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Punctuation Hyphen is a nationally-distributed, independent Asian American magazine aimed at 20 and 30-somethings. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ...

apostrophe ( ' )
brackets ( ), [ ], { }, < >
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( , , , )
ellipsis ( , ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
guillemets ( « » )
hyphen ( -, )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
solidus ( )
For the prime symbol (′) used for feet and inches, see Prime (symbol). ... For technical reasons, :) and some similar combinations starting with : redirect here. ... The colon (:) is a punctuation mark, visually consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. ... For other uses, see Comma. ... For other uses, see Dash (disambiguation). ... Distinguish from ellipse. ... an exclamation mark An exclamation mark, exclamation point or bang, !, is usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feeling. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Guillemets, also called angle quotes, are line segments, pointed as if arrows (« or »), sometimes forming a complementary set of punctuation marks used as a form of quotation mark. ... The question mark(?) (also known as an interrogation point, query,[1] or eroteme) is a punctuation mark that replaces the full stop at the end of an interrogative sentence. ... Quotation marks or inverted commas (also called quotes and speech marks) are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, a phrase or a word. ... A semicolon (  ;  ) is a punctuation mark. ... A slash or stroke, /, is a punctuation mark. ... A solidus, oblique or slash, /, is a punctuation mark. ...

Interword separation

spaces ( ) ( ) ( )
interpunct ( · )
This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A space is a punctuation convention for providing interword separation in some scripts, including the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, and Arabic. ... An interpunct · is a small dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries in written language. ...

General typography

ampersand ( & )
asterisk ( * )
at ( @ )
backslash ( )
bullet ( )
caret ( ^ )
currency ( ¤ ) ¢, $, , £, ¥, ₩,
dagger/obelisk ( ) ( )
degree ( ° )
dele ( )
emoticons ( )
inverted exclamation point ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
number sign ( # )
numero sign ( )
percent and related signs
( %, ‰, )
pilcrow ( )
prime ( )
section sign ( § )
tilde/swung dash ( ~ )
umlaut/diaeresis ( ¨ )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical/pipe/broken bar ( |, ¦ )
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An ampersand (&), also commonly called an and sign is a logogram representing the conjunction and. ... An asterisk (*), is a typographical symbol or glyph. ... “@” redirects here. ... First introduced in 1960 by Bob Bemer , the backslash, , is a typographical mark (glyph) used chiefly in computing. ... In typography, a bullet is a typographical symbol or glyph used to introduce items in a list, like below, also known as the point of a bullet: This is the text of a list item. ... A caret in the Arial font Caret is the name for the symbol ^ in ASCII and some other character sets. ... A two cent euro coin A US penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals th of the basic unit of value. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cifrão. ... The euro (&#8364;; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... The Pound sign (£) is the symbol for Pound sterling, the currency of the United Kingdom, and some other currencies of the same name in other countries. ... ¥9 Chinese price sticker ¥ is a currency sign used for the following currencies: Chinese yuan (CNY) Japanese yen (JPY) The base unit of the two currencies above share the same Chinese character (圓/元/円), pronounced yuan in Mandarin Chinese and en in Standard Japanese. ... ₩ is a currency sign that is used for the following currencies: North Korean won South Korean won Woolong, a fictional currency in Cowboy Bebop Category: ... ₪ ₪ is a currency sign that is used for the Israeli new sheqel currency which replaced the Israeli sheqel in 1985. ... Everyone please stop nitpicking on the use of daggers in theoldnewthing blog! This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article describes the typographical or mathematical symbol. ... A dele or deleatur. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The idea of codifying emotional content in written or message form is not new. ... The inverted question mark and inverted exclamation point in Spanish are used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences, respectively. ... The inverted question mark and inverted exclamation point in Spanish are used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences, respectively. ... Number sign in Arial font Number sign is one name for the symbol #, and is the preferred Unicode name for the codepoint represented by that glyph. ... The Numero sign (U+2116) or Number sign is used in many languages to indicate ordinal numbering, especially in names and titles, rather than the US-derived number sign, #. For example, instead of Number 4 Privet Drive or #4 Privet Drive, one could write № 4 Privet Drive. The symbol is... The percent sign (%) is the symbol used to indicate a percentage (that the preceding number is divided by one hundred). ... A pilcrow from the font Gentium, designed by J. Victor Gaultney, 2002. ... This article is not about the symbol for the set of prime numbers, ℙ. The prime (′, Unicode U+2032, &prime;) is a symbol with many mathematical uses: A complement in set theory: A′ is the complement of the set A A point related to another (e. ... The section sign (§; Unicode U+00A7, HTML entity &sect;) is a typographical character used mainly to refer to a particular section of a document, such as a legal code. ... The tilde (~) is a grapheme with several uses. ... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... The underscore _ is the character with ASCII value 95. ... Vertical bar, verti-bar, vertical line, divider line, or pipe is the name of the character (|). Broken bar (¦) is a separate character. ...

