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Encyclopedia > Hyrax
Hyraxes
Fossil range: Early Eocene - Recent
Heterohyrax brucei
Heterohyrax brucei
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Eutheria
Superorder: Afrotheria
Order: Hyracoidea
Huxley, 1869
Family: Procaviidae
Thomas, 1892
Genera

Procavia
Heterohyrax
Dendrohyrax hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 787 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1028 × 783 pixel, file size: 664 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) kind of hyrax (Hyracoidea) perhabs Heterohyrax brucei, de:Buschschliefer photo taken by: de:User:Buecherfresser in Kenya, August 2004 first upload: Oct 10... Binomial name (Gray, 1868) The Bush Hyrax or Yellow-spotted Rock Hyrax (Heterohyrax brucei) is a species of mammal in the Procaviidae family. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Orders[1] Bobolestes Eomaia Maelestes Montanalestes Murtoilestes Prokennalestes Placentalia Superorder Xenarthra: Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa (Sloths, True Anteaters) Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Tenrecs, etc. ... Afrotheria are a clade of mammals with the rank of cohort, that has been proposed based on DNA analysis. ... Thomas Henry Huxley PC, FRS (4 May 1825 Ealing – 29 June 1895 Eastbourne, Sussex) was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Michael Rogers Oldfield Thomas (February 21, 1858 - June 16, 1929) was a British zoologist. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766) The Cape Hyrax (Procavia capensis) is a species in the order Hyracoidea. ... Binomial name (Gray, 1868) The Bush Hyrax or Yellow-spotted Rock Hyrax (Heterohyrax brucei) is a species of mammal in the Procaviidae family. ... Species Dendrohyrax arboreus Dendrohyrax dorsalis The tree hyraxes are the two species in the genus Dendrohyrax. ...

A hyrax (from Greek ὑραξ 'shrewmouse'; Afrikaans: klipdassie) is any of four species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. They live in Africa and the Middle East. Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Hyraxes are well-furred rotund creatures with a mere stump for a tail. They are about the size of a Corgi; most measure between about 30 and 70 cm long and weigh between 2 and 5 kg. From a distance, a hyrax could be mistaken for a very well-fed rabbit or guinea pig. The Welsh Corgi is a dog breed that originated in Wales. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the species Cavia porcellus. ...

Contents

Characteristics

Tree Hyrax in the Serengeti, Tanzania
Tree Hyrax in the Serengeti, Tanzania

Hyraxes retain a number of early mammal characteristics; in particular they have poorly developed internal temperature regulation (which they deal with by huddling together for warmth, and by basking in the sun like reptiles). Unlike other browsing and grazing animals, they do not have well developed incisors at the front of the jaw for slicing off leaves and grass, and need to use the teeth at the side of the jaw instead. Unlike the even-toed ungulates and some of the macropods, hyraxes do not chew cud to help extract nutrients from coarse, low-grade leaves and grasses. They do, however, have complex, multi-chambered stomachs which allow symbiotic bacteria to break down tough plant materials, and their overall ability to digest fibre is similar to that of the ungulates. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 273 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hyrax Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 273 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hyrax Metadata This... The Serengeti is a region of grasslands and woodlands in Mara Region in Tanzania. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1656 × 1104 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to nl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1656 × 1104 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to nl. ... Families Antilocapridae Bovidae Camelidae Cervidae Giraffidae Hippopotamidae Moschidae Suidae Tayassuidae Tragulidae Leptochoeridae † Chaeropotamidae † Dichobunidae † Cebochoeridae † Entelodontidae † Anoplotheriidae † Anthracotheriidae † Cainotheriidae † Agriochoeridae † Merycoidodontidae † Leptomerycidae † Protoceratidae † Xiphodontidae † Amphimerycidae † Helohyidae † Gelocidae † Merycodontidae † Dromomerycidae † Raoellidae † Choeropotamidae † Sanitheriidae † The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Genera Lagostrophus Dendrolagus Dorcopsis Dorcopsulus Lagorchestes Macropus Onychogalea Petrogale Setonix Thylogale Wallabia Tree kangaroos have smaller ears for easier maneuvering between tree branches, and much longer tail. ...


Scientists have recently reduced the number of distinct species of hyrax recognized. While as recently as 1995 there were eleven or more recognized species, there are only four recognized today. The remaining species are regarded as subspecies of the remaining four. In fact, there are over 50 recognized species and subspecies, though many are considered highly endangered.[1] Lumping and splitting refers to a well known problem in any discipline which has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories. ...


