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Encyclopedia > Hypnosis
Professor Charcot (left) of Paris' Salpêtrière demonstrates hypnosis on a "hysterical" patient, "Blanche" (Marie) Wittman, who is supported by Dr. Joseph Babiński.
Professor Charcot (left) of Paris' Salpêtrière demonstrates hypnosis on a "hysterical" patient, "Blanche" (Marie) Wittman, who is supported by Dr. Joseph Babiński.

Hypnosis (from the Greek hypnos, "sleep") is "a trance-like state that resembles sleep but is induced by a person whose suggestions are readily accepted by the subject."[1] Hypnotized is the fourth single released by the Japanese Eurodance group produced in Germany, Shanadoo. ... Download high resolution version (968x1466, 192 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (968x1466, 192 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Categories: People stubs | French physicians | 1825 births | 1893 deaths | History of medicine ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital is a hospital in Paris. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... Joseph Jules François Félix Babinski (born November 17, 1857, Paris; died October 29, 1932, Paris) was a Polish neurologist. ... For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... Trance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The technique is used for medical purposes to relieve anxiety or otherwise improve or alter behavior. It is also used in popular stage acts in which subjects are persuaded to perform bizarre feats.


Other variations include mass-hypnosis, in which crowds are simultaneously influenced, and autosuggestion in which a subject persuades his self. ‹ The template below (Mind-body interventions) is being considered for deletion. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of hypnosis

During the Middle Ages and early modern period, hypnosis began to be better understood by physicians such as Avicenna.[2] // Hypnotism as a tool for health seems to have originated with the Hindus of India who often took their sick to sleep temples to be cured by hypnotic suggestion as also found to be the case in Egypt and Greece. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ...


Methods and effects

General methods

Hypnotic susceptibility is the measurable responsiveness that a person has to hypnosis. Not all people can be hypnotized, but about 10% of people respond exceptionally well.[3][page # needed] There is little evidence linking susceptibility to intelligence or personality traits, but some research has linked hypnosis to the amount of imagination in subjects. Recent research suggests that highly hypnotizable people have high sensory and perceptual gating abilities that allow them to block some stimuli from awareness.[4] Look up Sensory gating in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There is a common claim that no one can be hypnotized against their will.[5][page # needed]


Fear has little impact on the success of hypnosis since there are subjects who go to a hypnosis practitioner and submit to the fee who are eager to experience hypnosis but failed to secure the state.


General effects

Focused attention

The American Society of Clinical Hypnosis's web site says "Hypnosis is a state of inner absorption, concentration and focused attention."[6]


Suggestibility

It often appears as if the hypnotized participant accepts the authority of the hypnotist over his or her own experience. When asked after the conclusion of such a session, some participants claim to be genuinely unable to recall the incident, while others say that they had known the hypnotist was wrong but at the time it had seemed easier just to go along with his instructions. (Richard Feynman describes this, in his memoir Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, as his own hypnotic experience.)[7] This article is about the physicist. ... Surely Youre Joking, Mr. ...


Depth of hypnosis

Pupillary reflex

The esoteric publication Hypnotism, by Danish hypnotist Carl Septus, is an early reference work that notes the absence of the pupillary reflex sign. Septus states specifically that after subjects have been asked to open their eyes during a deep trance, light shone into the eyes does not cause pupil contraction. The hypnotist may use suggestion to keep the subject in hypnosis, but must avoid suggestions relating to eyes, visual focus, light, or the dilation or contraction of the pupils. [8][page # needed]


Applications

Hypnotherapy

Main article: Hypnotherapy

Hypnotherapy is a term to describe the use of hypnosis in a therapeutic context. Many hypnotherapists refer to their practice as "clinical work". Hypnotherapy can either be used as an addition to the work of licensed physicians or psychologists, or it can be used in a stand-alone environment where the hypnotherapist in question usually owns his or her own business. The majority of these stand-alone certified hypnotherapists (C.Hts in the U.S., Diploma. Hyp or DHP in the UK) today earn a large portion of their income through the cessation of smoking (often in a single session) and the aid of weight loss (body sculpting)[citation needed]. Psychologists and psychiatrists use hypnosis predominantly for the treatment of dissociative disorders, phobias, habit change, depression and post-traumatic syndromes.[9][page # needed] There is no evidence that 'incurable' diseases (such as cancer, diabetes, and arthritis) are curable with hypnosis, but pain and other bodily symptoms related to the diseases are controllable.[10][11][12][13] Some of the treatments practiced by hypnotherapists, in particular so-called regression, have been viewed with skepticism.[14] Hypnotherapy is therapy that is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis. ... Hypnotherapy is therapy that is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis. ... // Past Life Therapy (PLT) utilizing clinical hypnotherapy/ de-hypnosis claims to allow unconscious experiences from past life traumas or emotionally charged events to become fully conscious. ...


The American Medical Association and the American Psychological Association have both cautioned against the use of repressed memory therapy in dealing with cases of alleged childhood trauma, stating that "it is impossible, without other corroborative evidence, to distinguish a true memory from a false one",[15] and so the procedure is "fraught with problems of potential misapplication".[16] The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...

The Hypnotist 1987 by Einar Hakonarson

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Einar Hákonarson Einar Hákonarson (b. ...

