 7th, 1984 by Ray Ozzie, specifically to build the software ultimately known as Lotus Notes. ... Lotus Software (called Lotus Development Corporation before its acquisition by IBM) is an American software company with its headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Rational Software was an independent software development company until 2003, when it was bought by IBM. It sought to advance its customers practice of Modern Software Engineering through process, tools, and services. ... Sequent Computer Systems, or Sequent, was a computer company that designed and manufactured multiprocessing computer systems. ... Tivoli Software [1] is the systems management brand of the IBM Software Group. ... Apollo Computer, Inc. ... Look up slogan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... A multinational corporation (or transnational corporation) (MNC/TNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... This article is about the machine. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For other uses, see Consultant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... Armonk is a census-designated place (CDP) located in the town of North Castle in Westchester County, New York. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. ... Software redirects here. ... An Internet hosting service is a service that runs Internet servers, allowing organizations and individuals to serve content on the Internet. ... A consultant (from the Latin consultare meaning to discuss from which we also derive words such as consul and counsel) is a professional who provides expert advice in a particular area of expertise such as accountancy, the environment, technology, the law, human resources, marketing, medicine, finance, public affairs, communication, engineering... For other uses, see Mainframe. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ...


IBM has been known through most of its recent history as the world's largest computer company; with over 350,000 employees worldwide, IBM is the largest information technology employer in the world. It is also the most profitable, but in revenues it fell to second place behind Hewlett Packard in 2007[citation needed]. Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... HP redirects here. ...


IBM holds more patents than any other U.S. based technology company.[4] It has engineers and consultants in over 170 countries and IBM Research has eight laboratories worldwide.[5] IBM employees have earned three Nobel Prizes, four Turing Awards, five National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of Science.[6] As a chip maker, IBM is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders. For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... IBM Research, a subsidiary of IBM, has existed since 1945 and currently consists of eight locations throughout the world and hundreds of projects. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... The A.M. Turing Award is given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community. ... The National Medal of Technology is an honor granted by the President of the United States to inventors and innovators that have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology. ... National Medal of Science The National Medal of Science is an honor given by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and physics. ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ...

Contents

History

IBM PC XT personal computer.
Main article: History of IBM
See also: Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR) and Herman Hollerith

The company which became IBM was founded in 1888 as the Tabulating Machine Company by Herman Hollerith, in Broome County, NY. It was incorporated as Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR) on June 16, 1911, and was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1916. IBM adopted its current name in 1924, when it became a Fortune 500 company. Image File history File links Ibm_pc_xt. ... Image File history File links Ibm_pc_xt. ... The IBM PC/XT (also written PC-XT or PC XT), commonly referred to as the XT, was IBMs successor to the original IBM PC. It was released on March 8, 1983, and was one of the first computers to come standard with a hard drive. ... // For issues and trends that span particular time periods, see major events, trends, and technologies, below. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an German-American statistician who developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards in order to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data. ... Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an German-American statistician who developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards in order to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data. ... Broome County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... The Fortune 500 is a ranking of the top 500 United States corporations as measured by gross revenue. ...


Current projects

Project Big Green

Main article: Project Big Green

In May 2007, IBM unveiled Project Big Green -- a re-direction of $1 billion per year across its businesses to increase energy efficiency. New IBM products and services are expected to reduce data center energy consumption and transform clients' technology infrastructure into "green" data centers, with energy savings of approximately 42 percent for an average data center. Project Big Green outlines a five-step approach for clients to dramatically improve energy efficiency. The initiative includes a new global "green team" of more than 850 energy efficiency architects from across IBM. As part of Project Big Green, IBM is building an $86 million green data center expansion at its Boulder location and will consolidate nearly 4,000 computer servers in six locations worldwide onto about 30 refrigerator-sized mainframes running the Linux operating system. Project Big Green: IBMs Initiative To Reduce Energy Consumption In May 2007, IBM unveiled Project Big Green -- a re-direction of $1 billion per year across its businesses to increase energy efficiency. ...


