FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Hypothalamus" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Hypothalamus
Brain: Hypothalamus
Location of the human hypothalamus
Dienchephalon
Latin hypothalamus
Gray's subject #189 812
NeuroNames hier-358
MeSH Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). The hypothalamus, (from Greek ὑποθαλαμος = under the thalamus) is located below the thalamus, just above the brain stem. This gland occupies the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon. It is found in all mammalian brains. In humans, it is roughly the size of an almond. Location of Hypothalamus Found in the url : http://arbl. ... Image File history File links Illu_diencephalon_. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... | Latin = hypophysis, glandula pituitaria | GraySubject = 275 | GrayPage = 1275 | Image = Gray1180. ... The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = bedroom, chamber, IPA= /ˈθælÉ™mÉ™s/) is a pair and symmetric part of the brain. ... The brain stem is the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. ... The diencephalon is the region of the brain that includes the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ...


Certain metabolic processes and other activities of the Autonomic Nervous System. It synthesizes and secretes neurohormones, often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled with the liberation of energy, and the consequent generation of waste... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ...


The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, [1] fatigue, anger, and circadian cycles. Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A circadian rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. ...

Contents

Inputs

The hypothalamus is a complex region in the brain of humans, and even small nuclei within the hypothalamus are involved in many different functions. The paraventricular nucleus for instance contains oxytocin and vasopressin (also called antidiuretic hormone) neurons which project to the posterior pituitary, but also contains neurons that regulate ACTH and TSH secretion (which project to the anterior pituitary), gastric reflexes, maternal behavior, blood pressure, feeding, immune responses, and temperature. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Feeding is the process by which organisms, typically animals, obtain food. ... The immune system protects the body from infection by pathogenic organisms. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ...


The hypothalamus co-ordinates many hormonal and behavioural circadian rhythms, complexity patterns of neuroendocrine outputs, complex homeostatic mechanisms,[2] and many important behaviours. The hypothalamus must therefore respond to many different signals, some of which are generated externally and some internally. It is thus richly connected with many parts of the CNS, including the brainstem reticular formation and autonomic zones, the limbic forebrain (particularly the amygdala, septum, diagonal band of Broca, and the olfactory bulbs, and the cerebral cortex). The reticular formation is a part of the brain which is involved in stereotypical actions, such as walking, sleeping, and lying down. ... Look up Amygdala in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up septum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The diagonal band of Broca consists of fibers that are said to arise in the parolfactory area, the gyrus subcallosus and the anterior perforated substance, and course backward in the longitudinal striae to the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal region. ... The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ...


The hypothalamus is responsive to:

  • Light: daylength and photoperiod for regulating circadian and seasonal rhythms
  • Olfactory stimuli, including pheromones
  • Steroids, including gonadal steroids and corticosteroids
  • Neurally transmitted information arising in particular from the heart, the stomach, and the reproductive tract
  • Autonomic inputs
  • Blood-borne stimuli, including leptin, ghrelin, angiotensin, insulin, pituitary hormones, cytokines, plasma concentrations of glucose and osmolarity etc
  • Stress
  • Invading microorganisms by increasing body temperature, resetting the body's thermostat upward.

Photoperiodism is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night. ... The circadian rhythm is a name given to the internal body clock that regulates the (roughly) 24 hour cycle of biological processes in animals and plants. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... Ghrelin is a hormone produced by P/D1 cells lining the acer of the human stomach that stimulate appetite. ... Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Cytokines are small protein molecules that are the core of communication between immune system cells, and even between immune system cells and cells belonging to other tissue types. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ...

Olfactory stimuli

Olfactory stimuli are important for sex and neuroendocrine function in many species. For instance if a pregnant mouse is exposed to the urine of a 'strange' male during a critical period after coitus then the pregnancy fails (the Bruce effect). Thus during coitus, a female mouse forms a precise 'olfactory memory' of her partner which persists for several days. Pheromonal cues aid synchronisation of oestrus in many species; in women, synchronised menstruation may also arise from pheromonal cues, although the role of pheromones in humans is doubted by some. The Bruce effect is a form of pregnancy disruption in mammals in which exposure of a female to an unknown male results in pre- (Bruce 1959) or postimplantation failure (e. ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ... Not to be confused with Mensuration. ...