Uncommon typography

asterism ( )
index/fist ( )
therefore sign ( )
lozenge ( )
interrobang ( )
irony mark ( ؟ )
reference mark ( )
sarcasm mark
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In typography, an asterism is a rare symbol consisting of three asterisks placed in a triangle, used to call attention to a passage or to separate sub-chapters in a book. ... The symbol ☞ is a rare punctuation mark, called an index or fist. ...   In a mathematical proof, the therefore sign is a symbol that is sometimes placed before a logical consequence, such as the conclusion of a syllogism. ... A lozenge (â—Š) is a form of rhombus. ... For other uses, see Interrobang (disambiguation). ... The Irony mark (ØŸ) (French: point d’ironie) is a punctuation mark that purports to indicate that a sentence should be understood at a second level. ... This page lists Japanese typographic symbols which are not included in kana or kanji. ... A sarcasm mark, also called a sarcasm point, helps the reader identify certain messages as being derogatory or ironic. ...

A hyphen ( ) is a punctuation mark. It is used both to join words and to separate syllables. It is often confused with the dashes ( , , ), which are longer and have different functions. The use of hyphens is called Hyphenation. The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... For other uses, see Word (disambiguation). ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... A dash is a punctuation mark, and is not to be confused with the hyphen, which has quite different uses. ...

Contents

Customs of usage

A definitive collection of hyphen rules does not exist. Therefore, the writer or editor should consult a manual of style or dictionary of his or her preference, particularly for the country in which he or she is writing. The rules of style that apply to dashes and hyphens have evolved to support ease of reading in complex constructions; editors often accept deviations from them that will support, rather than hinder, ease of reading. A manual of style is also called a style guide; see that article for an account of manuals of style generally. ... For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ...


Texts may be automatically hyphenated via hyphenation algorithms; when employed in concert with dictionaries, such hyphenation is sufficient for most informal texts. One of the reasons for the complexity of the rules of word-breaking, or hyphenation algorithm, is that different dialects of English tend to differ on the rule: American English tends to work on sound, while British English tends to look to the origins of the word and then to...