Eclipse

Main article: Eclipse (software)

Eclipse is a platform-independent, Java-based software framework. Eclipse was originally a proprietary product developed by IBM as a successor of the VisualAge family of tools. Eclipse has subsequently been released as free/open source software under the Eclipse Public License. Eclipse is an open-source software framework written primarily in Java. ... Java language redirects here. ... A software framework is a reusable design for a software system (or subsystem). ... Proprietary indicates that a party, or proprietor, exercises private ownership, control or use over an item of property, usually to the exclusion of other parties. ... VisualAge was the name of a family of computer integrated development environments from IBM, which included support for a few popular (and not so popular) computer Programming_languages. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... The Eclipse Public License (EPL) is a license for free software. ...


alphaWorks

Main article: alphaWorks

alphaWorks is IBM's source for emerging software technologies. These technologies include: alphaWorks is IBMs emerging technology portal. It is a web community for early adopters to preview and collaborate on prototype technology from IBM Research labs. ...

  • Flexible Internet Evaluation Report Architecture - A highly flexible architecture for the design, display, and reporting of Internet surveys.
  • IBM History Flow Visualization Application - A tool for visualizing dynamic, evolving documents and the interactions of multiple collaborating authors.
  • IBM Linux on POWER Performance Simulator - A tool that provides users of Linux on Power a set of performance models for IBM's POWER processors.
  • Database File Archive And Restoration Management - An application for archiving and restoring hard disk files using file references stored in a database.
  • Policy Management for Autonomic Computing - A policy-based autonomic management infrastructure that simplifies the automation of IT and business processes.
  • FairUCE - A spam filter that verifies sender identity instead of filtering content.
  • Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) SDK - A Java SDK that supports the implementation, composition, and deployment of applications working with unstructured information.
  • Accessibility Browser - A web-browser specifically designed to assist the visually-impared, to be released as open-source software. Also known as the "A-Browser," the technology will aim to eliminate the need for a mouse, relying instead completely on voice-controls, buttons and predefined shortcut keys.

IBMs History Flow tool is a visualization tool for a time-sequence of snapshots of a document in various stages of its creation. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...

Extreme Blue

Extreme Blue is a company initiative that uses experienced IBM engineers, talented interns, and business managers to develop high-value technology. The project is designed to analyze emerging business needs and the technologies that can solve them. These projects mostly involve rapid-prototyping of high-profile software and hardware projects. Entry into ExtremeBlue is competitive for both interns and IBM employees. Extreme Blue is IBMs premier internship program for both graduate and undergraduate students; it also serves as an excellent placement opportunity for future IBM employment due to the significant effort put into placement of the interns. ...


Gaming

IBM's Wii "Broadway" CPU
IBM's Wii "Broadway" CPU

Virtually all modern console gaming systems use microprocessors developed by IBM. The Xbox 360 contains the Xenon tri-core processor, which was designed and produced by IBM in less than 24 months.[7] Sony's PlayStation 3 features the Cell BE microprocessor designed jointly by IBM, Toshiba, and Sony. Nintendo's seventh-generation console, Wii, features an IBM chip codenamed Broadway. The older Nintendo GameCube also utilizes the Gekko processor, designed by IBM. Image File history File links Broadwaycpu. ... Image File history File links Broadwaycpu. ... Game console redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... Not to be confused with the Intel Xeon. ... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ... Layout of the IBM Cell die Cell is a microprocessor architecture jointly developed by a Sony, Toshiba, and IBM, an alliance known as STI. The architectural design and first implementation were carried out at the STI Design Center over a four-year period beginning March 2001 on a budget reported... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Nintendo Company, Limited (任天堂 or ニンテンドー Nintendō; NASDAQ: NTDOY, TYO: 7974 usually referred to as simply Nintendo, or Big N ) is a multinational corporation founded on September 23, 1889[1] in Kyoto, Japan by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards. ... In the history of computer and video games, the seventh generation began on November 21, 2004 with the North American release of the Nintendo DS, followed by the PlayStation Portable on December 12, 2004. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ... IBM Broadway microprocessor Broadway is the name of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) in Nintendos Wii video game console. ... The Nintendo GameCube (GCN) is Nintendos fourth home video game console, belonging to the sixth generation era. ...


In May 2002, IBM and Butterfly.net, Inc. announced the Butterfly Grid, a commercial grid for the online video gaming market.[8] In March 2006, IBM announced separate agreements with Hoplon Infotainment, Online Game Services Incorporated (OGSI), and RenderRocket to provide on-demand content management and blade server computing resources.[9] Grid computing is a phrase in distributed computing which can have several meanings: Multiple independent computing clusters which act like a grid because they are composed of nodes not located within a single administrative domain or at a single geographical location. ... IBM HS20 blade server. ...


