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Encyclopedia > I Ching

The I Ching (Wade-Giles), or “Yì Jīng” (Pinyin); also called “Book of Changes” or “Classic of Changes” is one of the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. The book consists of two parts. The "basic text" of the Changes, which took form sometime in the early Zhou dynasty (traditional dates: 1122-256 B.C.E.), consists of sixty-four six-line divinatory symbols known as hexagrams (gua 卦), each of which has a name that refers to a physical object, an activity, a state, a situation, a quality, an emotion, or a relationship. In addition, each hexagram possesses a short, cryptic description of several words, called a "judgment" (tuan 彖), and a brief written interpretation for each line of each hexagram, known as a line statement (yaoci 爻辭). The line statements, which are read from the bottom of the hexagram upward, describe the development of the situation epitomized by the hexagram name and the judgment. In the process of divination, the person consulting the text evaluates not only the judgment and line statements but also the relationship of the constituent trigrams (three-line symbols, also called gua) for insights into the issue under consideration, and what to do about it. Over time, a great many different systems developed for analyzing the relationship of hexagrams, trigrams and individual lines. During the late Zhou period, a set of appendices known as the Ten Wings (shiyi 十翼)--attributed to Confucius--became permanently attached to the "basic text," and so the work received imperial sanction in 136 B.C.E. as one of the five major "Confucian" classics (wujing 五經). This second part of the book articulated the Yijing's implicit cosmology and invested the classic with a new and powerfully attractive literary flavor and style. The world view of this amplified version of the Changes emphasized correlative thinking, a humane cosmological outlook, and a fundamental unity and resonance between Heaven, Earth and Man. It also stressed the pervasive notion of yinyang complementarity, cyclical movement and ceaseless alternation. These amplifications and explanations of the "basic text" have had enormously important consequences in many realms of Chinese culture, from the Han period to the present.[1] I Ching (monk) or Yi Jing (Yijing, Yiqing, I-Tsing or YiChing) (義淨, 三藏法師義淨 635-713) is Tang Dynasty Buddhist monk, original name was Zhang Wen Ming (张文明). He contributed to the world the information of ancient Srivijaya (written in Chinese), large numbers of Buddhist scriptures, his adventure stories en route to Nalanda... I Ching is the blind martial arts instructor who guided Diana Prince during the time she relinquished her role as Wonder Woman. ... Chinese classic texts or Chinese canonical texts are the classical literature in Chinese culture that are considered to be the best or the most valuable. ...

This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
I Ching
Traditional Chinese:
Simplified Chinese:
Hanyu Pinyin: Yì Jīng
Literal meaning: "Classic of Changes"

Contents

Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, rarely Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Min (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; POJ: Bân hong-giân; BUC: Mìng huŏng-ngiòng) is a general term for a group of dialects of the Chinese language spoken in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ...

Implications of the title

  • 易 (), when used as an adjective, means “easy” or “simple”, while as a verb it implies “to change“ or 'to exchange/substitute one thing for another'.
  • 經 (jīng) here means “classic (text)”, derived from its original meaning of “regularity” or “persistency”, implying that the text describes the Ultimate Way which will not change throughout the flow of time. This same character was later appropriated to translate the Sanskrit word 'sūtra' into Chinese in reference to Buddhist scripture. In this sense the two concepts, in as much as they mean 'treatise,' 'great teaching,' or 'canonical scripture,' are equivalent.

The I Ching is a "reflection of the universe in miniature." The word "I" has three meanings: ease and simplicity, change and transformation, and invariability.[1] Thus the three principles underlying the I Ching are the following: This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... Sūtra (सूत्र) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ...

  1. Simplicity - the root of the substance. The fundamental law underlying everything in the universe is utterly plain and simple, no matter how abstruse or complex some things may appear to be.
  2. Variability - the use of the substance. Everything in the universe is continually changing. By comprehending this one may realize the importance of flexibility in life and may thus cultivate the proper attitude for dealing with a multiplicity of diverse situations.
  3. Persistency - the essence of the substance. While everything in the universe seems to be changing, among the changing tides there is a persistent principle, a central rule, which does not vary with space and time.
— 易一名而含三義:易簡一也;變易二也;不易三也。 commented on by Zheng Xuan (鄭玄 zhèng xúan) in his writings Critique of I Ching (易贊 yì zàn) and Commentary on I Ching (易論 yì lùn) of Eastern Han Dynasty.

Cheng Hsuan (or Zheng Xuan) (127-200) was an influential Confucian commentator. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ...

History

Traditional view

Traditionally it was believed that the principles of the I Ching originated with the mythical Fu Xi (伏羲 Fú Xī). In this respect he is seen as an early culture hero, one of the earliest legendary rulers of China (traditional dates 2800 BCE-2737 BCE), reputed to have had the 8 trigrams (八卦 bā gùa) revealed to him supernaturally. By the time of the legendary Yu (禹 ) 2194 BCE–2149 BCE, the trigrams had supposedly been developed into 64 hexagrams (六十四卦 lìu shí­ sì gùa), which were recorded in the scripture Lian Shan (《連山》 Lián Shān; also called Lian Shan Yi). Lian Shan, meaning “continuous mountains” in Chinese, begins with the hexagram Bound (艮 gèn), which depicts a mountain (::|) mounting on another and is believed to be the origin of the scripture's name. An ancient painting of Nuwa and Fuxi unearthed in Xinjiang. ... A culture hero is a historical or mythological hero who changes the world through invention or discovery. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... King Yu of Xia of China, in chinese: 禹, (2070 BC-2061 BC),born Si Wen Ming, in chinese: 姒文命 , often called Da Yu (大禹,who mean Yu the Great). Yu was the legendary first Chinese monarch of the Xia Dynasty, considered as the founder of the dynasty. ... I Ching hexagram 52, depicted ::|::| is named 艮 (gèn), Bound. ...


After the traditionally recorded Xia Dynasty was overthrown by the Shang Dynasty, the hexagrams are said to have been re-deduced to form Gui Cang (《歸藏》 Gūi Cáng; also called Gui Cang Yi), and the hexagram Field (坤 kūn) became the first hexagram. Gui Cang may be literally translated into “return and be contained”, which refers to earth as the first hexagram itself indicates. At the time of Shang's last king, Zhou Wang, King Wen of Zhou is said to have deduced the hexagram and discovered that the hexagrams beginning with Force (乾 qián) revealed the rise of Zhou. He then gave each hexagram a description regarding its own nature, thus Gua Ci (卦辭 guà cí, “Explanation of Hexagrams”). For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... I Ching hexagram 02, depicted :::::: is named 坤 (kÅ«n), Field. ... Dì Xīn (帝辛) was the last king of the Shang Dynasty. ... King Wen of Zhou (chinese: 周文王, pinyin: zhou1 wen2 wang2) (1099-1050 BC) was the founder of the later 周朝 Zhou Dynasty. ... I Ching hexagram 01, depicted |||||| is named ä¹¾ (qián), Force. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ...


