FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Hypoparathyroidism" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Hypoparathyroidism

In medicine (endocrinology), hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands, leading to decreased levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). The consequence, hypocalcemia, is a serious medical condition. Medicine is a branch of health science concerned with maintaining health and restoring it by treating disease. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... Human parathyroid glands The parathyroid glands are endocrine glands in the neck, usually located within the thyroid gland, which produce parathyroid hormone. ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ... In medicine, hypocalcaemia is the presence of less than a total calcium of 2. ...

Contents


Signs, symptoms and diagnosis

Hypocalcemia is the only real result of parathyroid dysfunction and low PTH levels. This presents with tremor, tetany and, eventually, convulsions. In medicine, hypocalcaemia is the presence of less than a total calcium of 2. ... Tremor is the rhythmic, oscillating shaking movement of the whole body or just a certain part of it, caused by problems of the neurons responsible from muscle action. ... Tetany is the point at which signals from nerves (action potentials) are arriving to skeletal muscle rapidly enough in succession to cause a steady contraction, and not just a series of individual twitches. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...


In contrast to hyperparathyroidism (hyperfunction of the parathyroids), hypoparathyroidism does not have consequences for bone. In medicine (endocrinology), hyperparathyroidism is overactivity of the parathyroid glands and excess production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). ... Grays illustration of a human femur, a typically recognized bone. ...


Diagnosis is by measurement of calcium, albumin (for correction) and PTH in blood. PTH degrades rapidly at ambient temperatures and the blood sample therefore has to be transported to the laboratory on ice. General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Series alkaline earth metal Group, Period, Block 2 (IIA), 4, s Density, Hardness 1550 kg/m3, 1. ... You may be looking for albumen, or egg white. ... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ...


If necessary, measuring cAMP (cyclic AMP) in the urine after an intravenous dose of PTH can help in the distinction between hypoparathyroidism and other causes. Structure of cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3-5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in many biological processes; it is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ...


Differential diagnoses are:

Mental retardation (also called mental handicap and, as defined by the UK Mental Health Act (1983), mental impairment and severe mental impairment) is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal global intellectual capacity as... In biology, the skeleton or skeletal system is the biological system providing support in living organisms. ... Malabsorption is the state of impaired absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. ... See the article on the kidney for the anatomy and function of healthy kidneys and a list of diseases involving the kidney. ... A steroid is a lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings. ... A diuretic is any drug that tends to increase the flow of urine from the body (diuresis). ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ...

Causes

Hypoparathyroidism can have a number of divergent causes:

  • Removal of the parathyroid glands in thyroid surgery (thyroidectomy) is a recognised cause. It is now uncommon, as surgeons generally spare them during the procedure after identifying them.
  • Autoimmune invasion and destruction is the most common non-surgical cause. It can occur as part of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (see there).
  • Hemochromatosis can lead to iron accumulation and consequent dysfunction of a number of endocrine organs, including the parathyroids.
  • Absence or dysfunction of the parathyroid glands is one of the components of chromosome 22q11 microdeletion syndrome (other names: DiGeorge syndrome, Schprintzen syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome).
  • Magnesium deficiency
  • Some very rare diseases
  • Idiopathic (of unknown cause), occasionally familial

The physiologic function of PTH is the maintenance of sufficient calcium levels. This is achieved by bone resorption, renal reabsorption of calcium (in the distal tubule) and Vitamin D3 (1,25-OH-D3) synthesis (also in the kidney) from Vitamin D1 (25-OH-D3). A thyroidectomy involves the surgical removal all or part of the thyroid gland. ... Surgery Surgery is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... In medicine, autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes are a heterogenous group of rare diseases characterised by autoimmune activity against more than one endocrine organs, although non-endocrine organs can be affected. ... Haemochromatosis, also spelled hemochromatosis, is a hereditary disease characterized by improper processing by the body of dietary iron which causes iron to accumulate in a number of body tissues, eventually causing organ dysfunction. ... 22 q11 microdeletion syndrome is a birth defect caused by a genetic abnormality that occurs in approximately one in 700 births. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... A rare disease has such a low prevalence in a population that a doctor in a busy general practice would not expect to see more than one case a year. ...


Treatment

Severe hypocalcemia, a potentially life-threatening condition, is treated as soon as possible with intravenous calcium (e.g. as calcium gluconate). Generally, a central venous catheter is recommended, as the calcium can irritate peripheral veins and cause phlebitis. An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Series alkaline earth metal Group, Period, Block 2 (IIA), 4, s Density, Hardness 1550 kg/m3, 1. ... Phlebitis is an inflammation of a vein (usually in the legs). ...


Long-term treatment of hypoparathyroidism is with calcium and Vitamin D3 supplementation (D1 is ineffective in the absence of renal conversion). Teriparatide, a synthetic form of PTH (presently registered for osteoporosis) might become the treatment of choice for PTH supplementation, although further studies are awaited. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Teriparatide (Forsteo®) is a recombinant form of parathyroid hormone, used in the treatment of advanced osteoporosis. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the amount of bone is decreased and the strength of trabecular bone is reduced, cortical bone becomes thin and bones are susceptible to fracture. ...


See also

In medicine (endocrinology), hyperparathyroidism is overactivity of the parathyroid glands and excess production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hypoparathyroidism: under-activity of the parathyroid glands. (1110 words)
Hypoparathyroidism is the state of decreased secretion or activity of parathyroid hormone (PTH).
Hypoparathyroidism is a TERRIBLE complication of parathyroid or thyroid surgery.
Like all patients with hypoparathyroidism, this disease is characterized by hypocalcemia (too low calcium levels), hyperphosphatemia (too high phosphorus levels), but they are distinguished by the fact that they produce PTH but their bones and kidneys do not respond to it.
Hypoparathyroidism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (395 words)
In medicine (endocrinology), hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands, leading to decreased levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH).
In contrast to hyperparathyroidism (hyperfunction of the parathyroids), hypoparathyroidism does not have consequences for bone.
Long-term treatment of hypoparathyroidism is with calcium and Vitamin D3 supplementation (D1 is ineffective in the absence of renal conversion).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m