Medicine and dentistry

Education

In a lecture to the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH) during their annual conference at the State University Of New York, Dr. Milton Erickson taught the process of indirect hypnosis while Dr. Robert W. Habbick spoke of his research on the use of hypnosis in enhancing learning and reducing anxiety. Dr. Habbick explained the use of a triad of suggestions: "(a) enhancing confidence, while (b) strengthening focused interest in the work and (c) improving energy to do the studying necessary." The results of his controlled research pointed the way toward the need to apply hypnosis especially with students who have difficulty studying. In a more recent lecture, Dr. Habbick spoke in Boston to ASCH of the positive effects of using his suggested hypnosis triad with students at the Bureau of Study Council at Harvard University.[citation needed]


Hypnodermatology

Main article: Hypnodermatology

Hypnodermatology is the practice of treating skin diseases with hypnosis. Hypnodermatology is an informal label for the use of hypnosis in treating the skin conditions that fall between conventional medical dermatology and the mental health disciplines. ... Hypnodermatology is an informal label for the use of hypnosis in treating the skin conditions that fall between conventional medical dermatology and the mental health disciplines. ...


Surgery

A study done at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine looked at two groups of patients facing surgery for breast cancer. The group that received hypnosis prior to surgery reported less pain, nausea, and anxiety after surgery than did the control group. There was a cost benefit as well, as the average hypnosis patient reduced the cost of treatment by an average of $772.00.[17]


In April 2008 a professional hypnotist, Alex Lenkei, successfully hypnotised himself before having surgery on his hand and was in no pain throughout the 80 minute operation. His blood pressure and heart rate were also monitored and remained normal, indicating that he truly did not experience any pain. An anaesthetist who remained on hand believes Mr Lenkei's body may have released chemicals which blocked pain. [18] [19]


Other uses

Michael R. Nash writes, in a 2001 article for Scientific American titled "The Truth and the Hype of Hypnosis", "using hypnosis, scientists have temporarily created hallucinations, compulsions, certain types of memory loss, false memories, and delusions in the laboratory so that these phenomena can be studied in a controlled environment."[20] Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ...


In his book The Hidden Persuaders (1957) Vance Packard describes research involving the behavior of housewives in supermarkets in the 1950s. Cameras were hidden to measure a shopper's eye-blink rate as she compared items. It was assumed that her eye-blink rate would increase as she performed mental calculations to determine which product was the best value. In fact, the cameras recorded an eye-blink rate which indicated that the housewife was, according to Packard, usually in a hypnotic state while shopping. This led manufacturers to produce new brands of laundry detergent in competition with their own, existing brands, where the primary differences were in the product names, colors and shapes of designs on the packages, which were designed to appeal to women at different times of their menstrual cycles. The effects of this research can be noted today by visiting the laundry detergent section of any American supermarket.[21][page # needed] Vance Packard (May 22, 1914 - December 12, 1996) was an American journalist, social critic, and author. ... Menstrual cycle In the female reproductive system, the menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiologic changes that occurs in reproductive age females of several mammals, including human beings and other apes. ...


Hypnotism has also received publicity about its use in Forensics, Sports, Education, and physical therapy and rehabilitation.[22] The word forensic (from Latin: forensis - forum) refers to something of, pertaining to, or used in a court of law. ... A sport consists of a physical activity or skill carried out with a recreational purpose: for competition, for self-enjoyment, to attain excellence, for the development of a skill, or some combination of these. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... Look up Rehabilitation on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Rehabilitation is the restoration of lost capabilities, or the treatment aimed at producing it. ...


Theories

Though various conjectures are made about hypnosis, the field has received significant support from the science-oriented psychology community due to research into hypnotic phenomena conducted by practitioners and theorists (Sala 1999). Both Heap and Dryden (1991) and Ambrose and Newbold (1980) consider that the theoretical debates on hypnotherapy have been productive, and that hypnosis has benefited from the attentions of those involved in the controversies, and conversely, that the developments of neurolinguistic programming and neo-Ericksonian hypnosis has been characterized by gullibility and fraudulence. Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is a field of human endeavor concerned with empirically studying and modeling human performance and excellence, with the goal of creating transferable skill sets. ...


Social constructionism

Social constructionism and role-playing theory of hypnosis, discovered by Jun Zhou in the early 18th century[23], suggests that individuals are playing a role and that really there is no such thing as hypnosis. A relationship is built depending on how much rapport has been established between the "hypnotist" and the subject (see Hawthorne effect, Pygmalion effect, and placebo effect). Italic text:For other uses, see Rapport (disambiguation). ... The Hawthorne effect refers to a phenomenon of observing workers behavior or their performance and changing it temporarily. ... The Pygmalion effect (or Rosenthal effect) refers to situations in which students perform better than other students simply because they are expected to do so. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Placebo. ...


Some psychologists, such as Robert Baker, claim that what we call hypnosis is actually a form of learned social behavior, a complex hybrid of social compliance, relaxation, and suggestibility that can account for many esoteric behavioral manifestations.[24][page # needed] Robert Baker (born March 14, 1976 in Gainesville, Florida) is a receiver for the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League. ...


Nicholas Spanos states, "hypnotic procedures influence behavior indirectly by altering subjects' motivations, expectations and interpretations."[25][page # needed] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Dissociation

Pierre Janet originally developed the idea of dissociation of consciousness as a result of his work with hysterical patients. He believed that hypnosis was an example of dissociation whereby areas of an individual's behavioral control are split off from ordinary awareness. Hypnosis would remove some control from the conscious mind and the individual would respond with autonomic, reflexive behavior. Weitzenhoffer describes hypnosis via this theory as "dissociation of awareness from the majority of sensory and even strictly neural events taking place."[26][page # needed] Pierre Marie Félix Janet, (May 30, 1859 - February 24, 1947) was a pioneering French psychologist in the field of dissociation and traumatic memory. ... Dissociation is a state of acute mental decompensation in which certain thoughts, emotions, sensations, and/or memories are compartmentalized because they are too overwhelming for the conscious mind to integrate. ...


Neuropsychology

Anna Gosline says in a NewScientist.com article:


"Gruzelier and his colleagues studied brain activity using an fMRI while subjects completed a standard cognitive exercise, called the Stroop task. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (or fMRI) describes the use of MRI to measure hemodynamic signals related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ... Demonstration Say the color of these words as fast as you can: According to the Stroop effect, the first set of colors would have had a faster reaction time. ...