Open Client Offering

IBM announced it will launch its new software, called "Open Client Offering" which is to run on Microsoft's Windows, Linux and Apple's Macintosh. The company states that its new product allows businesses to offer employees a choice of using the same software on Windows and its alternatives. This means that "Open Client Offering" is to cut costs of managing whether Linux or Apple relative to Windows. There will be no necessity for companies to pay Microsoft for its licenses for operations since the operations will no longer rely on software which is Windows-based. One of Microsoft's office alternatives is the Open Document Format software, whose development IBM supports. It is going to be used for several tasks like: word processing, presentations, along with collaboration with Lotus Notes, instant messaging and blog tools as well as an Internet Explorer competitor – the Firefox web browser. IBM plans to install Open Client on 5 percent of its desktop PCs. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Windows redirects here. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Apple Inc. ... For other uses, see Macintosh (disambiguation) and Mac. ... Lotus Notes is a client-server collaborative software and e-mail system owned by Lotus Software, of the IBM Software Group. ... Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ... Firefox may refer to: Firefox (novel), written by Craig Thomas, published in 1978 Firefox (film), the 1982 movie starring Clint Eastwood, based on the novel Firefox (arcade game), the laserdisc arcade game based on the movie Mozilla Firefox, a web browser The Red Fox or the Red Panda, based on...


UC2: Unified Communications and Collaboration

UC2 (Unified Communications and Collaboration) is an IBM and Cisco joint project based on Eclipse and OSGi. It will offer the numerous Eclipse application developers a unified platform for an easier work environment. Cisco may refer to: Cisco Systems, a computer networking company Cisco IOS, an internet router operating system CISCO Security Private Limited, a security company in Singapore Commercial and Industrial Security Corporation, a statutory board in Singapore Abbreviation for San Francisco, California Cisco (wine) The Cisco Kid, a fictional character created...


The software based on UC2 platform will provide major enterprises with easy-to-use communication solutions, such as the Lotus based Sametime. In the future the Sametime users will benefit from such additional functions as click-to-call and voice mailing.[10] Lotus Sametime is a commercial client-server instant messaging application distributed by the Lotus Software division of IBM. Lotus Sametime provides basic instant messaging functionality, presence information, and support for web conferencing. ... Click-To-Call or CTC is a service which lets users click a button and immediately speak with a customer service representative or other user. ... Voicemail (or voice mail, vmail or VMS, sometimes called messagebank) is a centralized system of managing telephone messages for a large group of people. ...


Lenovo and InfoPrint: recent divestitures and joint ventures

IBM's PC division was bought by Chinese company Lenovo on May 1, 2005 for $655 million in cash and $600 million in Lenovo stock. On January 25, 2007, Ricoh announced purchase of IBM Printing Systems Division for $725 million and investment in 3-year joint venture to form a new Ricoh subsidiary, InfoPrint Solutions Company; Ricoh will own a 51% share, and IBM will own a 49% share in InfoPrint. Lenovo Group Limited, formerly known as Legend Group Limited, is the largest personal computer manufacturer in the Peoples Republic of China, and as of 2004 is the eighth largest in the world. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Ricoh Company, Ltd. ... InfoPrint Solutions Company (InfoPrint) is a provider of digital printing and output solutions, hardware, software and services for production and enterprise print environments. ...


IBM Software Group

This group is one of the major divisions of IBM. The various brands include:

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lotus Software (called Lotus Development Corporation before its acquisition by IBM) is an American software company with its headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Rational Software was an independent software development company until 2003, when it was bought by IBM. It sought to advance its customers practice of Modern Software Engineering through process, tools, and services. ... Tivoli Software is the systems management brand of the IBM Software Group. ... WebSphere refers to a brand of IBM software products that are mostly proprietary[1], although the term also popularly refers to one specific product: WebSphere Application Server (WAS). ... The Enterprise Java Beans specification is one of the several Java APIs in the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition. ... Web commerce is a form of electronic commerce that is conducted primarily through the World Wide Web, but may also utilize email and other aspects of the internet. ...

Corporate culture of IBM

Big Blue

Sign at entrance to IBM's secure headquarters complex in Armonk
Sign at entrance to IBM's secure headquarters complex in Armonk

Big Blue is a nickname for IBM; several theories exist regarding its origin. One theory, substantiated by people who worked for IBM at the time, is that IBM field reps coined the term in the 1960s, referring to the color of the mainframes IBM installed in the 1960s and early 1970s. "All blue" was a term used to describe a loyal IBM customer, and business writers later picked up the term.[11][12] Another theory suggests that Big Blue simply refers to the Company's logo. A third theory suggests that Big Blue refers to a former company dress code that required many IBM employees to wear only white shirts and many wore blue suits.[13][11] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Logo (disambiguation). ...


