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Encyclopedia > Hypopituitarism

Hypopituitarism is a medical term describing deficiency (hypo) of one or more hormones of the pituitary gland. The pituitary produces a number of important regulating hormones, and its function is mainly regulated by the hypothalamus. In endocrinology, deficiency of multiple hormones of the anterior lobe is generally referred to as hypopituitarism, while deficiency of the posterior lobe generally only leads to diabetes insipidus. If both lobes malfunction, the term panhypopituitarism (generalised hypopituitarism) is used. A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, which cannot be reduced when fluid intake is reduced. ...

Contents


Physiology

The primary hormones of the anterior pituitary are proteins and include A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...

These hormones are secreted in individually characteristic pulsatile patterns, often with distinct circadian rhythm, rather than at steady rates throughout 24 hours. Growth hormone is a polypeptide hormone synthesised and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other vertebrate animals. ... A space-filling model of glucose Glucose, a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... The phrase menstrual cycle ( or period) refers to the recurring physiological changes in a females body that are under the control of the reproductive hormone system and necessary for reproduction. ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone produced by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Prolactin is a hormone secreted by lactotropes in the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland) which is made up of 199 amino acids with a molecular weight of about 23,000 daltons. ... A glass of milk Milk most often means the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals. ... A pair of female breasts The term breast can refer to the upper ventral region of the human torso. ... The circadian rhythm is a name given to the internal body clock that regulates the (roughly) 24 hour cycle of biological processes in animals and plants. ...


The posterior pituitary produces antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin, the former regulating plasma osmolarity and the latter regulating uterine contractions during childbirth. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ... Oxytocin is a nine amino acid peptide hormone synthesized in magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Osmolality, in biology and chemistry, is a measure of moles of solute per kg of water. ... Female internal reproductive anatomy The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... In medicine (obstetrics), a contraction is a forceful motion of the uterus, generated by the release of oxytocin (quick labor) by the pituitary gland, culminating in childbirth. ... Newborn with suctioning and umbilical cord Childbirth (also called labour, birth, or parturition) is the culmination of pregnancy, the emergence of a child from its mothers uterus. ...


Growth hormone is often the first hormone lost, so most people with hypopituitarism lack GH as well as one or more others. As for the posterior pituitary, ADH deficiency is the main problem, while oxytocin deficiency rarely causes clinically significant problems.


Causes

Hypopituitarism and panhypopituitarism can be congenital or acquired. A partial list of causes and forms:

  • Congenital hypopituitarism
    • Hypoplasia of the pituitary
      • Isolated idiopathic congenital hypopituitarism
      • Associated with other congenital syndromes and birth defects
        • Septo-optic dysplasia
        • Holoprosencephaly
        • Chromosome 22 deletion syndrome
        • Rapaport syndrome
    • Single gene defect forms of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency
  • Acquired hypopituitarism
  • other diseases.

In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a congenital malformation syndrome manifested by hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the optic nerve, hypopituitarism, and absence of the septum pellucidum (a midline part of the brain). ... Cephalic disorders are congenital conditions that stem from damage to, or abnormal development of, the budding nervous system. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... A typical modern surgery operation For other meanings of the word, see Surgery (disambiguation) Surgery (from the Greek cheirourgia - lit. ... See the article about cancer for the main article about malignant tumors. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... Radiation generally means the transmission of waves, objects or information from a source into a surrounding medium or destination. ... Leukemia (leukaemia in Commonwealth English) is a group of blood diseases characterized by malignancies (cancer) of the blood-forming tissues. ... In medicine, shock is a life-threatening medical emergency characterized by inability of the body to supply enough oxygen to meet tissue requirements. ... Sheehan syndrome, also known as Simmonds disease, postpartum hypopituitarism or postpartum pituitary necrosis is hypopituitarism (decreased functioning of the pituitary gland), caused by necrosis due to blood loss and hypovolemic shock during and after childbirth. ... Hemorrhage (alternate spelling is Haemorrhage) is the medical term meaning bleeding. ... Newborn with suctioning and umbilical cord Childbirth (also called labour, birth, or parturition) is the culmination of pregnancy, the emergence of a child from its mothers uterus. ... Haemochromatosis, also spelled hemochromatosis, is a hereditary disease characterized by improper processing by the body of dietary iron which causes iron to accumulate in a number of body tissues, eventually causing organ dysfunction. ...