Blood-borne stimuli

Peptide hormones have important influences upon the hypothalamus, and to do so they must evade the blood-brain barrier. The hypothalamus is bounded in part by specialized brain regions that lack an effective blood-brain barrier; the capillary endothelium at these sites is fenestrated to allow free passage of even large proteins and other molecules. Some of these sites are the sites of neurosecretion - the neurohypophysis and the median eminence. However others are sites at which the brain samples the composition of the blood. Two of these sites, the subfornical organ and the OVLT (organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis) are so-called circumventricular organs, where neurons are in intimate contact with both blood and CSF. These structures are densely vascularized, and contain osmoreceptive and sodium-receptive neurons which control drinking, vasopressin release, sodium excretion, and sodium appetite. They also contain neurons with receptors for angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, endothelin and relaxin, each of which is important in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance. Neurons in the OVLT and SFO project to the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus, and also to preoptic hypothalamic areas. The circumventricular organs may also be the site of action of interleukins to elicit both fever and ACTH secretion, via effects on paraventricular neurons. Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Median Eminence The median eminence is part of the inferior boundary for the hypothalamus. ... The Subfornical organ is one of the circumventricular organs of the brain and is involved in thirst-regulation. ... The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) is one of the circumventricular organs of the brain . ... Circumventricular organs are sites in the neuroendocrine system that allow factors to circumvent the Brain Blood Barrier. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... A lion drinking Cygnus olor (mute swan) drinking Drinking is the act of consuming a liquid through the mouth. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atriopeptin, is a peptide hormone involved in the homeostatic control of body water and sodium. ... Endothelin is a 21-amino acid vasoconstricting peptide that plays a key part in vascular homeostasis. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle. ... Interleukins are a group of cytokines that are expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The function of the immune system depends in a large part on interleukins, and rare deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring autoimmune...


It is not clear how all peptides that influence hypothalamic activity gain the necessary access. In the case of prolactin and leptin, there is evidence of active uptake at the choroid plexus from blood into CSF. Some pituitary hormones have a negative feedback influence upon hypothalamic secretion; for example, growth hormone feeds back on the hypothalamus, but how it enters the brain is not clear. There is also evidence for central actions of prolactin and TSH. Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... The choroid plexus is the area on the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by modified ependymal cells. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ...


Steroids

The hypothalamus contains neurons that are sensitive to gonadal steroids and glucocorticoids – (the steroid hormones of the adrenal gland, released in response to ACTH). It also contains specialised glucose-sensitive neurons (in the arcuate nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamus), which are important for appetite. The preoptic area contains thermosensitive neurons; these are important for TRH secretion. The name glucocorticoid derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in glucose metabolism. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. ... The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. ... The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus) has two parts; The superior and anterior parts. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... The acronym TRH usually refers to the thyrotropin-releasing hormone, but in the context of manners of address, it can refer to the following: Their Royal Highnesses, when referring to a group of royals in the British Commonwealth It may also be used to incorrectly refer to the style The...


Neural inputs

The hypothalamus receives many inputs from the brainstem; notably from the nucleus of the solitary tract, the locus coeruleus, and the ventrolateral medulla. Oxytocin secretion in response to suckling or vagino-cervical stimulation is mediated by some of these pathways; vasopressin secretion in response to cardiovascular stimuli arising from chemoreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch, and from low-pressure atrial volume receptors, is mediated by others. In the rat, stimulation of the vagina also causes prolactin secretion, and this results in pseudo-pregnancy following an infertile mating. In the rabbit, coitus elicits reflex ovulation. In the sheep, cervical stimulation in the presence of high levels of estrogen can induce maternal behavior in a virgin ewe. These effects are all mediated by the hypothalamus, and the information is carried mainly by spinal pathways that relay in the brainstem. Stimulation of the nipples stimulates release of oxytocin and prolactin and suppresses the release of LH and FSH. The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... The solitary nucleus and tract are structures in the brainstem. ... The Locus ceruleus, also spelled locus coeruleus, (Latin for the blue bit) is a nucleus in the brain stem apparently responsible for the physiological reactions involved in stress and panic. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... Arteries of the neck. ... For the embryological structure, see Aortic arches. ... Atrial volume receptors are low pressure baroreceptors found in the atria. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Pseudocyesis also known as false pregnancy, can cause many of the signs and symptoms associated with pregnancy, and can resemble the condition in every way except for fetal presence. ... Ovulation is the process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg) that participates in reproduction. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ...


Cardiovascular stimuli are carried by the vagus nerve, but the vagus also conveys a variety of visceral information, including for instance signals arising from gastric distension to suppress feeding. Again this information reaches the hypothalamus via relays in the brainstem. The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ...