Historical accounts

Early Phoenician navigators mistook the rabbits of the Iberian Peninsula for hyraxes (Hebrew Shaphan); hence they named it I-Shapan-im, meaning "land of the hyraxes", which became the Latin word "Hispania", the root of Spain's modern Spanish name España and the English name Spain. Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ...


The word "rabbit, or "hare" was used instead of "hyrax" many times in some earlier English Bible translations. European translators of those times had no knowledge of the hyrax (Hebrew שָּׁפָן Shaphan[2]), and therefore no name for them. There are references to hyraxes in the Old Testament[3] which seem to mistakenly identify hyraxes and rabbits as ruminating animals. This is possibly because they "appear to be so from working the jaws on the grasses they live on."[4]). “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ruminantia. ...


Prehistory

Hyraxes are sometimes described as the closest living relative of the elephant. This is because they may share an ancestor in the distant past when hyraxes were larger and more diverse. However, the details of their relationship remain open to debate.


All modern hyraxes are members of the family Procaviidae (the only living family within the Hyracoidea) and are found only in Africa and the Middle East. In the past, however, hyraxes were more diverse and widespread. The order first appears in the fossil record over 40 million years ago, and for many millions of years hyraxes were the primary terrestrial herbivore in Africa, just as odd-toed ungulates were in the Americas. There were many different species, the largest of them about the weight of a small horse, the smallest the size of a mouse. During the Miocene, however, competition from the newly-developed bovids—very efficient grazers and browsers—pushed the hyraxes out of the prime territory and into marginal niches. Nevertheless, the order remained widespread, diverse and successful as late as the end of the Pliocene (about two million years ago) with representatives throughout most of Africa, Europe and Asia. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae Brontotheriidae (extinct) Chalicotheriidae (extinct) Hyracodontidae (extinct) Palaeotheriidae (extinct) Amynodontidae (extinct) The odd-toed ungulates are browsing and grazing mammals that comprise the order Perissodactyla. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


The descendants of the giant hyracoids evolved in different ways. Some became smaller, and gave rise to the modern hyrax family. Others appear to have taken to the water (perhaps like the modern capybara), and ultimately gave rise to the elephant family, and perhaps also the Sirenians (dugongs and manatees). DNA evidence supports this theory, and the small modern hyraxes share numerous features with elephants, such as toenails, excellent hearing, sensitive pads on their feet, small tusks, good memory, high brain functions compared to other similar mammals, and the shape of some of their bones.[5] // Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Capybara range Capybara (scientific name Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris[1], known as carpincho in Spanish and capivara in Portuguese[2]) is the largest rodent still in existence in the world, related to guinea pigs, agouti, coyphillas and chinchillas. ... Families Dugongidae Trichechidae For information about the Gothic Metal band, see Sirenia (band) Sirenia are herbivorous mammals of coastal waters. ... A toenail is the nail found on a toe. ... Pacific Walrus at Cape Peirce A tusk is an extremely long tooth of certain mammals that protrudes when the mouth is closed. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ...


Not all scientists support the contention that hyraxes are the closest living relative of the elephant, because while they both do have similar bones, Hyraxes do not have the same breasts as Elephants do (Elephants have the same breasts as humans and apes do). Some scientists say Hyraxes are more related to Ungulates such as deer than they are of elephants, T.S. Kemp's The Origin and Evolution of Mammals states that "Elephants (Proboscidea) and hyraxes (Hyracoidae) are both more closely related to manatees and dugongs (Sirenia) than they are to one another." Others state that both morphological and molecular based classifications reveal the Sirenians to be the closest living relatives of elephants, while hyraxes are closely related but form an outgroup to the assemblage of elephants, sirenians and extinct orders like Embrithopoda and Desmostylia.[citation needed] Ungulates (meaning roughly hoofed or hoofed animal) make up several orders of mammals, of which six survive: Artiodactyla: even-toed ungulates, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, and many others Cetacea: whales and dolphins (which evolved from hoofed land animals) Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinos Proboscidea: elephants... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... Groups Jozaria (extinct) Anthracobunidae (extinct) Moeritheriidae (extinct) Euproboscidea Numidotheriidae (extinct) Barytheriidae (extinct) Deinotheriidae (extinct) Elephantiformes Phiomiidae (extinct) Palaeomastodontidae (extinct) Hemimastodontidae (extinct) Euelephantoidea Choerolophodontidae (extinct) Amebelodontidae (extinct) Gnathabelodontidae (extinct) Gomphotheriidae (extinct) Elephantidae Mammutidae (extinct) Proboscidea is an order containing only one family of living animals, Elephantidae, the elephants, with three species... Genera Procavia Heterohyrax Dendrohyrax A hyrax (from Greek shrewmouse; South African English: klipdassie) is any of four species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. ... Species Trichechus inunguis Trichechus manatus Trichechus senegalensis Manatees (family Trichechidae, genus Trichechus) are large aquatic mammals sometimes known as sea cows. ... Binomial name (Müller, 1776) Natural range of . ... Families Dugongidae Trichechidae Hydrochichus (extinct) For information about the Gothic metal band, see Sirenia (band) The Sirenia are fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, estuaries and coastal marine waters. ... Families Dugongidae Trichechidae For information about the Gothic Metal band, see Sirenia (band) Sirenia are herbivorous mammals of coastal waters. ... Families Arsinoitheriidae Phenacolophidae Embrithopoda is an extinct order of mammals which lived during the Oligocene. ... Families Desmostylidae Paleoparadoxiidae Genera Ashoroa Behemotops Desmostylus Paleoparadoxia The Desmostylia are an extinct order of marine mammals comprising four genera, known from late Oligocene and Miocene fossil records. ...