  • Spaces should not be placed between a hyphen and either of the words it connects except when using a suspended hyphen (e.g. nineteenth- and twentieth-century writers—see below).
  • Except for noun–noun and adverb–adjective compound modifiers, when a compound modifier appears before a term, the compound modifier is generally hyphenated to prevent any possible misunderstanding, such as American-football player. Without the hyphen, there is potential confusion about whether American applies to football or player. Compound modifiers can extend to three or more words, as in ice-cream-flavored candy.
  • Hyphens are generally not used in noun–noun or adverb–adjective compound modifiers when no such confusion is possible; for example:
    • government standards organization and department store manager
    • wholly owned subsidiary and quickly moving vehicle (because the adverbs clearly modify the verbs; quickly obviously does not apply to vehicle as quickly vehicle would be meaningless).
  • However, the hyphen joining the adverb more and the adjective important in the phrase more-important reasons distinguishes that phrase from more important reasons, where more is an adjective. A mass-noun example is the following: more-beautiful scenery as distinct from more beautiful scenery.
  • Hyphenation is also common with adjective–noun compound modifiers but, arguably, less generally. Examples are real-world example and left-handed catch. Where the adjective–noun phrase would be plural standing alone, it usually becomes singular and hyphenated when modifying another noun. For example, four days becomes four-day week.
  • Two-word names of numbers less than one hundred are hyphenated. For instance, the number 23 should be written twenty-three, and 123 should be written one hundred and twenty-three. (The and is sometimes omitted in America)
  • Hyphens are occasionally used to denote syllabification, as in syl-lab-i-fi-ca-tion. Most American dictionaries use an interpunct, sometimes called a "middle dot" or "hyphenation point", for this purpose, as in syl·lab·i·fi·ca·tion. Similarly, hyphens may be used to imply the spelling of a word, such as "W-O-R-D spells word."
  • Hyphens are sometimes used in English to denote syllable breaks, particularly for prefixes, as when a (repeated) vowel is pronounced on its own rather than being silent or merged in a diphthong, as in 'shell-like' and 'anti-intellectual', where some other languages (and some English authorities) use a diaeresis like 'noël'. In British English, hyphens are also occasionally employed where readers would otherwise be tempted into a mispronunciation (e.g. co-worker is so punctuated partly to prevent the reader's eye being caught automatically by the word cow—though see also the following note on prefixes).
  • Certain prefixes (co-, pre-, mid-, de-, non-, anti-, etc.) are often hyphenated, though usage varies between American and British English. British English tends towards hyphenation (pre-school, co-worker) whereas American English tends towards omission of the hyphen (preschool, coworker). A hyphen is mandatory when a prefix is applied to a proper (capitalized) adjective (un-American). The AP Stylebook provides further information on the use of "co-" as a prefix.
  • Some words are hyphenated to distinguish them from other words that would otherwise be homographs, such as "recreation" (fun or sport) and "re-creation" (in forensics), or "predate" (what a predator does) and "pre-date" (to be of an earlier calendar date).
  • If a word begins on one line of text and continues into the following line, a hyphen is usually inserted immediately before the split. Note that the details of doing this properly are complex and language-dependent and that they interact with other typesetting practices: see justification and hyphenation algorithm.
  • Some married couples compose a new surname (sometimes referred to as a double-barrelled name) for their new family by combining their two surnames with a hyphen. Jane Doe and John Smith might become Jane and John Smith-Doe, or Doe-Smith, for instance. In some countries, however, only the woman hyphenates her birth surname, appending her husband's surname.
  • Hyphens are used to connect numbers and words, whether numerals or written out, as in 28-year-old woman (cf. twenty-eight-year-old woman) or 320-foot wingspan, in forming adjectival phrases (particularly with weights and measures). The SI recommends against this practice when using abbreviated metric units. The same usually holds for abbreviated time units.
  • They are also used in spelled-out fractions as adjectives (but not as nouns), such as 'two-thirds majority' and 'one-eighth portion'.
  • A suspended hyphen (also referred to as a "hanging hyphen" or "dangling hyphen") may be used when a single base word is being used with separate but back-to-back hyphenated words that are themselves connected by "and", "or", or "to". "Nineteenth-century and twentieth-century" can instead be written "nineteenth- and twentieth-century".

The use of the hyphen has, in general, been steadily declining, both in popular writing and in scholarly journals. Its use is almost always avoided by those who write for newspapers, for advertising copy or for labels on packaging, since they are often more concerned with visual cleanliness than semantic clarity; the words are left with spaces. However, it is still used in most (American) newspapers and magazines; hence people remain accustomed to seeing and understanding its use. In other countries hyphens are dropped in favour of connecting the two-word compounds. In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... “Adverbs” redirects here. ... A compound modifier (also called a compound adjective) is an adjectival or adverbial phrase of two or more words. ... It has been suggested that Count noun be merged into this article or section. ... Syllabification can be described as the separation of a word at the end of a line to improve the lines appearance in text. ... An interpunct · is a small dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries in written language. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... A slightly outdated edition of the Stylebook The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, usually simply called the AP Stylebook and nicknamed the journalists bible, is the primary guide of style and usage for most newspapers and newsmagazines in the United States. ... Look up homograph in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Fun” redirects here. ... A re-creation (not to be confused with recreation) is a reenactment, typically used to solve a crime or determine a mode of failure or cause of death. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... A date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In typesetting, justification is the setting of text or images within a column or measure to align along both the left and right margin. ... One of the reasons for the complexity of the rules of word-breaking, or hyphenation algorithm, is that different dialects of English tend to differ on the rule: American English tends to work on sound, while British English tends to look to the origins of the word and then to... A family name, or surname, is that part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the musician and actor, see John Doe (musician) For the television series, see John Doe (Television series) For the childrens book by L. Frank Baum, see John Dough and the Cherub In English-speaking common-law jurisdiction, the name John Doe is used for a defendant or victim... // John Smith is a name often regarded as the archetype of a common personal name in most English-speaking countries, a generic name sometimes representing everyman or the average person. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In common usage a fraction is any part of a unit. ... This article is about the journal as a written medium. ... “Advert” redirects here. ... In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ...