Sales

IBM has often been described as having a sales-centric or a sales-oriented business culture. Traditionally, many IBM executives and general managers are chosen from the sales force. The current CEO, Sam Palmisano, for example, joined the company as a salesman and, unusually for CEOs of major corporations, has no MBA or postgraduate qualification. Middle and top management are often enlisted to give direct support to salesmen when pitching sales to important customers. Samuel J. Palmisano Samuel J. Palmisano (born July 29, 1951) is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the IBM Corporation. ...


Uniform

A dark (or gray) suit, white shirt, and a "sincere" tie[14] was the public uniform for IBM employees for most of the 20th century. During IBM's management transformation in the 1990s, CEO Lou Gerstner relaxed these codes, normalizing the dress and behavior of IBM employees to resemble their counterparts in other large technology companies. Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. ...


Jams

In 2003, IBM embarked on an ambitious project to rewrite company values. Using its Jam technology, the company hosted Intranet-based online discussions on key business issues with 50,000 employees over 3 days. The discussions were analyzed by sophisticated text analysis software (eClassifier) to mine online comments for themes. As a result of the 2003 Jam, the company values were updated to reflect three modern business, marketplace and employee views: "Dedication to every client's success", "Innovation that matters - for our company and for the world", "Trust and personal responsibility in all relationships".[15]


In 2004, another Jam was conducted during which 52,000 employees exchanged best practices for 72 hours. They focused on finding actionable ideas to support implementation of the values previously identified. A new post-Jam Ratings event was developed to allow IBMers to select key ideas that support the values. The board of directors cited this Jam when awarding Palmisano a pay rise in the spring of 2005.[16]


In July and September 2006, Palmisano launched another jam called InnovationJam. InnovationJam was the largest online brainstorming session ever with more than 150,000 participants from 104 countries. The participants were IBM employees, members of IBM employees' families, universities, partners, and customers. InnovationJam was divided in two sessions (one in July and one in September) for 72 hours each and generated more than 46,000 ideas. In November 2006, IBM declared that they will invest $US 100 million in the 10 best ideas from InnovationJam.[17]


Open source

IBM has been influenced by the Open Source Initiative, and began supporting Linux in 1998.[18] The company invests billions of dollars in services and software based on Linux through the IBM Linux Technology Center, which includes over 300 Linux kernel developers.[19] IBM has also released code under different open-source licenses, such as the platform-independent software framework Eclipse (worth approximately US$40 million at the time of the donation)[20] and the Java-based relational database management system (RDBMS) Apache Derby. IBM's open source involvement has not been trouble-free, however (see SCO v. IBM). The Open Source Initiative is an organization dedicated to promoting open source software. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... The IBM Linux Technology Center (LTC) is an organization focused on development for the Linux kernel and related open-source software projects. ... The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... An open-source license is a copyright license for computer software that makes the source code available under terms that allow for modification and redistribution without having to pay the original author. ... Eclipse is an open-source software framework written primarily in Java. ... Java language redirects here. ... A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as introduced by E. F. Codd. ... Apache Derby is a Java-based Relational Database Management System that can be embedded in Java programs and used for online transaction processing (OLTP). ... SCO v. ...


Project Management Center of Excellence

The IBM Project Management Center of Excellence (PM COE) is a program dedicated to defining and executing the steps IBM must take to strengthen its project management capabilities. Functioning as IBM's think tank, the PM COE combines external industry trends and directions with IBM business, organizational, and geographic requirements and insight. Upon this foundation deliverables (such as project management policy, practices, methods, and tools) are developed. This article is about the institution. ...


All IBM Project Managers (PMs) on the Project Management track (dimension) must complete either accreditation or IBM certification. Junior PMs (Associate PM and Advisory PM) are accredited after self-assessment and authorization from supervisors. Senior PMs (Senior PM and Executive PM) must go through a stringent IBM certification process. By validating project managers' expertise and skills against consistent worldwide standards, certification helps maintain customer confidence in the high quality of IBM professionals and it recognizes IBM professionals for their skills and experience.