When King Wu of Zhou, son of King Wen, toppled the Shang Dynasty, his brother Zhou Gong Dan is said to have created Yao Ci (爻辭 yáo cí, “Explanation of Horizontal Lines”) to clarify the significance of each horizontal line in each hexagram. It was not until then that the whole context of I Ching was understood. Its philosophy heavily influenced the literature and government administration of the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BCE - 256 BCE). King Wu of Zhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: zhōu wÅ­ wáng) or King Wu of Chou was the first sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. ... The Duke of Zhou (Chinese: 周公旦, pinyin: Zhōu Gōng Dàn) was the brother of King Wu of Zhou. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ...


Later, during the time of Spring and Autumn (722 BCE - 481 BCE), Confucius is traditionally said to have written the Shi Yi (十翼 shí yì, “Ten Wings”), a group of commentaries on the I Ching. By the time of Han Wu Di (漢武帝 Hàn Wǔ Dì) of the Western Han Dynasty (circa 200 BCE), Shi Yi was often called Yi Zhuan (易傳 yì zhùan, “Commentary on the I Ching”), and together with the I Ching they composed Zhou Yi (周易 zhōu yì, “Changes of Zhou”). All later texts about Zhou Yi were explanations only, due to the classic's deep meaning. The Spring and Autumn Period (ch. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Emperor Wu of Han (156 BC*–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che, was the sixth emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. A military compaigner, Han China reached its greatest expansion under his reign, spanning from Kyrgyzstan in the west, Northern Korea... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ...


Modernist view

In the past 50 years a “Modernist” history of the I Ching has been emerging, based on context criticism and research into Shang and Zhou dynasty oracle bones, as well as Zhou bronze inscriptions and other sources (see below). These reconstructions are dealt with in a growing number of books, such as The Mandate of Heaven: Hidden History in the I Ching, by S. J. Marshall, and Richard Rutt's Zhouyi: The Book of Changes, (see References, below). Categories: Stub ... The Mandate of Heaven: Record of a Civil War; China 1945–49 is a nonfiction book published in 1968. ...


Scholarly works dealing with the new view of the Book of Changes include doctoral dissertations by Richard Kunst and Edward Shaughnessy and a 2008 study by Richard J. Smith. These and other scholars have been helped immensely by the discovery, in the 1970s, by Chinese archaeologists, of intact Han dynasty era tombs in Mawangdui near Changsha, Hunan province. One of the tombs contained more or less complete 2nd century BCE texts of the I Ching, the Dao De Jing and other works, which are mostly similar yet in some ways diverge significantly from the “received”, or traditional, texts preserved by the chances of history. Mawangdui (馬王堆) is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China. ... Changsha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital city of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of the Yangtze River. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... The Mawangdui Silk Texts (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) are texts of Chinese philosophical and medical works written on silk and found at Mawangdui in China in 1973. ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: Dào Dé Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is an ancient Chinese...


The tomb texts include additional commentaries on the I Ching, previously unknown, and apparently written as if they were meant to be attributed to Confucius. All of the Mawangdui texts are many centuries older than the earliest known attestations of the texts in question. When talking about the evolution of the Book of Changes, therefore, the Modernists contend that it is important to distinguish between the traditional history assigned to texts such as the I Ching (felt to be anachronistic by the Modernists), assignations in commentaries which have themselves been canonized over the centuries along with their subjects, and the more recent scholarly history aided by modern linguistic textual criticism and archaeology. For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ...


Many hold that these perspectives are not necessarily mutually exclusive, but, for instance, many Modernist scholars doubt the actual existence of Fuxi, think Confucius had nothing to do with the Book of Changes, and contend that the hexagrams came before the trigrams. Modern scholarship comparing poetic usage and formulaic phrasing in this book with that in ancient bronze inscriptions has shown that the text cannot be attributed to King Wen or Zhou Gong, and that it likely was not compiled until the late Western Zhou, perhaps ca. the late 9th century BCE.


Rather than being the work of one or several legendary or historical figures, the core divinatory text is now thought to be an accretion of Western Zhou divinatory concepts. As for the Shi Yi commentaries traditionally attributed to Confucius, scholars from the time of the 11th century A.D. scholar Ouyang Xiu onward have doubted this, based on textual analysis, and modern scholars date most of them to the late Warring States period (403/475 BCE-256/221 BCE), with some sections perhaps being as late as the Western Han period (206 BCE-220 AD). Accretion, means any growth or increase in size by a gradual external addition or inclusion. ... Ouyang Xiu (Ou-Yang Hsiu) (歐陽修; 欧阳修 style name: Yongshu 永叔; also known as Zuiweng 醉翁 and Liuyi Jushi 六一居士) (Wade-Giles: Ouyang Hsiu) (1007 - 1072) was a Chinese statesman, historian, essayist and poet of the Song Dynasty. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part of the Eastern... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ...


Structure

The text of the I Ching is a set of predictions represented by a set of 64 abstract line arrangements called hexagrams (卦 guà). Each hexagram is a figure composed of six stacked horizontal lines (爻 yáo), where each line is either Yang (an unbroken, or solid line), or Yin (broken, an open line with a gap in the center). With six such lines stacked from bottom to top there are 26 or 64 possible combinations, and thus 64 hexagrams represented. A hexagram is any of the sixty-four sets of solid and broken lines used in the Chinese classic text I Ching. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena...


The hexagram diagram is conceptually subdivided into two three-line arrangements called trigrams (卦 guà). There are 23, hence 8, possible trigrams. The traditional view was that the hexagrams were a later development and resulted from combining the two trigrams. However, in the earliest relevant archaeological evidence, groups of numerical symbols on many Western Zhou bronzes and a very few Shang oracle bones, such groups already usually appear in sets of six. A few have been found in sets of three numbers, but these are somewhat later. Note also that these numerical sets greatly predate the groups of broken and unbroken lines, leading modern scholars to doubt the mythical early attributions of the hexagram system (see, e.g., Shaugnessy 1993).