The team screened subjects before the study and chose 12 that were highly susceptible to hypnosis and 12 with low susceptibility. They all completed the task in the fMRI under normal conditions and then again under hypnosis.


Throughout the study, both groups were consistent in their task results, achieving similar scores regardless of their mental state. During their first task session, before hypnosis, there were no significant differences in brain activity between the groups.


But under hypnosis, Gruzelier found that the highly susceptible subjects showed significantly more brain activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus than the weakly susceptible subjects. This area of the brain has been shown to respond to errors and evaluate emotional outcomes. Grays FIG. 727– Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. ...


The highly susceptible group also showed much greater brain activity on the left side of the prefrontal cortex than the weakly susceptible group. This is an area involved with higher level cognitive processing and behaviour."[27] “Prefrontal” redirects here. ...


Conditioned process

Ivan Pavlov believed that hypnosis was a "partial sleep". He observed that the various degrees of hypnosis did not significantly differ physiologically from the waking state and hypnosis depended on insignificant changes of environmental stimuli. Pavlov also suggested that lower-brain-stem mechanisms were involved in hypnotic conditioning.[28][page # needed][29] For other uses, see Pavlov (disambiguation). ...


Hyper-suggestibility

Currently a more popular "hyper-suggestibility theory" states that the subject focuses attention by responding to the hypnotist's suggestion. As attention is focused and magnified, the hypnotist's words are gradually accepted without the subject conducting any conscious censorship of what is being said. This is not unlike the athlete listening to the coach's last pieces of advice minutes before an important sport event; concentration filters out all that is unimportant and magnifies what is said about what really matters to the subject.[30] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ...


Information

An approach loosely based on Information theory uses a brain-as-computer model. In adaptive systems, a system may use feedback to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, which may converge towards a steady state. Increasing the signal-to-noise ratio enables messages to be more clearly received from a source. The hypnotist's object is to use techniques to reduce the interference and increase the receptability of specific messages (suggestions).[31] Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ... This article is about the machine. ... For other uses, see Feedback (disambiguation). ... Signal-to-noise ratio (often abbreviated SNR or S/N) is an electrical engineering concept defined as the ratio of a signal power to the noise power corrupting the signal. ...


Systems

Systems theory, in this context, may be regarded as an extension of James Braid's original conceptualization of hypnosis[32][page # needed] as involving a process of enhancing or depressing the activity of the nervous system. Systems theory considers the nervous system's organization into interacting subsystems. Hypnotic phenomena thus involve not only increased or decreased activity of particular subsystems, but also their interaction. A central phenomenon in this regard is that of feedback loops, familiar to systems theory, which suggest a mechanism for creating the more extreme hypnotic phenomena.[33][34] Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ... James Braid. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... For the Macintosh operating system, which was called System up to version 7. ... In cybernetics and control theory, feedback is a process whereby some proportion or in general, function, of the output signal of a system is passed (fed back) to the input. ... Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ...


Research

A peer-reviewed article on the University of Maryland Medical Center's web site says: "Although studies on hypnosis as a treatment for obesity are not conclusive, most research suggests that hypnotherapy (when used in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, and a low-fat diet) may help overweight or obese individuals lose weight."[35] A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying cognitions, assumptions, beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions. ...


Clinical studies

In 1996, the National Institutes of Health technology assessment panel judged hypnosis to be an effective intervention for alleviating pain from cancer and other chronic conditions. A large number of clinical studies also indicate that hypnosis can reduce the acute pain experienced by patients undergoing burn-wound debridement, enduring bone marrow aspirations, and childbirth. An analysis published in a recent issue of the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, for example, found that hypnotic suggestions relieved the pain of 75% of 933 subjects participating in 27 different experiments.[20] National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ...


Brain imaging

One controlled scientific experiment postulates that hypnosis may alter our perception of conscious experience in a way not possible when people are not "hypnotized", at least in "highly hypnotizable" people. In this experiment, color perception was changed by hypnosis in "highly hypnotizable" people as determined by (PET) scans (Kosslyn et al., 2000).


Another research example, employing event-related functional MRI (fMRI) and EEG coherence measures, compared certain specific neural activity "...during Stroop task performance between participants of low and high hypnotic susceptibility, at baseline and after hypnotic induction". According to its authors, "the fMRI data revealed that conflict-related ACC activity interacted with hypnosis and hypnotic susceptibility, in that highly susceptible participants displayed increased conflict-related neural activity in the hypnosis condition compared to baseline, as well as with respect to subjects with low susceptibility." (Egner et al., 2005) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the use of MRI to measure the haemodynamic response related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ... Demonstration Say the color of these words as fast as you can: According to the Stroop effect, the first set of colors would have had a faster reaction time. ... Grays FIG. 727– Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. ...


Michael Nash said in a Scientific American article: "In 1998 Henry Szechtman of McMaster University in Ontario and his co-workers used PET to image the brain activity of hypnotized subjects who were invited to imagine a scenario and who then experienced a hallucination ... By monitoring regional blood flow in areas activated during both hearing and auditory hallucination but not during simple imagining, the investigators sought to determine where in the brain a hallucinated sound is mistakenly "tagged" as authentic and originating in the outside world. Szechtman and his colleagues imaged the brain activity of eight very hypnotizable subjects who had been prescreened for their ability to hallucinate under hypnosis ... The tests showed that a region of the brain called the right anterior cingulate cortex was just as active while the volunteers were hallucinating as it was while they were actually hearing the stimulus. In contrast, that brain area was not active while the subjects were imagining that they heard the stimulus."[20] This article is about animals kept for companionship. ... Grays FIG. 727– Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. ...