An en dash ('–') sometimes replaces the hyphen in hyphenated compounds if either of its constituent parts is already hyphenated or contains a space (e.g. high-priority–high-pressure tasks (tasks which are both high-priority and high-pressure). Hyphens are often used where en dashes are more properly used, in ranges (pp. 312–14), relationships (blood–brain barrier) and to convey the sense of to (BostonWashington race). A dash is a punctuation mark, and is not to be confused with the hyphen, which has quite different uses. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ...


Examples of usage

Some strong examples of semantic changes caused by the placement of hyphens:

  • disease-causing poor nutrition, meaning poor nutrition that causes disease
  • disease causing poor nutrition, meaning a disease that causes poor nutrition
  • a man-eating shark is a carnivorous fish
  • a man eating shark is a male human in the active process of consuming shark meat

Additional examples of proper use:

  • text-only document or the document is text-only
  • Detroit-based organization or the organization is Detroit-based
  • state-of-the-art product or the product is state-of-the-art (but The state of the art is very advanced. with no hyphen)
  • board-certified strategy or the strategy is board-certified
  • thought-provoking argument or the argument is thought-provoking
  • time-sensitive error or the error is time-sensitive
  • case-sensitive password or the password is case-sensitive
  • government-issued photo ID or the photo ID is government-issued (but …is issued by the government with no hyphen.)
  • light-gathering surface or the surface is light-gathering
  • award-winning novel or the novel is award-winning (but, more likely, …won an award with no hyphen)
  • web-based encyclopedia or the encyclopedia is web-based
  • fun-loving person or the person is fun-loving
  • how to wire-transfer funds
  • how to tax-plan
  • advertising-supported service or service is advertising-supported (but, better, …is supported by advertising with no hyphen.)
  • Rudolph Giuliani is an Italian-American (but see hyphenated American)
  • list of China-related topics …list of topics is China-related (but …related to China with no hyphen)
  • out-of-body experience
  • near-death experience
  • in surnames, for example Dominique Strauss-Kahn

Note, though, that many authoritative sources, such as the Chicago Manual of Style, recommend writing commonplace compounds open (i.e., without hyphen) when they appear after the noun they modify and when they are used adverbially. Thus Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Rudolph William Louis Rudy Giuliani III, KBE (born May 28, 1944) served as the Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2001. ... Hyphenated Americans are Americans who are referred to with a first word indicating an origin or ancestry in a foreign country and a second term (separated from the first with a hyphen) being American (e. ... The sub-pages of this article aim to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to China, including Hong Kong and Macau. ... An out-of-body experience (OBE or sometimes OOBE) is an experience that typically involves a sensation of floating outside of ones body and, in some cases, seeing ones physical body from a place outside ones body (autoscopy). ... “NDE” redirects here. ... Dominique Strauss-Kahn (born 25 April 1949 in Neuilly-sur-Seine; often referred as DSK) is a French economist, lawyer, and politician, member of the French Socialist Party. ... The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is a highly regarded style guide for American English, dealing with questions of style, manuscript preparation, and, to a lesser degree, usage. ...

  • She always wears out-of-date clothes.

but

  • Her wardrobe is out of date.

Similarly, for the adverbial use compare

  • The hand-to-hand combat was frightful.

and

  • They fought hand to hand in repulsing the attack.

Origin and history of the hyphen

The likely first use of the hyphen—and its origination—ought to be credited to Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany circa 1455 with the publication of his 42-line Bible. Examination of an original copy on vellum (Hubay index #35) in the U. S. Library of Congress shows Gutenberg's movable type was set justified in a uniform style, 42 equal lines per page.


The Gutenberg Printing Press required that words made up of individual letters of type had to be held in place by surrounding the page with a non-printing rigid frame. Gutenberg solved the problem of making each line the same length to fit the frame by inserting a hyphen as the last element at the right side margin. This interrupted the letters in the last word, requiring the remaining letters be carried over to the start of the line below. His hypen appears throughout the bible as a short, double line inclined to the right at a 60-degree angle.


Prior to Gutenberg setting the first lines printed in the Western world with moveable type, there was no need for hyphens or justifying lines to equal length. The hyphen solved the equal lines problem created by the rigid frame of Gutenberg's printing press.