Each hexagram represents a description of a state or process. When a hexagram is cast using one of the traditional processes of divination with I Ching, each of the yin or yang lines will be indicated as either moving (that is, changing), or fixed (that is, unchanging). Moving (also sometimes called “old”, or “unstable”) lines will change to their opposites, that is “young” lines of the other type -- old yang becoming young yin, and old yin becoming young yang. Among the many forms of Divination, one uses the I Ching or Book of Changes, which is probably the oldest Chinese book and is structured like an 8x8 matrix of 64 hexagrams representing states and their dynamic relationships. ...


The oldest method for casting the hexagrams, using yarrow stalks, is a biased random number generator, so the possible answers are not equiprobable. While the probability of getting either yin or yang is equal, the probability of getting old yang is three times greater than old yin. The yarrow stalk method was gradually replaced during the Han Dynasty by the three coins method. Using this method, the imbalance in generating old yin and old yang was eliminated. However, there is no theoretical basis for indicating what should be the optimal probability basis of the old lines versus the young lines. Of course, the whole idea behind this system of divination is that the oracle will select the appropriate answer anyway, regardless of the probabilities. Binomial name Achillea millefolium L. Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, native to the Northern Hemisphere. ... Random number may refer to: A number generated for or part of a set exhibiting statistical randomness. ...


There have been several arrangements of the trigrams and hexagrams over the ages. The bā gùa is a circular arrangement of the trigrams, traditionally printed on a mirror, or disk. According to legend, Fu Hsi found the bā gùa on the scales of a tortoise's back. They function rather like a magic square, with the four axes summing to the same value (e.g., using 0 and 1 to represent yin and yang, 000 + 111 = 111, 101 + 010 = 111, etc.). This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The King Wen sequence is the traditional (i.e. “classical”) sequence of the hexagrams used in most contemporary editions of the book. The King Wen sequence was explained for the first time in STEDT Monograph #5, where it is shown to contain within it a demonstration of advanced mathematical knowledge. The King Wen sequence of the I Ching is a series of sixty four broken and unbroken lines, representing yin and yang respectively. ... The King Wen sequence of the I Ching is a series of sixty four broken and unbroken lines, representing yin and yang respectively. ...

The eight trigrams
The eight trigrams

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Trigrams

The solid line represents yang, the creative principle. The open line represents yin, the receptive principle. These principles are also represented in a common circular symbol (), known as taijitu (太極圖), but more commonly known in the west as the yin-yang (陰陽) diagram, expressing the idea of complementarity of changes: when Yang is at top, Yin is increasing, and the reverse. A commonly used version of the Taijitu The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi. ... Taoists Taijitu The concept of Yin Yang originates in ancient Chinese philosophy, most likely from the observations of day turning into night and night into day. ...


In the following lists, the trigrams and hexagrams are represented using a common textual convention, horizontally from left-to-right, using '|' for yang and '¦' for yin, rather than the traditional bottom-to-top. In a more modern usage, the numbers 0 and 1 can also be used to represent yin and yang, being read left-to-right.


There are eight possible trigrams (八卦 bāguà): This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Trigram Figure Binary Value Name Translation: Wilhelm[2], others Image in Nature [3] Direction [4] Family Relationship [5] Body Part [6] Attribute [7] Stage/ State [8] Animal [9]
1 111
qián
the Creative, Force heaven, aether
northwest father head strong creative horse
2 110
duì
the Joyous, Open swamp, marsh
west third daughter mouth pleasure tranquil (complete devotion) sheep
3 101
the Clinging, Radiance fire
south second daughter eye light-giving, dependence clinging, clarity, adaptable pheasant
4 100
zhèn
the Arousing, Shake thunder
east first son foot inciting movement initiative dragon
5 011
xùn
the Gentle, Ground wind

wood
southeast first daughter thigh penetrating gentle entrance fowl
6 010
kǎn
the Abysmal, Gorge water
north second son ear dangerous in-motion pig
7 001
gèn
Keeping Still, Bound mountain
northeast third son hand resting, stand-still completion wolf, dog
8 000
kūn
the Receptive, Field earth
southwest mother belly devoted, yielding receptive cow

The first three lines of the hexagram, called the lower trigram, are seen as the inner aspect of the change that is occurring. The upper trigram (the last three lines of the hexagram), is the outer aspect. The change described is thus the dynamic of the inner (personal) aspect relating to the outer (external) situation. Thus, hexagram 04 ¦|¦¦¦| Enveloping, is composed of the inner trigram Gorge, relating to the outer trigram Bound. Look up aether, ether in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A gorge is a narrow passage between steep mountains or hills. ...


Hexagram Lookup Table

Upper →


Lower ↓

||| ()

Qian
Heaven

|¦¦ ()

Zhen
Thunder

¦|¦ ()

Kan
Water

¦¦| ()

Gen
Mountain

¦¦¦ ()

Kun
Earth

¦|| ()

Xun
Wind

|¦| ()

Li
Flame

||¦ ()

Dui
Swamp

||| ()

Qian
Heaven

1 34 5 26 11 9 14 43
|¦¦()

Zhen
Thunder
This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ...

25 51 3 27 24 42 21 17
¦|¦ ()

Kan
Water
This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ...

6 40 29 4 7 59 64 47
¦¦| ()

Gen
Mountain
This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ...

33 62 39 52 15 53 56 31
¦¦¦ ()

Kun
Earth
This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ...

12 16 8 23 2 20 35 45

¦|| ()
Xun
Wind
This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ...

44 32 48 18 46 57 50 28

|¦| ()
Li
Flame
This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ...

13 55 63 22 36 37 30 49

||¦ ()
Dui
Swamp
This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ...

10 54 60 41 19 61 38 58

This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ... This is a list of I Ching hexagrams 33-64, and is a continuation of the list of I Ching hexagrams 1-32. ...

The hexagrams

The text of the I Ching describes each of the 64 hexagrams, and later scholars added commentaries and analyses of each one; these have been subsumed into the text comprising the I Ching.


Each hexagram's common translation is accompanied by the corresponding R. Wilhelm translation, which is the source for the Unicode names. The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...