Variations

Self-hypnosis

Main article: Autosuggestion

Self-hypnosis (or autosuggestion) — hypnosis in which a person hypnotizes himself or herself without the assistance of another person to serve as the hypnotist — is a staple of hypnotherapy-related self-help programs. It is most often used to help the self-hypnotist stay on a diet, overcome smoking or some other addiction, or to generally boost the hypnotized person's self-esteem. It is rarely used for the more complex or controversial uses of hypnosis, which require the hypnotist to monitor the hypnotized person's reactions and responses and respond accordingly. Most people who practice self-hypnosis require a focus in order to become fully hypnotized; there are many computer programs on the market that can ostensibly help in this area, though few, if any, have been scientifically proven to aid self-hypnosis. ‹ The template below (Mind-body interventions) is being considered for deletion. ... ‹ The template below (Mind-body interventions) is being considered for deletion. ... Though the term self-help can refer to any case whereby an individual or a group betters themselves economically, intellectually or emotionally, the connotations of the phrase have come to apply particularly to psychological or psychotherapeutic nostrums, often purveyed through the popular genre of the self-help book. ... Measuring body weight on a scale Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a regulated fashion to achieve a particular objective. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ... This article is about the concept of addiction. ... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ... For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ...


Some people use devices known as mind machines to help them go into self-hypnosis more readily. A mind machine consists of glasses with different colored flashing LEDs on the inside, and headphones. The LEDs stimulate the visual channel, while the headphones stimulate the audio channel with similar or slightly different frequencies designed to produce a certain mental state. The use of binaural beats in the audio is common; it is said to produce hypnosis more readily. Binaural beats or binaural tones are auditory processing artifacts, that is apparent sounds, the perception of which arises in the brain independent of physical stimuli. ...


Self-hypnosis is a skill that can be improved as time goes by. People use techniques such as imagining walking down 10 steps, feeling deeper relaxed as they imagine slowly walking down each step, one at a time. It is a good idea to initially seek the skills of a practicing hypnotherapist in order to understand what it feels like to be in a hypnotic trance. This greatly helps, as the individual can aim to replicate this state. Alternatively, a person may wish to use hypnosis recordings instead.


Waking hypnosis

This phenomenon, as expounded by Melvin Powers in 1955, involves altering the behavior of a subject by suggestion without inducing a trance. Related to the placebo effect, a subject becomes subconsciously convinced that what they are being told is inevitable reality, for example that the air in the room will cause them to swallow. They can be convinced that a completely benign substance is actually a drug that will induce whatever effect is suggested. In order to work, the subject must completely trust the source of the suggestion or be subconsciously convinced by a calm authoritative tone.[citation needed] Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Placebo. ...


Mass application

Influencing crowds through common longings and yearnings by a demagogue is called mass hypnosis. Generally, mass hypnosis is applied to religious sessions. Many forms of music and dance can be used to create religious trance.[36][page # needed] Demagogy (from Greek demos, people, and agogos, leading) refers to a political strategy for obtaining and gaining political power by appealing to the popular prejudices, fears, and expectations of the public — typically via impassioned rhetoric and propaganda, and often using nationalistic or populist themes. ...


Indirect application

In addition to direct application of hypnosis (that is, treatment of conditions by means of hypnosis), there is also indirect application, wherein hypnosis is used to facilitate another procedure. Some people seem more able to display "enhanced functioning", such as the suppression of pain, while utilizing hypnosis.


Post-hypnotic suggestion

Robin Waterfield writes, in his 2002 book Hidden Depths: The Story of Hypnosis, "a person can act, some time later, on a suggestion seeded during the hypnotic session. Post-hypnotic suggestions can last for a long time. A hypnotherapist told one of his patients, who was also a friend: 'When I touch you on the finger you will immediately be hypnotized.' Fourteen years later, at a dinner party, he touched him deliberately on the finger and his head fell back against the chair."[37] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Potential dangers

Pratt et al., write, in their 1988 book A Clinical Hypnosis Primer, "A hypnotized patient will respond to a suggestion literally. A suggestion that requires conscious interpretation can have undesirable effects." They give the following report taken from Hartland, 1971, p.37: "A patient who was terrified to go into the street because of the traffic was once told by a hypnotist that when she left his room, she would no longer bother about the traffic and would be able to cross the road without the slightest fear. She obeyed his instructions so literally that she ended up in a hospital."[38]


They also mention:


From Kleinhauz and Beran, 1984:

In one case, a woman had experienced 10 years of fatigue, irritability, and periods of childish behavior during which her perceptions were distorted. The source of the problem was traced back to a stage performance 10 years earlier, when she was regressed to a traumatic period of her life.

From Kleinhauz and Eli, 1987:

In one case, a dentist using hypnorelaxation with a patient complied with her request to provide direction suggestions to stop smoking. The patient's underlying psychological conflicts, which the dentist was not qualified to assess, led to the development of an anxiety/depressive reaction.

From Machovec, 1987:

A woman undergoing psychotherapy facilitated by hypnosis attempted to use the procedures she had learned to relieve her husband's dental pain. During the deepening technique of arm levitation, her husband's fingertips 'stuck' to his head, and a therapist had to intervene to end the trance state."[39]

Extreme reactions

Subjects have been known to cry or suffer a mental breakdown after extended periods of being in a trance like state of mind.[citation needed]


False memory

False memory obtained via hypnosis has figured prominently in many investigations and court cases, including cases of alleged sexual abuse. There is no scientific way to prove that any of these recollections are completely accurate. Bad Touch redirects here. ...


The American Medical Association and the American Psychological Association have both cautioned against the use of repressed memory therapy in dealing with cases of alleged childhood trauma, stating that "it is impossible, without other corroborative evidence, to distinguish a true memory from a false one",[15] and so the procedure is "fraught with problems of potential misapplication".[16] The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...