Diagnosis

Hypopituitarism may come to medical attention by symptoms or features of pituitary hormone deficiency (e.g., poor growth, hypoglycemia, micropenis, delayed puberty, polyuria, impaired libido, fatigue, and many others), or because the physician has diagnosed one of the many disorders and conditions associated with hypopituitarism listed above and tests for it. In biology growth is increase in size. ... Hypoglycemia is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood. ... A micropenis is an unusually small penis in a boy or man. ... Puberty is described as delayed when a boy or girl has passed the usual age of onset of puberty with no physical or hormonal signs that it is beginning. ... Polyuria is the passage of a large volume of urine in a given period, a characteristic of diabetes. ... Fatigue is a feeling of excessive tiredness or lethargy, with a desire to rest, perhaps to sleep. ...


Replacement therapy

Hypopituitarism and panhypopituitarism are treated by replacement of appropriate hormones. Since the most of the anterior pituitary hormones are proteins released in pulsatile patterns, whose functions are to induce secretion of smaller molecule hormones (thyroid hormones and steroids), it is simpler and less expensive for most purposes to simply replace the target gland hormones. There are a few exceptions, such as fertility induction. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A steroid is a lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings. ...

  • GH is replaced with growth hormone.
  • TSH is replaced with thyroxine.
  • ACTH is usually replaced with hydrocortisone but any glucocorticoid may be used.
  • LH and FSH are most often replaced by supplying the appropriate sex steroids (e.g., testosterone or estrogen and progestin). Virtually all people who need T or E2 replacement for hypopituitarism rarely have spontaneous, effective spermatogenesis or follicular maturation. Both GnRH by subcutaneous pump and gonadotropins (Pergonal) by daily subcutaneous injections have been used effectively to induce fertility.
  • Prolactin is not usually replaced, as infant formula is readily available, simpler, and much cheaper.
  • ADH is replaced most commonly with oral, nasal, and sometimes intravenous or subcutaneous desmopressin.
  • Oxytocin is most important during labor and delivery at the end of pregnancy, and can be replaced in that circumstance by pitressin.

Growth hormone is a polypeptide hormone synthesised and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other vertebrate animals. ... Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Hydrocortisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug which may be given by injection or by topical application. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... A sex steroid is a steroid hormone which interacts with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Estrogens (or oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds that function as the primary female sex hormone. ... A progestin is a synthetic progestagen. ... Spermatogenesis refers to the creation, or genesis, of sperm cells, which occurs in the male gonads or testes. ... Ovarian follicles or Graafian follicles (after Regnier de Graaf) are the roughly spherical cell aggregations in the ovary containing an ovum and from which the egg is released during ovulation. ... Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) is a peptide hormone responsible for the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. ... Gonadotropins are protein hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the pituitary gland of vertebrates. ... Infertility is the inability to naturally conceive, carry or deliver a healthy child. ... An infant being fed by bottle. ... Desmopressin (DDAVP®, Stimate®, Minrin®) is a synthetic drug that mimics the action of antidiuretic hormone. ... Oxytocin is a nine amino acid peptide hormone synthesized in magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ...

See also

Growth hormone deficiency is the medical condition of inadequate production of growth hormone (GH) and its effects on children and adults. ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ...

External links

  • All about Hypopituitarism

  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Hypopituitarism (775 words)
Hypopituitarism is a condition caused by low levels of pituitary hormones.
Hypopituitarism may be caused by tumors of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, head trauma, brain tumor, radiation, brain surgery, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (from a burst aneurysm), or infections of the brain and the tissues that support the brain.
The cause of this type of hypopituitarism is unknown.
Hypopituitarism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (595 words)
Hypopituitarism is a medical term describing the deficiency (hypo) of one or more hormones of the pituitary gland.
Hypopituitarism may come to medical attention by symptoms or features of pituitary hormone deficiency (e.g., poor growth, hypoglycemia, micropenis, delayed puberty, polyuria, impaired libido, fatigue, and many others), or because the physician has diagnosed one of the many disorders and conditions associated with hypopituitarism listed above and tests for it.
Since most of the anterior pituitary hormones are proteins or glycoproteins released in pulsatile patterns, whose functions are to induce secretion of smaller molecule hormones (thyroid hormones and steroids), it is simpler and less expensive for most purposes to simply replace the target gland hormones.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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