Hexagram R. Wilhelm Modern Interpretation
01. |||||| Force (乾 qián) The Creative Initiating the Action
02. ¦¦¦¦¦¦ Field (坤 kūn) The Receptive Receiving the Action
03. |¦¦¦|¦ Sprouting (屯 chún) Difficulty at the Beginning Sprouting
04. ¦|¦¦¦| Enveloping (蒙 méng) Youthful Folly Detained, Enveloped
05. |||¦|¦ Attending (需 xū) Waiting Waiting
06. ¦|¦||| Arguing (訟 sòng) Conflict Conflict
07. ¦|¦¦¦¦ Leading (師 shī) The Army Bringing Together
08. ¦¦¦¦|¦ Grouping (比 bǐ) Holding Together Union
09. |||¦|| Small Accumulating (小畜 xiǎo chù) Small Taming Temporary Restraint
10. ||¦||| Treading (履 lǚ) Treading (Conduct) Continuing with Alertness
11. |||¦¦¦ Prevading (泰 tài) Peace Pervading
12. ¦¦¦||| Obstruction (否 pǐ) Standstill Stagnation
13. |¦|||| Concording People (同人 tóng rén) Fellowship Fellowship, Partnership
14. ||||¦| Great Possessing (大有 dà yǒu) Great Possession Independence, Freedom
15. ¦¦|¦¦¦ Humbling (謙 qiān) Modesty Being Reserved, Refraining
16. ¦¦¦|¦¦ Providing-For (豫 yù) Enthusiasm Start of Something New
17. |¦¦||¦ Following (隨 suí) Following Breakdown, Dismantling
18. ¦||¦¦| Corrupting (蠱 gǔ) Work on the Decayed Repair, Revival, Remedying
19. ||¦¦¦¦ Nearing (臨 lín) Approach Approaching Goal
20. ¦¦¦¦|| Viewing (觀 guān) Contemplation The Withholding
21. |¦¦|¦| Gnawing Bite (噬嗑 shì kè) Biting Through Compensation
22. |¦|¦¦| Adorning (賁 bì) Grace Entraping, Deception, Lure
23. ¦¦¦¦¦| Stripping (剝 bō) Splitting Apart Stripping, Flaying
24. |¦¦¦¦¦ Returning (復 fù) Return Recovery
25. |¦¦||| Without Embroiling (無妄 wú wàng) Innocence Avoid Embroiling (the Unexpected)
26. |||¦¦| Great Accumulating (大畜 dà chù) Great Taming Launching Charged Assault, Effort
27. |¦¦¦¦| Swallowing (頤 yí) Mouth Corners Fulfilment
28. ¦||||¦ Great Exceeding (大過 dà guò) Great Preponderance Nonfulfilment
29. ¦|¦¦|¦ Gorge (坎 kǎn) The Abysmal Water Darkness, Gorge
30. |¦||¦| Radiance (離 lí) The Clinging Brightness
31. ¦¦|||¦ Conjoining (咸 xián) Influence Attraction
32. ¦|||¦¦ Persevering (恆 héng) Duration Perseverance
Hexagram R. Wilhelm Modern Interpretation
33. ¦¦|||| Retiring (遯 dùn) Retreat Withdrawal
34. ||||¦¦ Great Invigorating (大壯 dà zhuàng) Great Power Stir-up, Great Invigorating
35. ¦¦¦|¦| Prospering (晉 jìn) Progress Expansion, Promotion
36. |¦|¦¦¦ Brightness Hiding (明夷 míng yí) Darkening of the Light Injury, Persecution
37. |¦|¦|| Dwelling People (家人 jiā rén) The Family Community
38. ||¦|¦| Polarising (睽 kuí) Opposition Opposition, Division
39. ¦¦|¦|¦ Limping (蹇 jiǎn) Obstruction Halting, Hardship
40. ¦|¦|¦¦ Taking-Apart (解 xiè) Deliverance Liberation, Solution
41. ||¦¦¦| Diminishing (損 sǔn) Decrease Decrease
42. |¦¦¦|| Augmenting (益 yì) Increase Increase
43. |||||¦ Parting (夬 guài) Breakthrough Separation
44. ¦||||| Coupling (姤 gòu) Coming to Meet Copulation
45. ¦¦¦||¦ Clustering (萃 cuì) Gathering Together Association, Companionship
46. ¦||¦¦¦ Ascending (升 shēng) Pushing Upward Alienation, Rift
47. ¦|¦||¦ Confining (困 kùn) Oppression Restriction
48. ¦||¦|¦ Welling (井 jǐng) The Well Replenishing, Renewal
49. |¦|||¦ Skinning (革 gé) Revolution Abolishing the Old
50. ¦|||¦| Holding (鼎 dǐng) The Cauldron Establishing the New
51. |¦¦|¦¦ Shake (震 zhèn) Arousing Arousal to Action, Turmoil
52. ¦¦|¦¦| Bound (艮 gèn) The Keeping Still Immobility
53. ¦¦|¦|| Infiltrating (漸 jiàn) Development Gradual Development
54. ||¦|¦¦ Converting The Maiden (歸妹 guī mèi) The Marrying Maiden Caution
55. |¦||¦¦ Abounding (豐 fēng) Abundance Goal Reached, Ambition Achieved
56. ¦¦||¦| Sojourning (旅 lǚ) The Wanderer Travel
57. ¦||¦|| Ground (巽 xùn) The Gentle Abandoning, Yielding
58. ||¦||¦ Open (兌 duì) The Joyous Accessing
59. ¦|¦¦|| Dispersing (渙 huàn) Dispersion Dispersal
60. ||¦¦|¦ Articulating (節 jié) Limitation Regulation
61. ||¦¦|| Centre Confirming (中孚 zhōng fú) Inner Truth Staying Focused, Avoid Misrepresentation
62. ¦¦||¦¦ Small Exceeding (小過 xiǎo guò) Small Preponderance Transition, Temporary Stage
63. |¦|¦|¦ Already Fording (既濟 jì jì) After Completion Completion
64. ¦|¦|¦| Not-Yet Fording (未濟 wèi jì) Before Completion Incompletion