Misconceptions

Control

Some believe that hypnosis is a form of mind control and/or brainwashing that can control a person's behavior and judgment and therefore could potentially cause them harm. These beliefs are not generally based on scientific evidence, as there is no scientific consensus on whether mind control even exists. But there are people interested in research and funding to help work on controlling others and perfecting mind control techniques. These techniques can be researched with the scientific method and reasoning skills.[40][41] Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... Brainwashing (also known as thought reform or as re-education) consists of any effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person — sometimes unwelcome beliefs in conflict with the persons prior beliefs and knowledge. ...


English entertainer Derren Brown appeared in a series on Channel 4 (in the UK) and the SCI FI Channel (in the US), as the central figure in "Mind Control With Derren Brown,"[42] which kicked off on July 26, 2007, with the first of six one-hour episodes. This series has also been shown on other cable channels. In the pilot, Brown appears to use a simple verbal suggestion to manipulate a store clerk into accepting a plain piece of white paper as a twenty dollar bill. He also asks subway passengers where they are getting off and then appears to cause them to forget the name of the stop. Additionally, he gets people to hand him their wallets and walk away from him. In other episodes, he convinces people that he is reading their minds when, in fact, he claims he is simply giving them verbal suggestions which influence their subsequent thinking. He emphasizes that he has no special personal powers and there is no proof that any of his magical "effects" actually employ hypnosis techniques at all. Derren Victor Brown (born 27 February 1971) is an English psychological illusionist, mentalist, and skeptic of paranormal phenomena. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Unconscious state

From the mental standpoint, a hypnotic subject is relaxed yet alert and always aware at some level. Some choose to think of this as a state of mind called "trance".[43] Trance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Weak-mindedness

Due to the popular but incorrect notion of hypnosis as mind control, some people believe that the ability to experience hypnosis is related to strength and soundness of mind. However, scientists note that personality traits such as gullibility or submissiveness or factors such as low intelligence are not related to hypnotize-ability. Research studies suggest that none of intelligence, gender, or personality traits affect responsiveness to hypnosis and that hypnotize-ability may in fact be hereditary or genetic in nature.[20] Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ...


Overactive imagination

Another misconception in popular culture is that hypnosis is often the product of vivid imaginations and that hypnotic phenomena are merely imagined in the mind. However, research indicates many imaginative people do not fare well as good hypnotic subjects. Furthermore, studies using PET scans have shown that hypnotized subjects suggested to have auditory hallucinations demonstrated regional blood flow in the same areas of the brain as real hearing, whereas subjects merely imagining hearing noise did not.[20] Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ...


Instant Induction

It is a misconception that induction into hypnosis is time-consuming and requires complete relaxation. Hypnosis through lengthy relaxation or visual experiences is the most common form of induction, but instant inductions (2-10 seconds) is a method for induction or re-induction among stage hypnotists, as well as clinical hypnotists seeking to manage trauma or overcome anxiety and resistance. It is possible to hypnotize a subject in just a few seconds by causing confusion, loss of equilibrium, misdirection, shock, or eye fixation. However the duration of time it takes to induce hypnosis does not always take into consideration the depth of trance that is secured.


Entertainment

Stage hypnosis

The hypnotist

Due to the stage hypnotist's showmanship and their perpetuating the illusion of possessing mysterious abilities, hypnosis is often seen as caused by the hypnotist's power. The real power of hypnosis comes from the trust the hypnotist can instill in his subjects. They have to willingly grant him the ability to take over their critical thinking and direct their bodies. Some people are very trusting, or even looking for an excuse to abdicate their responsibilities and are able to be hypnotized within seconds, while others take more time to counter their fears.[44]


The subject

In a stage hypnosis situation the hypnotist chooses his participants carefully. First he gives the entire audience a few exercises to perform and plants ideas in their minds, such as, only intelligent people can be hypnotized and only those wanting to have fun will play along. These suggestions are designed to overcome the natural fear of trusting a stranger with the greater fear of being seen as unintelligent, unsociable, and joyless by the rest of the audience. Out of the crowd he will spot people who appear trusting, extroverted and willing to put on a show. Often these people are looking for an excuse to do something they otherwise would not do sober. The hypnotist starts them off by having them imagine ordinary situations that they have likely encountered, like being cold or hot, hungry or thirsty then gradually builds to giving them a suggestion that is totally out of character, such as sing like Elvis. The desire to be the center of attention, having an excuse to violate their own inner fear suppressors and the pressure to please, plus the expectation of the audience wanting them to provide some entertainment is usually enough to persuade an extrovert to do almost anything. In other words the participants are persuaded to 'play along'. This gives the impression that the hypnotist has total control over them.[45][page # needed]


Hypnosis in popular media

Main article: Hypnosis in popular culture

Hypnosis and hypnotherapy are common themes in literature, films and television. Frequently hypnotists are shown in a negative or sinister light. [46] In The Manchurian Candidate and The Curse of the Jade Scorpion, for example, characters are compelled to commit crimes while under a hypnotic trance. Hypnotherapy is therapy that is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis. ... The Manchurian Candidate is a 1959 thriller novel written by Richard Condon, later adapted into films in 1962 and 2004. ... The Curse of the Jade Scorpion is a 2001 film directed, written by, and starring Woody Allen. ...


Organizations

In examining the status, goals, functions, authority, and orientation of any dedicated-to-hypnosis/hypnotherapy organization — rather than, that is, an otherwise non-modality-specific organization that encloses a number of hypnosis/hypnotherapy-oriented members — it is important to recognize that, despite the fact that the actual practice of hypnosis, as we now understand that to be, goes back almost 170 years to James Braid (1842), there are almost no uniquely-dedicated-to-hypnosis organizations that have been in operation for even 50 years.[47] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... James Braid. ...