Nuclei

The hypothalamic nuclei include the following:[3][4][5]

Hypothalamic nuclei
Hypothalamic nuclei
Region Area Nucleus Function[6]
Anterior Medial Medial preoptic nucleus
Supraoptic nucleus (SO)
Paraventricular nucleus (PV)
Anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AH)
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SC)
Lateral Lateral preoptic nucleus
Lateral nucleus (LT)
Part of supraoptic nucleus (SO)
Tuberal Medial Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DM)
  • GI stimulation
Ventromedial nucleus (VM)
Arcuate nucleus (AR)
  • neurendocrine control
Lateral Lateral nucleus (LT)
Lateral tuberal nuclei
Posterior Medial Mammillary nuclei (part of mammillary bodies) (MB)
  • feeding reflexes
Posterior nucleus (PN)
Lateral Lateral nucleus (LT)
See also: ventrolateral preoptic nucleus

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (769x603, 447 KB) Hypothalamic Nuclei File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hypothalamus Supraoptic nucleus Paraventricular nucleus Suprachiasmatic nucleus Arcuate nucleus Median eminence Ventromedial nucleus Posterior nucleus (hypothalamus... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (769x603, 447 KB) Hypothalamic Nuclei File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hypothalamus Supraoptic nucleus Paraventricular nucleus Suprachiasmatic nucleus Arcuate nucleus Median eminence Ventromedial nucleus Posterior nucleus (hypothalamus... The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... The Anterior hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Perspiration (also called sweating or sometimes transpiration) is the production and evaporation of a fluid, consisting primarily of water as well as a smaller amount of sodium chloride (the main constituent of table salt), that is excreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone produced by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a region of the brain, located in the hypothalamus, that is responsible for controlling endogenous circadian rhythms. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... The Circadian rhythm is a name given to the internal body clock that regulates the (roughly) 24 hour cycle of biological processes in animals and plants. ... The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... The Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. ... Gut redirects here. ... The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus) has four subdivisions: anterior (VMHa), dorsomedial (VMHdm), ventrolateral (VMHvl), and central (VMHc). ... Satiety, or the feeling of fullness and disappearance of appetite after a meal, is a process mediated by the ventromedial nucleus in the hypothalamus. ... The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ... The mammillary bodies (Latin: corpus mamillare) are a pair of small round bodies in the brain forming part of the limbic system. ... The posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus is one of the many nuclei that make up the hypothalamic region of the brain. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... The human eye The pupil is the central transparent area (showing as black). ... Shivering is a human bodily function in response to cold. ... The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) is a group of neurons that seem to be active during sleep. ...

Outputs

The outputs of the hypothalamus can be divided into two categories: neural projections, and endocrine hormones.[8]


Neural projections

Most fiber systems of the hypothalamus run in two ways (bidirectional).

In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ... The Medial forebrain bundle is a portion of the brain between the ventral tegmentum and the hypothalamus. ... The dorsal longitudinal fasciculus (DLF) (not to be confused with the medial longitudinal fasciculus) is a white matter fiber tract located within the brain stem, specifically in the mesencephalon. ... The mammillothalamic fasciculus (mammillothalamic tract, thalamomammillary fasciculus, bundle of Vicq d’Azyr) arises from cells in both the medial and lateral nuclei of the mammillary body and by fibers that are directly continued from the fornix. ... The fornix is also the name of part of the cervix (fornix vaginae). ... This article needs to be wikified. ...

Endocrine hormones

The Hypothalamus affects the endocrine system and governs emotional behavior, such as, anger and sexual activity. Most of the hypothalamic hormones generated are distributed to the pituitary via the hypophyseal portal system.[9] The hypothalamus maintains homeostasis this includes a regulation of blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature. The hypophyseal portal system is the system of blood vessels that links the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary. ...