Becoming certified is public recognition of achieving a significant career milestone and demonstrating expertise in the profession. Prior to applying for IBM certification each individual must have:

  1. successfully passed PMI exam (i.e. be a certified PMP).
  2. verifiable documentation and approval for mastery/expertise in a well-defined set of PM skills.
  3. several years of PM experience spanning at least 3 verifiable projects within the immediate 5 years (including specific role, team size, and budget requirements).
  4. verifiable documentation and proof of at least one area of specialty.
  5. demonstrated the use of IBM's Worldwide Project Management Method (WWPMM).
  6. completed extensive classroom and online education and testing.

IBM PM Certification is a well-defined review and verification process with many intricate details. In its most simplified form, it broadly involves:

  1. Candidate preparing a detailed package with proof of above requirements.
  2. Package review, approval, and support by at least two levels of Senior Management.
  3. Package review and re-verification by PM COE expert.
  4. Personal interviews with the PM COE Certification board.
  5. Candidates whose experience, skills, knowledge and education are deemed valid, verifiable and accurate, are certified by the board as either Certified Senior Project Manager (CSPM) or Certified Executive Project Manager (CEPM).

IBM PM Certification is a significant achievement for any IBMer. It is a deliberately long process with multiple checkpoints designed to ensure the integrity, fairness and validity of the certification.


Corporate affairs

Diversity and workforce issues

IBM's efforts to promote workforce diversity and equal opportunity date back at least to World War I, when the company hired disabled veterans. IBM was the only technology company ranked in Working Mother magazine's Top 10 for 2004, and one of two technology companies in 2005 (the other company being Hewlett-Packard).[21][22] “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The company has traditionally resisted labor union organizing, although unions represent some IBM workers outside the United States. A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ...


In the 1990s, two major pension program changes, including a conversion to a cash balance plan, resulted in an employee class action lawsuit alleging age discrimination. IBM employees won the lawsuit and arrived at a partial settlement, although appeals are still underway. IBM also settled a major overtime class-action lawsuit in 2006.[23] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In law, a class action is an equitable procedural device used in litigation for determining the rights of and remedies, if any, for large numbers of people whose cases involve common questions of law and fact. ... Ageism is discrimination against a person or group on the grounds of age. ...


Historically IBM has had a good reputation of long-term staff retention with few large scale layoffs. In more recent years there have been a number of broad sweeping cuts to the workforce as IBM attempts to adapt to changing market conditions and a declining profit base. After posting weaker than expected revenues in the first quarter of 2005, IBM eliminated 14,500 positions from its workforce, predominantly in Europe. In May 2005, IBM Ireland said to staff that the facility was closing down by the end of 2005 and offered a settlement to staff. The production moved to a company called Amkor in Singapore who purchased IBM's Microelectronics business in Singapore and is widely agreed that IBM promised this Company a full load capacity in return for the purchase of the facility. On June 8, 2005, IBM Canada Ltd. eliminated approximately 700 positions. IBM projects these as part of a strategy to 'rebalance' its portfolio of professional skills & businesses. IBM India and other IBM offices in China, the Philippines and Costa Rica have been witnessing a recruitment boom and steady growth in number of employees. For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... IBM India, significantly, is now the fourth largest employer in the Indian IT industry - only behind TCS, Infosys and Wipro. ...


On October 10, 2005, IBM became the first major company in the world to formally commit to not using genetic information in its employment decisions. This came just a few months after IBM announced its support of the National Geographic Society's Genographic Project. is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Genetic testing allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases, and can also be used to determine a persons ancestry. ... This article is about the organization. ... The Genographic Project, launched in April 2005, is a five-year genetic anthropology study that aims to map historical human migration patterns by collecting and analyzing DNA samples from over 100,000 people across five continents. ...


Gay rights

IBM provides employees' same sex partners with benefits and provides an anti-discrimination clause. The Human Rights Campaign has consistently rated IBM at 100%, the highest score, on its index of gay-friendliness since 2003 (in 2002, the year it began compiling its report on major companies, IBM scored 86%).[24] HRC logo The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) is one of the largest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) equal rights organization in the United States. ...