As a consequence of this "temporal recency", any examination of the status, functions and orientation of any organizations must, first of all, examine the specific reasons for which the organization in question came into being;[48] and, expressed simply, the origins of each dedicated-to-hypnosis/hypnotherapy organization can be far better understood if one seeks answers to five unambiguously elaborative questions:


(1) Was the organization in question originally formed in order to:

  • (a) provide on-going professional development and training, in order to raise the standards of knowledge, practice and efficacy of their colleagues?
  • (b) lobby on behalf of the commercial interests of its members? or
  • (c) meet and defeat some immediate and specific threat to its members (e.g., the legislative regulation or the legislative de-regulation of hypnosis/hypnotherapy)?

(2) Did the organization in question begin as:

  • (a) an alumni organization strongly connected with the particular teaching institution responsible for its formation? or
  • (b) as a coming together of individuals with a widely disparate background who shared a desire to mutually support one another?

(3) Was the organization in question founded on a core-belief that:

  • (a) hypnosis/hypnotherapy is simply an extension of conventional practises of medicine/psychiatry or clinical psychology?
    • Here, entry might only require a demonstration of the acquisition of the mechanical skills of induction, etc. (from a view that one’s already acquired core-training in, say, medicine, psychology, etc. is otherwise sufficient to ensure adequate patient treatment)?[49] or
  • (b) the application of hypnosis/hypnotherapy requires an entirely different, unique to hypnosis/hypnotherapy mind-set?
    • Here, entry might be contingent upon demonstrating that one has been thoroughly trained, from the ground up, in the unique mind-set that is required to work with hypnosis — and, even more significantly, that one has been trained to apply hypnosis/hypnotherapy to circumstances other than "standard" medical or psychological applications.

The answer to questions such as these speak to the areas of competence. // Competence is a standardized requirement for an individual to properly perform a specific job. ...


(4) Is the organization in question:

  • (a) only open to those who are full-time, specialist users of hypnosis/hypnotherapy?[50] or
  • (b) only open to those who only use hypnosis sporadically in their work (regardless of their field of endeavour)?

The answer to questions such as these speak to the levels of proficiency.


(5) In relation to its membership, is the organization in question:

  • (a) profession-oriented and, therefore, only open to those belonging to one or more specifically designated government-registered health professions (psychiatrists, doctors, dentists, psychologists, chiropractors, physiotherapists, etc.)?[51] or
  • (b) not profession-oriented at all?[52]

Once answers to these questions have been obtained, the status, goals, functions, authority, orientation, and overall rationale of the organization can be far better understood.


Standards

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

UK

In 2002 UK Department for Education and Skills developed The National Occupational Standards for hypnotherapy based on National Qualifications Framework of The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority and started conferring optional certificates and diplomas in international level through National Awarding Bodies by assessing learning outcomes of training /accrediting prior experiential learning. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The Department for Education and Skills is a department in the United Kingdom government created in 2001. ... The National Qualifications Framework (NQF) is a credit transfer system developed for qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) is an Executive Non-Departmental Public Body (NDPB) of the Department for Education and Skills in the United Kingdom. ...


U.S.A.

The United States Department of Labor, Directory of Occupational Titles (D.O.T. 079.157.010) supplies the following definition: The United States Department of Labor is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, re-employment services, and some economic statistics. ...

Hypnotherapist -- Induces hypnotic state in client to increase motivation or alter behavior pattern through hypnosis. Consults with client to determine the nature of problem. Prepares client to enter hypnotic states by explaining how hypnosis works and what client will experience. Tests subject to determine degrees of physical and emotional suggestibility. Induces hypnotic state in client using individualized methods and techniques of hypnosis based on interpretation of test results and analysis of client's problem. May train client in self-hypnosis conditioning.

India

The Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India, vide its letter no.R.14015/25/96-U&H(R) (Pt.) dated 25th November, 2003, has very categorically stated that hypnotherapy is a recognized mode of therapy in India to be practiced by only appropriately trained Personnel.


Maharaja Sayajirao University (M.S.University - 4 star) at Vadodara is conducting one year Post Graduate Diploma Course in Clinical Applied Hypnosis (P.G.D.C.A.H.) from 2000. (http://www.msubaroda.ac.in/departmentinfo.php?ffac_code=3&fdept_code=4) Various Indian universities have included clinical hypnosis as a syllabus subject in their graduate, post-graduate, pre-doctoral courses of psychology, journalism, nursing and yoga.


Israel

A law [53] in effect since 1984 limits the practice of hypnosis solely to licensed psychologists, dentists and physicians.


Australia

Professional hypnotherapy and use of the occupational titles hypnotherapist or clinical hypnotherapist is not government-regulated in Australia.


In 1996, as a result of a three-year research project led by Lindsay B. Yeates, the Australian Hypnotherapists' Association[4] (founded in 1949), the oldest hypnotism-oriented professional organization in Australia, instituted a peer-group accreditation system for full-time Australian professional hypnotherapists, the first of its kind in the world.[54] The system was further revised in 1999.[55] The Australian Hypnotherapists Association is a member of the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia (PACFA) which represents many counselling and psychotherapy associations in Australia as well as many other professions. The Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia (PACFA) is the umbrella professional body that plays a self-regulating role in the psychotherapy and counselling industry. ...


However, many clinical hypnotherapists and Hypnotherapy Associations do not wish to be represented by PACFA simply because the organization is obviously not specifically devoted to representating the interests of hypnotherapy and hypnotherapists.


Australian hypnotism/hypnotherapy organizations (including the Australian Hypnotherapists Association) are seeking government regulation similar to other mental health professions. However, the various tiers of Australian government have shown consistently over they last two decades that they are opposed to government legislation and in favour of self regulation by industry groups.