Living species

  • ORDER HYRACOIDEA
    • Family Procaviidae
      • Genus Dendrohyrax
        • Southern Tree Hyrax, Dendrohyrax arboreus
        • Western Tree Hyrax, Dendrohyrax dorsalis
      • Genus Heterohyrax
        • Yellow-spotted Rock Hyrax, Heterohyrax brucei
      • Genus Procavia

Species Dendrohyrax arboreus Dendrohyrax dorsalis The tree hyraxes are the two species in the genus Dendrohyrax. ... Binomial name (A. Smith, 1827) The Eastern Tree Dassie, Eastern Tree Hyrax, Southern Tree Dassie, or Southern Tree Hyrax (Dendrohyrax arboreus) is a species of mammal in the Procaviidae family. ... Binomial name (Fraser, 1855) The Western Tree Dassie, also called Western Tree Hyrax or Beecrofts Tree Hyrax (Dendrohyrax dorsalis), is a species of mammal in the Procaviidae family. ... Binomial name (Gray, 1868) The Bush Hyrax or Yellow-spotted Rock Hyrax (Heterohyrax brucei) is a species of mammal in the Procaviidae family. ... Binomial name (Gray, 1868) The Bush Hyrax or Yellow-spotted Rock Hyrax (Heterohyrax brucei) is a species of mammal in the Procaviidae family. ... Binomial name Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766) The Cape Hyrax (Procavia capensis) is a species in the order Hyracoidea. ... Binomial name Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766) The Cape Hyrax, or Rock Hyrax, (Procavia capensis) is a species in the order Hyracoidea. ...

References

  1. ^ Shoshani, Jeheskel (November 16, 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 87-89. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ "Shaphan" in Strong's Concordance
  3. ^ Lev 11:4-8; Deut 14:7; Ps 104:18; Prov 30:26
  4. ^ Commentary on Lev. 11:5,6 by Robert Jamieson
  5. ^ "Hyrax: The Little Brother of the Elephant", Wildlife on One, BBC TV.

External links

Look up Hyrax in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • A BBC Science and Nature article on Hyrax
  • A reference to Hyrax on a website about elephants (includes video of Procavia capensis- video link dead-many links broken)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hyrax - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (817 words)
Despite the unexceptional appearance of modern hyraxes, the order has a remarkable prehistoric lineage and hyraxes may be the closest living relatives of the elephant, within the cohort of mammals known as Afrotheria.
Hyraxes are short-legged, well-furred, rotund creatures with a mere stump for a tail.
DNA evidence supports this theory, and the small modern hyraxes share numerous features with elephants, such as toenails, excellent hearing, sensitive pads on their feet, small tusks, good memory, high brain functions compared to other similar mammals, and the shape of some of their bones.
Hyrax (382 words)
From a distance and with a little imagination, a hyrax could be mistaken for a very well-fed rabbit—indeed, early Phoenician navigators mistook the rabbits of the Iberian Peninsula for hyraxes: the word Spain originally came from an ancient term meaning "land of the hyraxes".
All modern hyraxes are members of the family Procaviidae (the only family in the Hyracoidea), and they are found only in Africa and the Middle-East.
Present-day hyraxes retain a number of early mammal characteristics, in particular they have poorly developed internal temperature regulation (which they deal with by huddling together for warmth, and by basking in the sun, reptile-style).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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