The hexagrams, though, are mere mnemonics for the philosophical concepts embodied in each one. The philosophy centres around the ideas of balance through opposites and acceptance of change. I Ching hexagram 01, depicted |||||| is named ä¹¾ (qián), Force. ... I Ching hexagram 02, depicted :::::: is named 坤 (kÅ«n), Field. ... I Ching hexagram 03, depicted |:::|: is named 屯 (chún), Sprouting. ... I Ching hexagram 04, depicted :|:::| is named è’™ (meng2), Enveloping. ... I Ching hexagram 05, depicted |||:|: is named 需 (xu1) Attending. ... I Ching hexagram 06, depicted :|:||| is named 訟 (song4), Arguing. ... I Ching hexagram 07, depicted :|:::: is named 師 (shi1), Leading. ... I Ching hexagram 08, depicted ::::|: is named 比 (bi3), Grouping. ... I Ching hexagram 09, depicted |||:|| is named 小畜 (xiao3 chu4), Small Accumulating. ... I Ching hexagram 10, depicted ||:||| is named å±¥ (lu3), Treading. ... I Ching hexagram 11, depicted |||::: is named æ³° (tai4), Prevading. ... I Ching hexagram 12, depicted :::||| is named 否 (pi3), Obstruction. ... I Ching hexagram 13, depicted |:|||| is named 同人 (tong2 ren2), Concording People. ... I Ching hexagram 14, depicted ||||:| is named 大有 (da4 you3), Great Possessing. ... I Ching hexagram 15, depicted ::|::: is named 謙 (qian1), Humbling. ... I Ching hexagram 16, depicted :::|:: is named 豫 (yu4), Providing-For. ... I Ching hexagram 17, depicted |::||: is named 隨 (sui2), Following. ... I Ching hexagram 18, depicted :||::| is named è ± (gu3), Corrupting. ... I Ching hexagram 19, depicted ||:::: is named 臨 (lin2), Nearing. ... I Ching hexagram 20, depicted ::::|| is named 觀 (guan1), Viewing. ... I Ching hexagram 21, depicted |::|:| is named 噬嗑 (shi4 ke4), Gnawing Bite. ... I Ching hexagram 22, depicted |:|::| is named 賁 (bi4), Adorning. ... I Ching hexagram 23, depicted :::::| is named 剝 (bo1), Stripping. ... I Ching hexagram 24, depicted |::::: is named 復 (fù), Returning. ... I Ching hexagram 25, depicted |::||| is named 無妄 (wu2 wang4), Without Embroiling. ... I Ching hexagram 26, depicted |||::| is named 大畜 (da4 chu4), Great Accumulating. ... I Ching hexagram 27, depicted |::::| is named é ¤ (yi2), Swallowing. ... I Ching hexagram 28, depicted :||||: is named 大過 (da4 guo4), Great Exceeding. ... I Ching hexagram 29, depicted :|::|: is named 坎 (kan3), Gorge. ... I Ching hexagram 30, depicted |:||:| is named 離 (li2), Radiance. ... I Ching hexagram 31, depicted ::|||: is named å’¸ (xian2), Conjoining. ... I Ching hexagram 32, depicted :|||:: is named 恆 (heng2), Persevering. ... I Ching hexagram 33, depicted ::|||| is named 遯 (dun4), Retiring. ... I Ching hexagram 34, depicted ||||:: is named 大壯 (da4 zhuang4), Great Invigorating. ... I Ching hexagram 35, depicted :::|:| is named 晉 (jin4), Prospering. ... I Ching hexagram 36, depicted |:|::: is named 明夷 (ming2 yi2), Brightness Hiding. ... I Ching hexagram 37, depicted |:|:|| is named 家人 (jia1 ren2), Dwelling People. ... I Ching hexagram 38, depicted ||:|:| is named 睽 (kui2), Polarising. ... I Ching hexagram 39, depicted ::|:|: is named 蹇 (jian3), Limping. ... I Ching hexagram 40, depicted :|:|:: is named 解 (xie4), Taking-Apart. ... I Ching hexagram 41, depicted ||:::| is named 損 (sun3), Diminishing. ... I Ching hexagram 42, depicted |:::|| is named 益 (yi4), Augmenting. ... I Ching hexagram 43, depicted |||||: is named 夬 (guai4), Parting. ... I Ching hexagram 44, depicted :||||| is named 姤 (gou4), Coupling. ... I Ching hexagram 45, depicted :::||: is named 萃 (cui4), Clustering. ... I Ching hexagram 46, depicted :||::: is named 升 (sheng1), Ascending. ... I Ching hexagram 47, depicted :|:||: is named å›° (kun4), Confining. ... I Ching hexagram 48, depicted :||:|: is named 井 (jing3), Welling. ... I Ching hexagram 49, depicted |:|||: is named 革 (ge2), Skinning. ... I Ching hexagram 50, depicted :|||:| is named 鼎 (ding3), Holding. ... I Ching hexagram 51, depicted |::|:: is named 震 (zhen4), Shake. ... I Ching hexagram 52, depicted ::|::| is named 艮 (gèn), Bound. ... I Ching hexagram 53, depicted ::|:|| is named 漸 (jian4), Infiltrating. ... I Ching hexagram 54, depicted ||:|:: is named 歸妹 (gui1 mei4), Converting The Maiden. ... I Ching hexagram 55, depicted |:||:: is named 豐 (feng1), Abounding. ... I Ching hexagram 56, depicted ::||:| is named æ—… (lu3), Sojourning. ... I Ching hexagram 57, depicted :||:|| is named å·½ (xun4), Ground. ... I Ching hexagram 58, depicted ||:||: is named å…Œ (dui4), Open. ... I Ching hexagram 59, depicted :|::|| is named 渙 (huan4), Dispersing. ... I Ching hexagram 60, depicted ||::|: is named 節 (jie2), Articulating. ... I Ching hexagram 61, depicted ||::|| is named 中孚 (zhong1 fu2), Centre Confirming. ... I Ching hexagram 62, depicted ::||:: is named 小過 (xiao3 guo4), Small Exceeding. ... I Ching hexagram 63, depicted |:|:|: is named 既濟 (ji4 ji4), Already Fording. ... I Ching hexagram 64, depicted :|:|:| is named 未濟 (wei4 ji4), Not-Yet Fording. ...


Unicode

In Unicode, monograms cover code points U+268A to U+268B, digrams cover code points U+268C to U+268F, trigrams cover code points U+2630 to U+2637, hexagram symbols cover code points U+4DC0 to U+4DFF (19904 – 19967). The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


Tai Xuan Jing(太玄) digrams cover code points U+1D301 to U+1D305, tetragrams cover code points U+1D306 to U+1D356. The monograms cover code points U+1D300 (earth), U+268A (yang), U+268B (yin). The text Tài Xuán Jïng (Canon of Supreme Mystery, Chinese: ) was composed by the Confucian writer Yáng Xióng (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yang Hsiung; 53 BCE-18 CE). ...


Philosophy

Gradations of binary expression based on yin and yang -- old yang, old yin, young yang or young yin (see the divination paragraph below) -- are what the hexagrams are built from. Yin and yang, while common expressions associated with many schools known from classical Chinese culture, are especially associated with the Taoists. For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ...


