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Encyclopedia > Hypovolemia
Hypovolemia
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 E86, R57.1, T81.1, T79.4
ICD-9 276.52

In physiology and medicine, hypovolemia (also hypovolaemia) is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ...

Contents

Causes

Common causes of hypovolemia can be dehydration, bleeding, severe burns, crucifixion and drugs such as diuretics or vasodilators typically used to treat hypertensive individuals. Rarely, it may occur as a result of a blood donation.[1] Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Blood from a finger Bleeding is the loss of blood from the body. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ... Vasodilation is where blood vessels in the body become wider following the relaxation of the smooth muscle in the vessel wall. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Give blood” redirects here. ...


Effects

Severe hypovolemia leads to hypovolemic shock. This article is about the medical condition. ...


A low blood volume can result in multiple organ failure, erectile dysfunction, kidney damage and failure, brain damage, coma and death (desanguination). Desanguination, refers to a massive loss of blood. ...


Diagnosis

Clinical symptoms may not present until 10-20% of total whole-blood volume is lost.


Hypovolemia can be recognized by elevated pulse, diminished blood pressure, and the absence of perfusion as assessed by skin signs (skin turning pale) and/or capillary refill on forehead, lips and nail beds. The patient may feel dizzy, faint, nauseated or very thirsty. These signs are also characteristic of most types of shock. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In physiology, perfusion is the process of nutritive delivery of arterial blood to a capillary bed in the biological tissue. ... Capillary refill refers to the rate at which blood is filled into empty small blood vessels. ... In human anatomy, the forehead or brow is the bony part of the head above the eyes. ... The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ... Anatomy In anatomy, a nail is a horn-like piece at the end of a humans or an animals finger or toe. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...


Note that in children, compensation can result in an artificially high blood pressure despite hypovolemia. This is another reason (aside from initial lower blood volume) that even the possibility of internal bleeding in children should always be treated aggressively.


Also look for obvious signs of external bleeding while remembering that people can bleed to death internally without any external blood loss.


Also consider possible mechanisms of injury (especially the steering wheel and/or use/non-use of seat belt in motor vehicle accidents) that may have caused internal bleeding such as ruptured or bruised internal organs. If trained to do so and the situation permits, conduct a secondary survey and check the chest and abdominal cavities for pain, deformity, guarding or swelling. (Injuries to the pelvis and bleeding into the thigh from the femoral artery can also be life-threatening.) A modern road cars steering wheel Steering wheels from different periods A steering wheel is a type of steering control used in most modern land vehicles, including all mass-production automobiles. ...


Treatment

Minor hypovolemia from a known cause that has been completely controlled (such as a blood transfusion from a healthy patient who is not anemic) may be countered with initial rest for up to half an hour, oral fluids including moderate sugars (apple juice is good) and the advice to the donor to eat good solid meals with proteins for the next few days. Typically, this would involve a fluid volume of less than one liter (1000 ml), although this is highly dependent on body weight. Larger people can tolerate slightly more blood loss than smaller people. A glass of clear apple juice, from which pectin and starch have been removed. ...


More serious hypovolemia should be assessed by a nurse or doctor. When in doubt, treat hypovolemia aggressively.


First Aid

External bleeding should be controlled by direct pressure. If direct pressure fails, other techniques such as elevation and pressure points should be considered. The tourniquet should be used in the case of massive haemorrhage i.e. arterial bleeds, such as the femoral artery. If a first-aider recognizes internal bleeding, the life-saving measure to take is to immediately call for advanced medical help. Two tourniquets of different fabrication, these are used for venipuncture A tourniquet is a tightly tied band applied around a body part (an arm or a leg) sometimes used in an attempt to stop severe traumatic bleeding, but also during venipuncture, and other medical procedures. ...


Field Care

Emergency oxygen should be immediately employed to increase the efficiency of the patient's remaining blood supply. This intervention can be life-saving.


The use of intravenous fluids (IVs) may help compensate for lost fluid volume, but IV fluids cannot carry oxygen in the way that blood can. See also emergency medical services for a discussion of techniques used in IV fluid management of hypovolemia. An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Hospital Treatment

If the hypovolemia was caused by medication, the administration of antidotes may be appropriate but should be carefully monitored to avoid shock or the emergence of other pre-existing conditions.


Blood transfusions coupled with surgical repair are the definitive treatment for hypovolemia caused by trauma. See also the discussion of shock and the importance of treating reversible shock while it can still be countered. Donating blood Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...


References

  1. ^ Danic B, Gouezec H, Bigant E, Thomas T (2005). "Incidents of blood donation". Transfus Clin biol Jun;12(2):153-9.  PMID 15894504

See also

In medicine, volume status refers to the volume of blood in a patients circulatory system. ... Hypervolemia (or Fluid overload) is the medical condition where there is too much fluid in the body. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hypovolemia - definition of Hypovolemia in Encyclopedia (475 words)
In physiology and medicine, hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume.
Common causes of hypovolemia are dehydration, bleeding, and drugs such as diuretics or vasodilators typically used to treat hypertensive individuals.
Blood transfusions coupled with surgical repair are the definitive treatment for hypovolemia caused by trauma.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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