The primary hypothalamic hormones are:

Name Other Names Abbreviations Location Function
Corticotropin-releasing hormone Corticotropin-releasing factor, Corticoliberin CRH, CRF parvocellular neuroendocrine neurons in the paraventricular nucleus with vasopressin, stimulates anterior pituitary to secrete ACTH
Dopamine Prolactin-inhibiting hormone DA, PIH neuroendocrine neurons of the arcuate nucleus inhibits secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Luteinising-hormone releasing hormone GnRH, LHRH neuroendocrine neurons in the medial preoptic and arcuate nuclei stimulates anterior pituitary to secrete LH and FSH
Growth hormone-releasing hormone Growth-hormone-releasing factor, somatocrinin GHRH, GHRF, GRF arcuate nucleus neuroendocrine neurons stimulates anterior pituitary to secrete growth hormone
Melatonin suprachiasmatic nucleus
Somatostatin Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone, Somatotropin release-inhibiting factor SS, GHIH, SRIF neuroendocrine neurons of the periventricular nucleus inhibits secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone Thyrotropin-releasing factor, Thyroliberin, Protirelin TRH, TRF parvocellular neuroendocrine neurons in the paraventricular and anterior hypothalamic nuclei stimulates anterior pituitary to secrete TSH

See also: Hypocretin Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the stress response. ... The parvocellular part of a nucleus in the brain (if the nucleus has a parvocellular part) is that part which contains small-bodied, punctate neuronal cells. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Pronunciation (IPA): /əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtrɒpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn, əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtroʊpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1 also called LHRH) is a peptide hormone responsible for the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. ... The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus. ... The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Growth hormone-releasing hormone is a hormone released from the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus that stimulates the release of growth hormone. ... The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. ... redirect Template:Db-reason synaptophysin ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a region of the brain, located in the hypothalamus, that is responsible for controlling endogenous circadian rhythms. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... The Periventricular nucleus is a composite structure of the hypothalamus. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or protirelin, is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by the anterior pituitary. ... The parvocellular part of a nucleus in the brain (if the nucleus has a parvocellular part) is that part which contains small-bodied, punctate neuronal cells. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle. ... The Anterior hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Orexins, also called hypocretins, are the common names given to a pair of highly excititory neuropeptide hormones that were simultaneously discovered by two groups of reseachers in rat brains. ...


Control of food intake

The extreme lateral part of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is responsible for the control of food intake. Stimulation of this area causes increased food intake. Bilateral lesion of this area causes complete cessation of food intake. Medial parts of the nucleus have a controlling effect on the lateral part. Bilateral lesion of the medial part of the ventromedial nucleus causes hyperphagia and obesity of the animal. Further lesion of the lateral part of the ventromedial nucleus in the same animal produces complete cessation of food intake. In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ... The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus) has four subdivisions: anterior (VMHa), dorsomedial (VMHdm), ventrolateral (VMHvl), and central (VMHc). ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... In biology, polyphagia is a type of phagy, referring to an animal that feeds on many kinds of food. ...


There are different hypotheses related to this regulation:[10]

  1. Lipostatic hypothesis - this hypothesis holds that adipose tissue produces a humoral signal that is proportionate to the amount of fat and acts on the hypothalamus to decrease food intake and increase energy output. It has been evident that a hormone leptin acts on the hypothalamus to decrease food intake and increase energy output.
  2. Gutpeptide hypothesis - gastrointestinal hormones like Grp, glucagons, CCK and others claimed to inhibit food intake. The food entering the gastrointestinal tract triggers the release of these hormones which acts on the brain to produce satiety. The brain contains both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors.
  3. Glucostatic hypothesis - the activity of the satiety center in the ventromedial nuclei is probably governed by the glucose utilization in the neurons. It has been postulated that when their glucose utilization is low and consequently when the arteriovenous blood glucose difference across them is low, the activity across the neurons decrease. Under these conditions, the activity of the feeding center is unchecked and the individual feels hungry. Food intake is rapidly increased by intraventricular administration of 2-deoxyglucose therefore decreasing glucose utilization in cells.
  4. Thermostatic hypothesis - according to this hypothesis, a decrease in body temperature below a given set point stimulates appetite, while an increase above the set point inhibits appetite.

Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... Humoral immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... Gut redirects here. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... 2-Deoxy-D-glucose is a molecule which has the 2-hydroxyl group replaced by hydrogen, so that it cannot undergo further glycolysis. ...

Sexual dimorphism

Several hypothalamic nuclei are sexually dimorphic, i.e. there are clear differences in both structure and function between males and females. Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in form between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ...


Some differences are apparent even in gross neuroanatomy: most notable is the sexually dimorphic nucleus within the preoptic area, which is present only in males. However most of the differences are subtle changes in the connectivity and chemical sensitivity of particular sets of neurons. The sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) is a cluster of cells in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, an area of the human brain and that of other mammals, which is controversially considered by some studies to play a key role in the sexual differentiation of the brain. ... The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus. ...


