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Encyclopedia > Hypoglossal nerve
Nerve: Hypoglossal nerve
Hypoglossal nerve, cervical plexus, and their branches.
Latin nervus hypoglossus
Gray's subject #207 914
Innervates genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus
To ansa cervicalis
MeSH Hypoglossal+Nerve

The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve (XII). The nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus and emerges from the medulla oblongata in the preolivary sulcus separating the olive and the pyramid. It then passes through the hypoglossal canal. On emerging from the hypoglossal canal, it gives off a small meningeal branch and picks up a branch from the anterior ramus of C1. It spirals behind the vagus nerve and passes between the internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein lying on the carotid sheath. After passing deep to the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, it passes to the submandibular region to enter the tongue. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (638x700, 172 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Hypoglossal nerve Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 16 List of images in Grays Anatomy: IX. Neurology ... The cervical plexus is a plexus of the ventral roots of the first four cervical spinal nerves which are located from C1 to C4 cervical segment near the neck. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Genioglossus is a muscle of the human body. ... The Hyoglossus is a muscle of the human body. ... The Styloglossus, the shortest and smallest of the three styloid muscles, arises from the anterior and lateral surfaces of the styloid process, near its apex, and from the stylomandibular ligament. ... The ansa cervicalis (or ansa hypoglossi in older literature) is a loop of nerves that are part of the cervical plexus. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Cranial nerves are nerves which start directly from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... The hypoglossal nucleus extends the length of the medulla, and being a motor nucleus, is close to the midline. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... Sulcus (pl. ... The hypoglossal canal is a bony canal in the occipital bone of the skull that transmits the hypoglossal nerve from its point of entry near the medulla oblongata to its exit from the base of the skull near the jugular foramen. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... Ramus can refer to: Petrus Ramus A portion of a bone, as in the Ramus mandibulæ This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... A cervical vertebra Cervical vertebrae (Vertebrae cervicales) are the smallest of the true vertebrae, and can be readily distinguished from those of the thoracic or lumbar regions by the presence of a foramen (hole) in each transverse process. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... The carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck that supplies blood to the head and neck. ... The internal jugular vein collects the blood from the brain, from the superficial parts of the face, and from the neck. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The English word POSTERIOR is identical to the original Latin adjective, and has two different uses : as an ADJECTIVE, it indicates that someone or something is behind another, either spatially or chronologically it also became a SUBSTANTIVE, indicating the rear-end, especially of a person, i. ... The digastric muscle (named digastric as it has two bellies) is a small muscle located under the jaw. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ...


It supplies motor fibres to all of the muscles of the tongue, except the palatoglossus muscle which is innervated by the vagus nerve (X). For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... The Palatoglossus is a muscle of the human body. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ...


Testing the hypoglossal nerve

To test the function of the nerve, a person is asked to poke out their tongue. If there is a loss of function on one side (unilateral paralysis) the tongue will point towards the affected side. For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ...


The strength of the tongue can be tested by getting the person to poke the inside of their cheek, and feeling how strongly they can push a finger pushed against their cheek - a more elegant way of testing than directly touching the tongue.


The tongue can also be looked at for signs of lower motor neuron disease, such as fasciculation and atrophy. Lower motor neurons (LMNs) are the motoneurons connecting the brainstem and spinal cord to muscle fibers, bringing the nerve impulses from the upper motor neurons out to the muscles. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Twitching. ... Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. ...


Ipsilateral paralysis/pareisis of the tongue, results in contralateral curvature of the tongue (toward the unimpaired side of the mouth).


Additional images

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hypoglossal nerve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (357 words)
The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve.
The nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus and emerges from the medulla oblongata in the preolivary sulcus separating the olive and the pyramid.
It spirals behind the vagus nerve and passes between the internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein lying on the carotid sheath.
IX. Neurology. 5l. The Hypoglossal Nerve. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. (590 words)
794, 795) is the motor nerve of the tongue.
Its fibers arise from the cells of the hypoglossal nucleus, which is an upward prolongation of the base of the anterior column of gray substance of the medulla spinalis.
The rootlets of this nerve are collected into two bundles, which perforate the dura mater separately, opposite the hypoglossal canal in the occipital bone, and unite together after their passage through it; in some cases the canal is divided into two by a small bony spicule.
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