With this in mind in 2007 a majority of professional hypnosis groups — including professional organizations, private teaching organizations, and other hypntotism-associated professional bodies — have agreed to work toward creating a new national body to be known as Hypnotherapy Council of Australia. The Council of Clinical Hypnotherapists (CCH) will represent the Hypnosis Associations from the Southern Region of Australia, i.e. the States of Victoria, Tasmania and Western Australia.


See also

Atavistic regression is a hypnosis-related concept introduced by the Australian scholar and psychiatrist Ainslie Meares in, for example, his 1960 work A System of Medical Hypnosis. ... Book cover of the 2000 edition of The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, which includes a depiction of Tukulti-Ninurta I pointing (with his right forefinger) at the empty throne of his god. ... This article needs cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Persuasion uses of NLP. (Discuss) It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Milton model. ... Highway hypnosis is a mental state in which the person can drive an automobile great distances, responding to external events in the expected manner, with no recollection of having consciously done so. ... // Hypnotism as a tool for health seems to have originated with the Hindus of India who often took their sick to sleep temples to be cured by hypnotic suggestion as also found to be the case in Egypt and Greece. ... Hypnagogia (also spelled hypnogogia) describes vivid dream-like auditory, visual, or tactile sensations, which are often accompanied by sleep paralysis and experienced when falling asleep or waking up. ... Hypnofetishism is the sexual fetish for hypnosis and similar forms of mental persuasion, therapy or mind control. ... Hypnosurgery is the term given to an operation where the patient is sedated using hypnotherapy rather than traditional anaesthetics. ... This article is about the alternative interpersonal communications and psychotherapy model, neuro-linguistic programming. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ...

References

  1. ^ Definition of hypnosis - Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
  2. ^ Haque, Amber (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357-377 [365] 
  3. ^ Hilgard, E. R. (1965). Hypnotic susceptibility. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World.
  4. ^ Barnier, A.; Wright, J., & McConkey, K.M. (2004). "Posthypnotic amnesia for autobiographical episodes: Influencing memory accessibility and quality". International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 52: 260-279. 
  5. ^ Liébeault, Le sommeil provoqué (Paris, 1889)
  6. ^ American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (2007-03-04). Information for the general public. Retrieved on 2007-08-27.
  7. ^ Feynman, Richard (1985). Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!. W.W. Norton, 67-68. ISBN 0-393-01921-7. 
  8. ^ Physically Focused Hypnotherapy (A Practical Guide for Professionals to Treating Physical Conditions in Everyday Practice), ISBN 0-9711185-0-7
  9. ^ Barrett, Deirdre (1997) The Pregnant Man and Other Cases from a Hypnotherapist's Couch, Times/Random House, NY, IBSN 0-812-929055
  10. ^ Spiegel, D. and Moore, R. (1997) "Imagery and hypnosis in the treatment of cancer patients" Oncology 11(8): pp. 1179-1195
  11. ^ Garrow, D. and Egede, L. E. (November 2006) "National patterns and correlates of complementary and alternative medicine use in adults with diabetes" Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 12(9): pp. 895-902
  12. ^ Mascot, C. (2004) "Hypnotherapy: A complementary therapy with broad applications" Diabetes Self Management 21(5): pp.15-18
  13. ^ Kwekkeboom, K.L. and Gretarsdottir, E. (2006) "Systematic review of relaxation interventions for pain" Journal of Nursing Scholarship 38(3): pp.269-277
  14. ^ Astin, J.A. et al. (2003) "Mind-body medicine: state of the science, implications for practice" Journal of the American Board of Family Practitioners 16(2): pp.131-147
  15. ^ a b Questions and Answers about Memories of Childhood Abuse. American Psychological Association. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  16. ^ a b American Medical Association Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs, June 16, 1994, CSA Report 5-A-94, Subject: Memories of Childhood Abuse. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  17. ^ Montgomery, Guy. "Reducing Pain After Surgery Via Hypnosis", Your Cancer Today. 
  18. ^ "BBC News", BBC. 
  19. ^ "BBC News", BBC. 
  20. ^ a b c d e Nash, Michael R. "The Truth and the Hype of Hypnosis". Scientific American: July 2001
  21. ^ Packard, Vance (1957). The Hidden Persuaders. Pocket. ISBN 978-0671531492. 
  22. ^ André M. Weitzenbhoffer. The Practice of Hypnotism 2nd ed, Toronto, John Wiley & Son Inc, Chapter 16, p. 583-587, 2000 ISBN 0-471-29790-9
  23. ^ Kroger, William S. (1977) Clinical and experimental hypnosis in medicine, dentistry, and psychology. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 29. ISBN 0-397-50377-6
  24. ^ Baker, Robert A. (1990) They Call It Hypnosis Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, ISBN 0879755768
  25. ^ Spanos, Nicholas P. and John F. Chaves (1989). Hypnosis: the Cognitive-behavioral Perspective. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. 
  26. ^ Weitzenhoffer, A.M.: Hypnotism - An Objective Study in Suggestibility. New York, Wiley, 1953.
  27. ^ Gosline, Anna. "Hypnosis really changes your mind", New Scientist, 2004-09-10. Retrieved on 2007-08-27. 
  28. ^ Pavlov, I. P.: Experimental Psychology. New York, Philosophical Library, 1957.
  29. ^ Psychosomatic Medicine. http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/cgi/content/abstract/10/6/317
  30. ^ Kroger, William S. (1977) Clinical and experimental hypnosis in medicine, dentistry, and psychology. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 31. ISBN 0-397-50377-6
  31. ^ Kroger, William S. (1977) Clinical and experimental hypnosis in medicine, dentistry, and psychology. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 31. ISBN 0-397-50377-6
  32. ^ Braid J (1843). Neurypnology or The rationale of nervous sleep considered in relation with animal magnetism.. Buffalo, N.Y.: John Churchill. 
  33. ^ Morgan J.D. (1993). The Principles of Hypnotherapy. Eildon Press. 
  34. ^ electronic copy of The Principles of Hypnotherapy. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  35. ^ "Obesity". Medical Reference. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  36. ^ Wier, Dennis R (1996). Trance: from magic to technology. Ann Arbor, Michigan: TransMedia. ISBN 1888428384. 
  37. ^ Waterfield, R. (2003). Hidden Depths: The Story of Hypnosis. pp. 36-37
  38. ^ Pratt, George J. et al. (1988). A Clinical Hypnosis Primer. pp. 59
  39. ^ Pratt, George J. et al. (1988). A Clinical Hypnosis Primer. pp. 371-372
  40. ^ Zablocki, Benjamin (October 1997) "The Blacklisting of a Concept: The Strange History of the Brainwashing Conjecture in the Sociology of Religion" Nova Religio 1(1): pp. 96-121
  41. ^ Waterfield, Robin A. (2003) Hidden Depths: The Story of Hypnosis Brunner-Routledge, New York, ISBN 0415947928 pp. 361-390
  42. ^ Mind Control with Derren Brown (interview). Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
  43. ^ Yapko, Michael (1990). Trancework: An introduction to the practice of Clinical Hypnosis. NY, New York: Brunner/Mazel, 42. 
  44. ^ Yapko, Michael (1990). Trancework: An introduction to the practice of Clinical Hypnosis. NY, New York: Brunner/Mazel, 28. 
  45. ^ Wagstaff, Graham F. (1981) Hypnosis, Compliance and Belief St. Martin's Press, New York, ISBN 0312401574
  46. ^ Barrett, D. 2006. "Hypnosis in Film and Television". American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 49, no. 1: 13-30.
  47. ^ For example, although the Australian Hypnotherapists' Association,[1] the oldest dedicated organization in Australia, was founded in 1949, the Australian Society of Clinical Hypnotherapists,[2] was not was formed until 1974.
  48. ^ Although, of course, it is obvious that, once established, an organization may well serve a much wider range of interests.
  49. ^ Although, of course, these entry requirements may have become more complicated over time.
  50. ^ For example, membership of the Australian Hypnotherapists' Association is contingent upon an individual’s major occupation being "clinical hypnotherapist" and their principal modality within that occupation being "hypnotherapy".
  51. ^ And, in these cases, there is seldom any further restriction to full-time users of hypnosis amongst those health professionals. The membership of the following organizations is restricted to one or more occupational groups: )the International Society for Hypnosis (ISH), the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, the British Society of Clinical and Academic Hypnosis (formerly the British Society of Medical and Dental Hypnosis), and the Australian Society of Hypnosis.
  52. ^ For example, the Australian Society of Clinical Hypnotherapists, a multi-disciplinary organization designed to meet the needs of multi-modal practitioners, will accept appropriately trained individuals that are not government-registered health professionals.
  53. ^ [3]
  54. ^ The accreditation criteria and the structure of the accreditation system were based on those described in Yeates, Lindsay B., A Set of Competency and Proficiency Standards for Australian Professional Clinical Hypnotherapists: A Descriptive Guide to the Australian Hypnotherapists' Association Accreditation System, Australian Hypnotherapists' Association, (Sydney), 1996. ISBN 0-646-27250-0
  55. ^ The revised criteria, etc. are described in Yeates, Lindsay B., A Set of Competency and Proficiency Standards for Australian Professional Clinical Hypnotherapists: A Descriptive Guide to the Australian Hypnotherapists' Association Accreditation System (Second, Revised Edition), Australian Hypnotherapists' Association, (Sydney), 1999. ISBN 0-957-76940-7.