The importance of these changes can be recognised by functional differences between males and females. For instance, the pattern of secretion of growth hormone is sexually dimorphic, and this is one reason why in many species, adult males are much larger than females. Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ...


Responses to ovarian steroids

Other striking functional dimorphisms are in the behavioral responses to ovarian steroids of the adult. Males and females respond differently to ovarian steroids, partly because the expression of estrogen-sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus is sexually dimorphic, i.e. estrogen receptors are expressed in different sets of neurons. Sex steroids, also known as gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones which interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors. ...


Estrogen and progesterone can influence gene expression in particular neurons or induce changes in cell membrane potential and kinase activation, leading to diverse non-genomic cellular functions. Estrogen and progesterone bind to their cognate nuclear hormone receptors, which translocate to the cell nucleus and interact with regions of DNA known as Hormone response elements (HREs) or get tethered to another transcription factor's binding site. Estrogen receptor (ER) has been shown to transactivate other transcription factors in this manner, despite the absence of an estrogen response element (ERE) in the proximal promoter region of the gene. ERs and Progesterone receptors (PRs) are generally gene activators, with increased mRNA and subsequent protein synthesis following hormone exposure. Estriol. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In biochemistry, a kinase is a type of enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules, such as ATP, to specific target molecules (substrates); the process is termed phosphorylation. ... Nuclear receptors are a class of intracellular receptors. ... Hormone response elements (HRE) are located on DNA and act as receptors for steroid hormone receptor complexes. ... In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ... The estrogen receptor is a receptor for estradiol (the main endogenous estrogen); it is located intracellularly, in parallel with other steroid hormone receptors. ... The progesterone receptor is an intracellular steroid receptor that specifically binds progesterone. ...


Male and female brains differ in the distribution of estrogen receptors, and this difference is an irreversible consequence of neonatal steroid exposure. Estrogen receptors (and progesterone receptors) are found mainly in neurons in the anterior and mediobasal hypothalamus, notably:

Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus and that influences the release of luteinizing hormone in the pituitary gland. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus) has two parts; The superior and anterior parts. ...

Gonadal steroids in neonatal life of rats

In neonatal life, gonadal steroids influence the development of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus. For instance, they determine the ability of females to exhibit a normal reproductive cycle, and of males and females to display appropriate reproductive behaviors in adult life.

  • If a female rat is injected once with testosterone in the first few days of postnatal life (during the "critical period" of sex-steroid influence), the hypothalamus is irreversibly masculinized; the adult rat will be incapable of generating an LH surge in response to estrogen (a characteristic of females), but will be capable of exhibiting male sexual behaviors (mounting a sexually receptive female).
  • By contrast, a male rat castrated just after birth will be feminized, and the adult will show female sexual behavior in response to estrogen (sexual receptivity, lordosis}.

Lordosis is a term used to describe the direction of the curvature of the five lumbar and seven cervical vertebrae of the vertebral column. ...

Androgens in primates

In primates, the developmental influence of androgens is less clear, and the consequences are less complete. 'Tomboyism' in girls might reflect the effects of androgens on the fetal brain, but the sex of rearing during the first 2-3 years is believed by many to be the most important determinant of gender identity, because during this phase either estrogen or testosterone will have permanent effects on either a female or male brain, influencing both heterosexuality and homosexuality.[11] Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates. ...


The paradox is that the masculinizing effects of testosterone are mediated by estrogen. Within the brain, testosterone is aromatized to (estradiol), which is the principal active hormone for developmental influences. The human testis secretes high levels of testosterone from about week 8 of fetal life until 5-6 months after birth (a similar perinatal surge in testosterone is observed in many species), a process that appears to underlie the male phenotype. Estrogen from the maternal circulation is relatively ineffective, partly because of the high circulating levels of steroid-binding proteins in pregnancy. Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Estradiol (17β-estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ...


Other influences upon hypothalamic development

Sex steroids are not the only important influences upon hypothalamic development; in particular, pre-pubertal stress in early life determines the capacity of the adult hypothalamus to respond to an acute stressor.[12] Unlike gonadal steroid receptors, glucocorticoid receptors are very widespread throughout the brain; in the paraventricular nucleus, they mediate negative feedback control of CRF synthesis and secretion, but elsewhere their role is not well understood. Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle. ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the stress response. ...