Another view holds that the I Ching is primarily a Confucianist ethical or philosophical document. This view is based upon the following: A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ...

  • The Wings or Appendices are attributed to Confucius.
  • The study of the I Ching was required as part of the Civil Service Exams in the period that these exams only studied Confucianist texts.
  • It is one of the Five Confucian Classics.
  • It does not appear in any surviving editions of the Daozang.
  • The major commentaries were written by Confucianists, or Neo-Confucianists.
  • Taoist scripture avoids, even mocks, all attempts at categorizing the world's myriad phenomena and forming a static philosophy.
  • Taoists venerate the non-useful. The I Ching could be used for good or evil purposes.

Both views may be seen to show that the I Ching was at the heart of Chinese thought, serving as a common ground for the Confucian and Taoist schools. Partly forgotten due to the rise of Chinese Buddhism during the Tang dynasty, the I Ching returned to the attention of scholars during the Song dynasty. This was concomitant with the reassessment of Confucianism by Confucians in the light of Taoist and Buddhist metaphysics, and is known in the West as Neo-Confucianism. The book, unquestionably an ancient Chinese scripture, helped Song Confucian thinkers to synthesize Buddhist and Taoist cosmologies with Confucian and Mencian ethics. The end product was a new cosmogony that could be linked to the so-called “lost Tao” of Confucius and Mencius. The Daozang (Daoist Cannon) consists of almost 5000 individual texts that were collected circa C.E. 400 (quite some time after the Dao De Jing and Zhuang Zi which are the core Daoist texts). ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Neo-Confucianism (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: )/(traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Sung Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Mencius (Romanization; 孟子, pinyin: Mèng Zǐ; Wade-Giles: Meng Tzu; most accepted dates: 372 – 289 BCE; other possible dates: 385 – 303/302 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher who was arguably the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself. ...


Binary sequence

In his article Explication de l'Arithmétique Binaire (1703) Gottfried Leibniz writes that he has found in the hexagrams a base for claiming the universality of the binary numeral system. He takes the layout of the combinatorial exercise found in the hexagrams to represent binary sequences, so that ¦¦¦¦¦¦ would correspond to the binary sequence 000000 and ¦¦¦¦¦| would be 000001, and so forth. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... External Links Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) [1] ... Leibniz redirects here. ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... It has been suggested that Pascals Mystic Hexagram be merged into this article or section. ...


The binary arrangement of hexagrams is associated with the famous Chinese scholar and philosopher Shao Yong (a neo-Confucian and Taoist) in the 11th century. He displayed it in two different formats, a circle, and a rectangular block. Thus, he clearly understood the sequence represented a logical progression of values. However, while it is true that these sequences do represent the values 0 through 63 in a binary display, there is no evidence that Shao understood that the numbers could be used in computations such as addition or subtraction. Shao Yung (邵雍) was one of the most remarkable men who has ever probed the hidden, metaphysical secrets of life. ...


Divination

Main article: I Ching divination

The I Ching has long been used as an oracle and many different ways coexist to “cast” a reading, i.e., a hexagram, with its dynamic relationship to others. In China the I Ching had two distinct functions. The first was as a compendium and classic of ancient cosmic principles. The second function was that of divination text. As a divination text the world of the I Ching was that of the marketplace fortune teller and roadside oracle. These individuals served the illiterate peasantry. The educated Confucian elite in China were of an entirely different disposition. The future results of our actions were a function of our personal virtues. The Confucian literati actually had little use for the I Ching as a work of divination. In the collected works of the countless educated literati of ancient China there are actually few references to the I Ching as a divination text. Any eyewitness account of traditional Chinese society, such as S. Wells Williams The Middle Kingdom, and many others, can clarify this very basic distinction. Williams tells us of the I Ching, "The hundred of fortune- tellers seen in the streets of Chinese towns, whose answers to their perplexed customers are more or less founded on these cabala, indicate their influence among the illiterate; while among scholars, who have long since conceded all divination to be vain..." (The Middle Kingdom, vol. 1, p. 632) Among the many forms of divination is a method using the I Ching (易經) or Book of Changes. ...


Symbolism

The flag of South Korea, with Taegeuk in the centre with four trigrams representing Heaven, Water, Earth, and Fire (beginning top left and proceeding clockwise).
The flag of South Korea, with Taegeuk in the centre with four trigrams representing Heaven, Water, Earth, and Fire (beginning top left and proceeding clockwise).
Flag of the Empire of Vietnam used Trigram Li - Fire
Flag of the Empire of Vietnam used Trigram Li - Fire

The Flag of South Korea contains the Taijitu symbol, or tàijítú, (yin and yang in dynamic balance, called taegeuk in Korean), representing the origin of all things in the universe. The taegeuk is surrounded by four of the eight trigrams, starting from top left and going clockwise: Heaven, Water, Earth, Fire. Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links Old_Flag_Of_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Old_Flag_Of_Vietnam. ... Flag Capital Huế Language(s) Vietnamese Political structure Client state Prime Minister Trần Trọng Kim Historical era World War II  - Established March 11, 1945  - Disestablished August 23, 1945 Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) Western Imperialism (1887–1945) Empire of Vietnam (1945... Taegukgi and Taegeukgi redirects here. ... A commonly used version of the Taijitu The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi. ... The forms of Kukkiwon WTF Taekwondo used to create a foundation for the teaching of Taekwondo. ...


The flag of the Empire of Vietnam used the Li (Fire) trigram and was known as cờ quẻ Ly (Li trigram flag) because the trigram represents South. Its successor the Republic of Vietnam connected the middle lines, turning it into the Qián (Heaven) trigram. (see Flag of the Republic of Vietnam). Flag Capital Huế Language(s) Vietnamese Political structure Client state Prime Minister Trần Trọng Kim Historical era World War II  - Established March 11, 1945  - Disestablished August 23, 1945 Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) Western Imperialism (1887–1945) Empire of Vietnam (1945... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of former South Vietnam was designed by Emperor Thành Thái in 1890 and was used by Emperor Bảo Đại in 1948, and was the flag used by former South Vietnam until it was abolished by the communist North Vietnamese government on...


Influence on Western culture

Main article: I Ching's influence

The I Ching has influenced countless Chinese philosophers, artists and even businesspeople throughout history. In more recent times, several Western artists and thinkers have used it in fields as diverse as psychoanalysis, music, film, drama, dance, eschatology, and fiction writing. As an important component of Chinese traditional culture, the I Chings influence throughout history has been profound. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ...


