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Encyclopedia > Hypolipidemic agent

Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. They are called lipid-lowering drugs (LLD) or agents. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how chemical substances interact with living systems. ... Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. ...


Classes of hypolipidemic drugs

There are several classes of hypolipidemic drugs. They may differ in both their impact on the cholesterol profile and adverse effects. For example, some may lower the "bad cholesterol" low density lipoprotein (LDL) more so than others, while others may preferentially increase high density lipoprotein (HDL), "the good cholesterol". Clinically, the choice of an agent will depend on the patient's cholesterol profile, cardiovascular risk, and the liver and kidney functions of the patient, evaluated against the balancing of risks and benefits of the medications. In the United States, this is guided by the evidence-based guideline from the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by cells. ... High density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size (8-11 nm in diameter) and contents, that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to give a doctor or other health professional information about the state of a patients liver. ... Creatinine clearance is a method that estimates the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the kidneys. ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) applies the scientific method to medical practice. ... The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. ...

  • statins are particularly well-suited for lowering LDL, the cholesterol with the strongest links to cardiovascular diseases. In studies using standard doses, statins have been found to lower LDL-C by 18% to 55%, depending on the specific statin being used. There is a risk of severe muscle damage (myopathy & rhabdomyolysis) with statins.
  • fibrates are indicated for hypertriglyceridemia. Fibrates typically lower triglycerides by 20% to 50%. Level of the good cholesterol HDL is also increased. Fibrates may decrease LDL, though generally to a lesser degree than statins. Similar to statins, there is a risk of severe muscle damage (myopathy & rhabdomyolysis) with fibrates.
  • nicotinic acid, like fibrates, is also well-suited for lowering triglycerides by 20-50%. It may also lower LDL by 5-25% and increase HDL by 15-35%. Nicotinic acid may cause hyperglycemia, and may also cause liver damage.
  • bile acid sequestrants (resins) are particularly effective for lowering LDL-C by sequestering the cholesterol-containing bile acids released into the gut and preventing their reabsorption from the gut. It decreases LDL by 15-30% and raises HDL by 3-5%. It has little effect on triglycerides. Bile acid sequestrants may cause gastrointestinal problems, and may also reduce the absorption of other drugs and vitamins from the gut.
  • ezetimibe (Zetia) is a selective inhibitor of dietary cholesterol absorption.
  • phytosterols may be found naturally in plants. Similar to ezetimibe, phytosterols reduce the absorption of cholesterol in the gut. Hence, they are most effective when consumed with meals. However, the precise mechanism of action of phytosterols differs from ezetimibe.

Investigational classes of hypolipidemic agents: Lovastatin, the first statin to be marketed The statins (or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) form a class of hypolipidemic agents, used as pharmaceuticals to lower cholesterol levels in people at risk for cardiovascular disease because of hypercholesterolemia. ... In medicine, a myopathy is a neuromuscular disease in which the muscle fibers dysfunction for any one of many reasons, resulting in muscular weakness. ... Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of skeletal muscle due to injury, either mechanical, physical or chemical. ... In pharmacology, the fibrates are a class of amphipathic carboxylic acids. ... In medicine, hypertriglyceridemia denotes high (hyper-) blood levels (-emia) of triglycerides, the most abundant fatty molecule in most organisms. ... In medicine, a myopathy is a neuromuscular disease in which the muscle fibers dysfunction for any one of many reasons, resulting in muscular weakness. ... Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of skeletal muscle due to injury, either mechanical, physical or chemical. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell. ... Hyperglycemia or High Blood Sugar is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. ... Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) is chemical-driven liver damage. ... In pharmacology, bile acid sequestrants a group of medication used for binding bile in the gastrointestinal tract. ... Zetia Logo Ezetimibe (IPA: ) (Zetia®, Ezemibe®, Ezetrol®) is an anti-hyperlipidemic medication. ... β-sitosterol Phytosterols (also called plant sterols) are a group of steroid alcohol, phytochemicals naturally occurring in plants. ...

  • CETP Inhibitors (cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors) are still under development. It is expected that these drugs will mainly increase HDL while lowering LDL.
  • squalene synthase inhibitor

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hypolipidemic agent - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (68 words)
The hypolipidemic agents are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in treatment of hyperlipidemias.
They are called lipid-lowering drugs (LLD) or agents.
The most important examples of hypolipidemic drugs are:
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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