Effects of aging on the hypothalamus

Studies in female mice have shown that both Supraoptic nucleus (SON) and Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) lose approximately one-third of IGF-1R immunoreactive cells with normal aging. Also, Old caloricly restricted (CR) mice lost higher numbers of IGF-1R non-immunoreactive cells while maintaining similar counts of IGF-1R immunoreactive cells in comparison to Old-Al mice. Consequently, Old-CR mice show a higher percentage of IGF-1R immunoreactive cells reflecting increased hypothalamic sensitivity to IGF-1 in comparison to normally aging mice. [13] [14] [15] The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle. ...


See also

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress. ... Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system. ...

Additional images

References

  1. ^ Definition of hypothalamus - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms
  2. ^ hypothalamus
  3. ^ Diagram of Nuclei (psycheducation.org)
  4. ^ Diagram of Nuclei (universe-review.ca)
  5. ^ Diagram of Nuclei (utdallas.edu)
  6. ^ Unless else specified in table, then ref is: Guyton Eight Edition
  7. ^ Walter F., PhD. Boron. Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3.  Page 840
  8. ^ Hypothalamus and ANS
  9. ^ Overview of Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones
  10. ^ Theologides A (1976). "Anorexia-producing intermediary metabolites". Am J Clin Nutr 29 (5): 552-8. PMID 178168. 
  11. ^ John Money, 'The concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 39 years', Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 20 (1994): 163-77.
  12. ^ Romeo, Russell D; Rudy Bellani, Ilia N. Karatsoreos, Nara Chhua, Mary Vernov, Cheryl D. Conrad and Bruce S. McEwen (2005). "Stress History and Pubertal Development Interact to Shape Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Plasticity". Endocrinology 147 (4): 1664-1674. The Endocrine Society. doi:10.1210/en.2005-1432. Retrieved on 2007-10-16. 
  13. ^ Saeed O,Yaghmaie F,Garan SA,Gouw AM,Voelker MA,Sternberg H, Timiras PS. (2007). "Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor immunoreactive cells are selectively maintained in the paraventricular hypothalamus of calorically restricted mice". Int J Dev Neurosci 25 (1): 23-8. PMID 17194562. 
  14. ^ Yaghmaie F, Saeed O, Garan SA, Voelker MA, Gouw AM, Freitag W, Sternberg H, Timiras PS (2006). "Age-dependent loss of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor immunoreactive cells in the supraoptic hypothalamus is reduced in calorically restricted mice". Int J Dev Neurosci 24 (7): 431-6. PMID 17034982. 
  15. ^ F. Yaghmaie, O. Saeed, S.A. Garan, A.M. Gouw, P. Jafar, J. Kaur, S. Nijjar, P.S. Timiras, H. Sternberg, M.A. Voelker (2007). "Tracking changes in hypothalamic IGF-1 sensitivity with aging and caloric restriction". Experimental Gerontology 42 (1-2): 148-149.  [1]

John William Money, Ph. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (also HPTA) is a way of referring to the combined effects of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... The corpus luteum (Latin for yellow body) is a small, temporary endocrine structure in animals. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... A porcine islet of Langerhans. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ... Look up Amygdala in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ... The Fornicate Gyrus is connected to the amydala, the mid region of the parietal region of the skull. ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ... The mammillary bodies (Latin: corpus mamillare) are a pair of small round bodies in the brain forming part of the limbic system. ... The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ... The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a region of association cortex of the human brain involved in cognitive processes such as decision making. ... The parahippocampal gyrus (or hippocampal gyrus) is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
HYPOTHALAMUS (11361 words)
In the monkey and human, presumably the visceral afferent influence from the NTS is relayed to the hypothalamus via the projection of the NTS to the parabrachial nucleus.
Another route by which the hypothalamus receive somatosensory and auditory input is the peripeduncular area, which lies in the area ventral to the medial geniculate body.
The hypothalamus also projects directly to the nucleus tractus solitarius and parabrachial nucleus, and may thus ‘gate’ the flow of specific from the IX and X nerve to the thalamus and cerebral cortex.
HYPOTHALAMUS (7244 words)
The sustained high levels of estradiol act at the hypothalamus and pituitary to cause a positive feedback effect such that a large outpouring of LH and FSH is released from the pituitary.
In contrast, lesions of the caudal hypothalamus produces somnolence, suggesting that this region is involved in arousal.
This distribution of leptin receptors is consistent with a large body of literature implicating the ventrobasal hypothalamus in feeding, as shown by large lesions of the VMH that produced increased food intake and obesity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m