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Further reading

  • (1 June 1991) in Heap, Michael, and Windy Dryden (Eds.): Hypnotherapy: A Handbook (Psychotherapy Handbooks). Open University Press. ISBN 0335098878. 
  • Ambrose, G; Newbold G. (1980). Handbook of Medical Hypnosis, 4, London: Balliere Tindalt. 
  • Della Sala (Ed.), Sergio (1999). Mind Myths: Exploring Popular Assumptions about the Mind and Brain. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0471983039. 

is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ...

External links

Look up Hypnosis in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • The International Society of Hypnosis
  • International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis A peer-reviewed journal focusing on experimental issues
  • American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis A peer-reviewed journal focusing on clinical issues
  • Contemporary Hypnosis A peer-reviewed journal covering experimental and clinical research
  • Torronto Star On Hypnosis
  • Scientific American Article on Hypnosis
  • British Psychological Society report on the Nature of Hypnosis
  • Hypnothoughts - The Online Hypnosis Community
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hypnosis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6513 words)
Hypnosis, itself, is not a therapy, but is effectively used as an adjunct to other therapies; hence, "hypnotherapy" is less preferable than the use of hypnosis-related techniques as part of an integrated psychological package.
Michael Yapko defines hypnosis: "...hypnosis is a process of influential communication in which the clinician elicits and guides the inner associations of the client in order to establish or strengthen therapeutic associations in the context of a collaborative and mutually responsive goal-oriented relationship.
A number of different strands of hypnosis research are apparent: that which examines the 'state' of hypnosis itself, that which examines the effects and properties of suggestions in and out of hypnosis, and that which uses hypnotic suggestion as a tool to research other areas of psychological functioning.
Hypnosis (4416 words)
A typical hypnosis session begins with an induction procedure in which the person is asked to focus his or her eyes on a fixation point, relax, and concentrate on the voice of the hypnotist.
Hypnosis may be especially useful in cases of chronic pain, where chemical analgesics such as morphine pose risks of tolerance and addiction.
Hypnosis is now a thriving topic for both scientific inquiry and clinical application, and is represented by such professional organizations as the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, and other affiliates of the International Society of Hypnosis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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