Logos

Logos designed in the 1970s tended to be sensitive to the technical limitations of photocopiers, which were then being widely deployed. A logo with large solid areas tended to be poorly copied by copiers in the 1970s, so companies preferred logos that avoided large solid areas. The 1972 IBM logos are an example of this tendency. With the advent of digital copiers in the mid-1980s this technical restriction had largely disappeared; at roughly the same time, the 13-bar logo was abandoned for almost the opposite reason – it was difficult to render accurately on the low-resolution digital printers (240 dots per inch) of the time. For other uses, see Logo (disambiguation). ...


Board of directors

Current members of the board of directors of IBM are: Chairman of the Board redirects here. ...

Kenneth Chenault (born 2 June 1951) is a former president (1997-2001) and current CEO (2001-present) of American Express. ... Mike Eskew chairman and CEO of UPS Education Purdue University bachelors in industrial engineering Wharton School of Business Advanced Management Program Career 1972 UPS industrial engineering manager 1994 corporate vice president for industrial engineering 1996 group vice president for engineering 1998 UPS board 1999 executive vice president 2000 vice... Dr. Shirley Ann Jackson (born August 5, 1946) is the 18th President of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. ... Principal occupation: Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Caterpillar Inc. ... Samuel J. Palmisano Samuel J. Palmisano (born July 29, 1951) is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the IBM Corporation. ... Sidney Taurel was born February 9, 1949 in Casablanca, Morocco. ... Charles Marstiller Vest (Chuck) (born 1941) is a U.S. educator and engineer. ... Lorenzo H. Zambrano Treviño (b. ...

Controversy

Main article: History of IBM

Edwin Black alleged that, during World War II, IBM CEO Thomas J. Watson used overseas subsidiaries to provide the Third Reich with punch card machines that could help the Nazis to track down the European Jewry. IBM denies that they had control over these subsidiaries after the Nazis took control of them. A lawsuit against IBM based on these allegations was dismissed.[28] // For issues and trends that span particular time periods, see major events, trends, and technologies, below. ... Edwin Black is an American author and journalist. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Thomas John Watson, Sr. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ...


See also

OS/2 is a computer operating system, initially created by Microsoft and IBM, then later developed by IBM exclusively. ... This article is about the Personal System/2 computer line made by IBM. There is another article on the PlayStation 2 made by Sony. ... IBM PC-DOS was one of three major operating systems that dominated the personal computer market from about 1985 to 1995. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... System 360 Model 65 operators console, with register value lamps and toggle switches (middle of picture) and emergency pull switch (upper right). ... The IBM System/370 (often: S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframes announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family. ... IBM ESA/390 (Enterprise Systems Architecture/390) has been introduced in the 1990s and is IBMs last 31-bit-address/32-bit-data mainframe computing design, copied by Amdahl, Hitachi, and Fujitsu among other competitors. ... IBM System z9 Enterprise Class IBM System z9 is the newest and most powerful line of IBM mainframes. ... IBM PC compatible computers are those generally similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT. Such computers used to be referred to as PC clones, or IBM clones since they almost exactly duplicated all the significant features of the PC, XT, or AT internal design, facilitated by various manufacturers... . ... The following is a partial list of IBM acquisitions and spinoffs. ... The following is a list of products from the International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation and its predecessor corporations, beginning in the 1890s, and spanning punched card machinery, time clocks, and typewriters, via mainframe computers and minicomputers, to microprocessors, PCs, laptop PCs, and more. ... SCO v. ... IBM Rochester is the facility of International Business Machines in Rochester, Minnesota. ... IBM and the Holocaust [1]is a book written by Edwin Black and published in 2001 which chronicles the alliance between International Business Machines Corporation and Nazi Germany. ...