Commentary

Early Chinese civilization, as with western civilization, accepted various pre-scientific explanations of natural events, and the I Ching has been cited as an example of this. As a manual of divination it interpreted natural events through readings based on symbols expressed in the trigrams and hexagrams. Thus any observation in nature could be interpreted as to its significance and cause. This might be compared to the Roman practice of basing decisions on the state of animals' livers. While usually sympathetic to the claims of Chinese culture and science, Joseph Needham, in his second volume of Science and Civilization in China (p. 311) stated: "Yet really they [Han dynasty scholars] would have been wiser to tie a millstone about the neck of the I Ching and cast it into the sea."[10] This article is about the Chinese civilization. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ...


Abraham (1999) states that Confucius' ten commentaries, called the Ten Wings, transformed the I Ching from a divination text into a "philosophical masterpiece." It was this form of the I Ching that inspired the Taoists, Chuang Tzu and Lao Tzu. It has influenced Confucians and other philosophers and scientists ever since.[11] However, Helmut Wilhelm in his Change/Eight Lectures on the I Ching, cautions, "It can no longer be said with certainty whether any of the material-and if any, how much-comes from Confucius' own hand" (p. 12). Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... thumb|Zhuang Zi by Japan Zhuāng Zǐ (pinyin), Chuang Tzu (W-G), or Chuang Tse (Chinese 莊子, literally meaning Master Zhuang) was a famous philosopher in ancient China who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States Period, corresponding to the Hundred Schools of Thought philosophical summit of... Lao Zi (also spelled Laozi, Lao Tzu, or Lao Tse) was a famous Chinese philosopher who is believed to have lived in approximately the 4th century BC, during the Hundred Schools of Thought and Warring States Periods. ...


Translations

  • Anthony, Carol K. & Moog, Hanna. I Ching: The Oracle of the Cosmic Way. Stow, Massachusetts: Anthony Publishing Company, Inc., 2002. ISBN 1-890764-00-0. The publisher's internet address is www.ichingoracle.com.
  • Balkin, Jack M. 2002. “The Laws of Change: I Ching and the Philosophy of Life”. New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 0-8052-4199-X
  • Benson, Robert G. 2003. I Ching for a New Age: The Book of Answers for Changing Times. New York: Square One Publishers.
  • Blofeld, J. 1965. The Book of Changes: A New Translation of the Ancient Chinese I Ching. New York: E. P. Dutton.
  • Cornelius, J Edward & Cornelius, Marlene (1998) Yî King: A Beastly Book of Changes. Red Flame: A Thelemic Research Journal (5) 1998. This book contains Aleister Crowley's notes and comments on the Yi Jing.
  • Huang, A. 1998. The Complete I Ching: the Definitive Translation From the Taoist Master Alfred Huang. Rochester, N.Y: Inner Traditions.
  • Hua-Ching Ni. 1999. I Ching: The Book of Changes and the Unchanging Truth. (2nd edition). Los Angeles: Seven Star Communications.
  • Karcher, Stephen, 2002. I Ching: The Classic Chinese Oracle of Change: The First Complete Translation with Concordance. London: Vega Books. ISBN 1-84333-003-2. The publisher can be found at www.chrysalisbooks.co.uk. This version manages to pull together a wide variety of sources and interpretations into a coherent, intelligible whole which is generally easier to understand than the Wilhelm/Baynes edition. Especially interesting are its multiple translations of the Chinese words used and the concordance at the end.
  • Legge, J. 1964. I Ching: Book of Changes. With introduction and study guide by Ch'u Chai and Winberg Chai. New York: Citadel Press.
  • I Ching, The Classic of Changes, The first English translation of the newly discovered second-century B.C. Mawangdui texts by Edward L. Shaughnessy, Ballantine, 1996. ISBN 0-345-36243-8.
  • Wilhelm, R. & Baynes, C., 1967. The I Ching or Book of Changes, With foreword by Carl Jung. 3rd. ed., Bollingen Series XIX. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press (1st ed. 1950).
  • Lynn, Richard J. 1994, The Classic of Changes, A New Translation of the I Ching as Interpreted by Wang Bi. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08294-0
  • Wei, Wu 2005. “I Ching, The Book Of Answers” Power Press ISBN 0-943015-41-3 New revised edition, interpreted by Wu Wei. Appears to follow the Wilhelm and Baynes translation real well, leaving out the sometimes confusing mechanics. Would be handy to use in conjunction with Wilhelm and Baynes when divining for the lay person.
  • Cheng Yi translated by Cleary, Thomas 1988, 2003. “I Ching: The Book of Change” Shambala Library, Boston, London ISBN 1-59030-015-7

Richard Wilhelm was born in Tübingen, Germany on May 10, 1873 and died in Stuttgart, Germany on March 2, 1930. ... Jung redirects here. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Wang Bi was a scholar of the Yi Jing (also known as I Ching). ...

See also

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Dy, Manuel B., Jr. The Chinese View of Time: A Passage to Eternity. Chapter XX. Retrieved on: January 29, 2008
  2. ^ Wilhelm, R. & Baynes, C., 1967: “The I Ching or Book of Changes”, With foreword by Carl Jung, Introduction, pp.l-li. Bollingen Series XIX, Princeton University Press, (1st ed. 1950)
  3. ^ Wilhelm, 1967, pp.l-li
  4. ^ The Shuo Kua. Translated in Wilhelm, 1967, p.269
  5. ^ The Shuo Kua. Translated in Wilhelm, 1967, p.274
  6. ^ The Shuo Kua. Translated Wilhelm, 1967, p.274
  7. ^ The Shuo Kua. Translated Wilhelm, 1967, pp.l-li, p.273
  8. ^ Wilhelm, 1967, p.l-li
  9. ^ The Shuo Kua. Translated Wilhelm, 1967, p.273
  10. ^ Snow, Eric. (June 27, 1999) "Christianity: A Cause of Modern Science?". Retrieved on: February 16, 2008
  11. ^ Abraham, Ralph H. (1999) Commentaries on the I Ching. Chapter 1 Legendary History. Retrieved on: February 15, 2008