References and footnotes

  1. ^ a b IBM 4Q06 Quarterly Earnings Report. IBM. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  2. ^ a b IBM: Company Overview. Reuters. Retrieved on 2006-06-27.
  3. ^ Nanotechnology & Nanoscience.
  4. ^ IBM maintains patent lead, moves to increase patent quality (2006-01-10).
  5. ^ Worldwide IBM Research Locations. IBM. Retrieved on 2006-06-21.
  6. ^ Awards & Achievements. IBM. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
  7. ^ IBM delivers Power-based chip for Microsoft Xbox 360 worldwide launch. IBM (2005-10-25).
  8. ^ Butterfly and IBM introduce first video game industry computing grid. IBM (2002-05-09).
  9. ^ IBM joins forces with game companies around the world to accelerate innovation. IBM (2006-03-21).
  10. ^ IBM and Cisco: Attempt to Unite the Communication Software Developers
  11. ^ a b (2006) Postphenomenology: A Critical Companion to Ihde. State University of New York Press, 228. ISBN 0-7914-6787-2. 
  12. ^ (2004) Logos, Letterheads & Business Cards: Design for Profit. Rotovision, 15. ISBN 2-88046-750-0. 
  13. ^ The Essential Guide to Computing: The Story of Information Technology. Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR, 55. ISBN 0-13-019469-7. 
  14. ^ Smith, Paul Russell (1999). Strategic Marketing Communications: New Ways to Build and Integrate Communications. Kogan Page, 24. ISBN 0749429186. 
  15. ^ Samuel J. Palmisano (2004-04-27). Speeches. IBM.
  16. ^ (December 2004) "Leading Change When Business Is Good: The HBR Interview--Samuel J. Palmisano". Harvard Business Review. Harvard University Press. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. 
  17. ^ IBM to invest $100M in new business areas (2006-11-14).
  18. ^ IBM launches biggest Linux lineup ever. IBM (1999-03-02). Archived from the original on 1999-11-10.
  19. ^ Farrah Hamid (2006-05-24). IBM invests in Brazil Linux Tech Center. LWN.net.
  20. ^ Interview: The Eclipse code donation. IBM (2001-11-01).
  21. ^ 100 best companies for working mothers 2004. Working Mother Media, Inc.. Archived from the original on 2004-10-17.
  22. ^ 100 best companies 2005. Working Mother Media, Inc.. Retrieved on 2006-06-26.
  23. ^ IBM settles overtime lawsuit for $65 million.
  24. ^ Corporate Equality Index Human Rights Campaign Foundation, (2002 -)
  25. ^ "IBM Archives: IBM in transition (1947-1956)." Accessed January 16, 2007.
  26. ^ "IBM Archives: IBM continuity (1956-1972)." Accessed January 16, 2007.
  27. ^ "IBM Archives: IBM international recognition (1972- )." Accessed January 16, 2007.
  28. ^ Addendum to IBM Statement on Nazi-era Book and Lawsuit.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... LWN.net is a computing news site with an emphasis on Free/Libre/Open-Source Software and software for Unix-like operating systems. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Further reading

Robert Slater 1999 Saving Big Blue: IBM's Lou Gerstner McGraw Hill
Emerson W. Pugh 1996 Building IBM: Shaping an Industry Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Robert Heller 1994 The Fate of IBM Little Brown
Paul Carroll 1993 Big Blues: The Unmaking of IBM Crown Publishers
Roy A Bauer et al 1992 The Silverlake Project: Transformation at IBM (AS/400) Oxford University Press
Thomas J Watson Jr. 1990 Father, Son & Co: My Life at IBM and Beyond Bantam
David Mercer 1987 IBM: How the World's Most Successful Corporation is Managed [1] Kogan Page
Richard Thomas DeLamarter 1986 Big Blue: IBM's Use and Abuse of Power Macmillan
Buck Rodgers 1986 The IBM Way Harper & Row
Robert Sobel 1981 IBM: Colossus in Transition ISBN 0-8129-1000-1
Robert Sobel 1981 Thomas Watson, Sr.: IBM and the Computer Revolution (biography of Thomas J. Watson) ISBN 1-893122-82-4
Robert Sobel 1988 IBM vs. Japan: The Struggle for the Future
Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. 2002 Who Says Elephants Can't Dance? HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-715448-8

Robert Sobel in a promotional photo for his publisher. ... Robert Sobel in a promotional photo for his publisher. ... Thomas John Watson, Sr. ... Robert Sobel in a promotional photo for his publisher. ... Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. ...

External links

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Business data

AT&T (formerly an abbreviation for American Telephone and Telegraph) Corporation (NYSE: T) is an American telecommunications company. ... The American Tobacco Company was founded in 1890 by J. B. Duke as a merger between a number of tobacco manufacturers including Allen and Ginter. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is an American multinational public company which produces photographic materials and equipment. ... Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company was founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling. ... International Paper (NYSE: IP) is an American pulp and paper company, the largest pulp and paper company in the world and the largest private owner of timberland in the United States. ... The North American Company was a former holding company headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... Sears, Roebuck and Company is an American mid-range chain of international department stores, founded by Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck in the late 19th century. ... Union Carbide Corporation (Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, and currently has more than 3,800 employees. ... The United States Rubber Company was a rubber manufacturer founded by Charles R. Flint in 1892. ...


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