is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Herbie Brennan, 1973. The Syncronistic Barometer, Analog, August 1973.
  • Marshall, S. J. 2001. The Mandate of Heaven: Hidden History in the I Ching. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12299-3
  • Rutt, R. 1996. Zhouyi: The Book of Changes. Curzon Press.
  • Reifler, Samuel. 1974. “I Ching: A New Interpretation for Modern Times.” Bantam New Age Books. ISBN 0-553-27873-8
  • Shaughnessy, Edward L. (1993). “I ching 易經 (Chou I 周易) ”, pp.216-228 in Loewe, Michael (ed.). Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide, (Early China Special Monograph Series No. 2), Society for the Study of Early China, and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, ISBN 1-55729-043-1.
  • Smith, Richard J. (2008). Fathoming the Cosmos and Ordering the World: The Yijing (I Ching or Classic of Changes) and Its Evolution in China. University of Virginia Press. http://www.upress.virginia.edu/books/smith.HTM
  • His Dark Materials by Phillip Pullman also contains references to the I Ching.
  • Aleister Crowley - liber CCXVI- The Book of Changes- I CHing - The Equinox, Vol III NO 7. A.'.A.'.
  • Phillip K. Dick's Hugo Award-winning novel 'The Man in the High Castle' features numerous I Ching references.

Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ...

External links

I Ching at the Open Directory Project The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

Original Chinese text at Chinese Wikisource (維基文庫) :
Topics in Chinese mythology
v  d  e
General topics: Creation myth · Astrology · Dragons · Religion in China
Folk religion ·List of deities · I Ching
Important beings: Deities · Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors · Eight Immortals
Mythical creatures:

Xuán Wǔ · Qīng Lóng · Bái Hǔ · Zhū Què
Qilin · Fenghuang · Huli jing · Shi
List of mythical creatures Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Four Books and Five Classics (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: SìshÅ« WÅ­jÄ«ng) are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China. ... The Four Books of Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (not to be confused with the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature), are Chinese classic texts that Zhu Xi selected, in the Song dynasty, as an introduction to Confucianism: the Great Learning, the Doctrine of the Mean, the Analects of Confucius... The Great Learning (Chinese: 大學, pinyin: Dà Xué) is the first of the Four books which were selected by Zhu Xi in the Song Dynasty as a foundational introduction to Confucianism. ... The Doctrine of the Mean (Chinese: 中庸; Pinyin: ) is one of the Four Books, part of the Confucian canonical scriptures. ... Engraving of Confucius. ... Mencius (Romanization; 孟子, pinyin: Mèng Zǐ; Wade-Giles: Meng Tzu; most accepted dates: 372 – 289 BCE; other possible dates: 385 – 303/302 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher who was arguably the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself. ... The Five Classics (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a corpus of five ancient Chinese books used by Confucianism as the basis of studies. ... ShÄ« JÄ«ng (Chinese: 詩經), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. ... Classic of Rites The Classic of Rites (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was one of the Five Classics of the Confucian canon. ... The Classic of History (書經/书经 Shū Jīng) is a collection of documents and speeches alleged to have been written by rulers and officials of the early Zhou period and before. ... The Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋 ChÅ«n QiÅ«, also known as 麟經 Lín JÄ«ng) is the official chronicle of the state of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. It is the earliest surviving Chinese historical text to be arranged on annalistic principles. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written form. ... Chinese astrology is the divination of the future from the Chinese calendar, which is based on astronomy, and ancient Chinese philosophy. ... Japanese name Hiragana: KyÅ«jitai: Shinjitai: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Thai name Thai: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: The Chinese dragon is a Chinese mythical creature, depicted as a long, scaled, snake-like creature with four claws. ... Chinese monk lighting incense in a temple in Beijing. ... Clothed statues of Matsu/Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... This list of deities aims to give information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written form. ... The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: San-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from c. ... For other uses, see Eight Immortals (disambiguation). ... The Black Tortoise (Chinese: ; pinyin: , literally Black Warrior) is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. ... The Azure Dragon (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. ... For other uses, see White tiger (disambiguation). ... The Vermilion Bird (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. ... A qilin of the Qing dynasty in Beijings Summer Palace A painting by the court artist depicting one of Zheng Hes giraffes in 1414. ... Fenghuang sculpture, Nanning city, Guangxi, China. ... nine-tailed fox, from the Qing edition of the Shan Hai Jing Huli jing (狐狸精 hÇ”lijÄ«ng) in Chinese mythology are fox spirits that are akin to European faeries or to the Japanese yōkai known as kitsune. ... Categories: Fictional dogs | Stub ... Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written form. ...

Mythical places: Xuanpu · Yaochi · Fusang · Queqiao
Penglai · Longmen · Diyu
Literary sources: Shan Hai Jing · Shui Jing Zhu · Ten Brothers · Hei'an Zhuan
Fengshen Yanyi · Journey to the West · Madame White Snake
Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio

The Chinese characters for Fusang Fusang (扶桑, Mandarin Pīnyīn: fúsāng) is a country described by the Chinese Buddhist missionary Hui Shen (慧深; Japanese pronunciation: Kei-shin) in 499 CE, as a place 20,000 Chinese li beyond the sea to the east of China (this is either 1... Traditional architecture in a Longmen home. ... Diyu (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ti-yü; Japanese: , jigoku, literally earth prison) is the realm of the dead or hell in Chinese mythology. ... Shanhaijing illustration of Nüwa Shanhaijing illustration of Nine-tailed Fox, companion of Xi Wangmu The Shan Hai Jing (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan Hai Ching; literally Classic of the Mountains and Seas) is a Chinese classic text that is at least 2,000 years old. ... Translated into English it means Commentary on the Waterways Classic. Work on the ancient geography of what is now China. ... Ten Brothers (Chinese: 十兄弟) is a Chinese legend known to be written around the time of the construction of the Great Wall of China, most likely during the Ming Dynasty. ... Fengshen Yanyi (Traditional Chinese: 封神演義; Simplified Chinese: 封神演义) (translated as The Investiture of the Gods or The Creation of the Gods), also known as Fengshen Bang (Traditional Chinese: 封神榜; Simplified Chinese: 封神榜), is one of the major works of classical Chinese literature created in Ming dynasty. ... The four heroes of the story, left to right: Sūn Wùkōng, Xuánzàng, Zhū Bājiè, and Shā Wùjìng. ... Picture on long veranda in the Summer Palace, Beijing, China, depicting the legend Madame White Snake (白蛇傳) (or Lady White Snake) is a Chinese legend, which existed as oral traditions before any written compilation. ... Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio or Liaozhai Zhiyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio or Strange Tales of Liaozhai) is a collection of nearly five hundred mostly supernatural tales written by Pu Songling during the early Qing Dynasty. ...


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