In medieval times and the early days of printing, the predecessor of the comma was a slash. As the hyphen ought not to be confused with this, a double-slash was used, this resembling an equals sign tilted like a slash. Writing forms changed with time, and included the full development of the comma, so the hyphen could become one horizontal stroke. The term comma has various uses; comma is the name used for one of the punctuation symbols: , The term comma is also used in music theory for various small intervals that arise as differences between approximately equal intervals. ... A slash or stroke, /, is a punctuation mark. ... The equal sign, equals sign, or = is a mathematical symbol used to indicate equality. ...


However, publishers of dictionaries liked that a tilted symbol would give them a little extra room in their books. Those dictionaries based on the second edition of the Merriam-Webster dictionary used one small, slightly tilted slash for a hyphen which they added at the end of a line where they broke the word, but used a double-slash much like the very old symbol to indicate a hyphen which needs to be in a phrase and just happened to get at the end of the line. This double-slash would be used in hyphenated phrases in the middle of the text as well, so that there would be no confusion. Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ...


Hyphens in computing

In the ASCII character encoding, the hyphen was encoded as character 45. Technically, this character is called the hyphen-minus, as it is also used as the minus sign and for dashes. In Unicode, this same character is encoded as U+002D ( - ) so that Unicode remains compatible with ASCII. However, Unicode also encodes the hyphen and minus separately, as U+2010 ( ‐ ) and U+2212 ( − ), respectively, along with a series of dashes. Usage of the hyphen-minus character is discouraged where possible, in favour of the specific hyphen character. Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... A character encoding or character set (sometimes referred to as code page) consists of a code that pairs a sequence of characters from a given set with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the storage of text in computers... The Hyphen-minus is the character at position 2DHEX in ASCII and standards that derive from it. ... A dash is a punctuation mark, and is not to be confused with the hyphen, which has quite different uses. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


When flowing text, it is sometimes preferable to break a word in half so that it continues on another line rather than moving the entire word to the next line. Since it is difficult for a computer program to automatically make good decisions on when to hyphenate a word the concept of a soft hyphen was introduced to allow manual specification of a place where a hyphenated break was allowed without forcing a line break in an inconvenient place if the text was later reflowed. Soft hyphens are most useful when the width is known but future editability is desired, as few would have the patience to put them in at every place they believed a hyphenated split was acceptable (as would be needed for their meaningful use on a medium like the Web, however CSS3 introduces language specific hyphenation dictionaries which solves this).


When flowing text, a system may consider the soft hyphen to be a point at which a word may be broken, and display a hyphen at the end of the broken line; if the line is not broken at that point the hyphen is not displayed. In most parts of ISO-8859 the soft hyphen is at position 0xAD, and since the first 256 positions in Unicode are taken from ISO-8859-1, it has a Unicode codepoint of U+00AD. In HTML, the soft hyphen is encoded as the character entity&shy;’. ISO 8859, more formally ISO/IEC 8859, is a joint ISO and IEC standard for 8-bit character encodings for use by computers. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F, or a–f. ... ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It encodes what it refers to as Latin alphabet no. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... HTML has been in use since 1991 (note that the W3C international standard is now XHTML), but the first standardized version with a reasonably complete treatment of international characters was version 4. ...


Most text systems consider a hyphen to be a word boundary and a valid point at which to break a line when flowing text. However, this is not always desirable behavior, especially when it could lead to ambiguity (such as in the examples given before, where ‘recreation’ and ‘re-creation’ would be indistinguishable). For this purpose, Unicode also encodes a non-breaking hyphen as U+2011 ( ‑ ). This character looks identical to the regular hyphen, but is not treated as a word boundary.


The ASCII hyphen-minus character is also often used when specifying parameters to programs in a command line interface. The character is usually followed by one or more letters that indicate specific actions. Typically it is called a dash in this context. This is used in many different operating systems, particularly Unix and Unix-like systems. DOS and Microsoft Windows also sometimes make use of the hyphen, although the use of a forward slash (/) is more prevalent there. A parameter by itself that is only a single hyphen without any letters usually means that a program is supposed to handle data coming from the standard input or send data to the standard output. Two hyphen-minus characters ( -- ) are used on some programs to specify “long options” where more descriptive action names are used. This is a common feature of GNU software. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ... Windows redirects here. ... The standard streams are a set of input and output channels featured in Unix and Unix-like operating systems, and provided by the standard I/O library (stdio. ... The standard streams are a set of input and output channels featured in Unix and Unix-like operating systems, and provided by the standard I/O library (stdio. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system composed entirely of free software. ...


International Standard dates

Continental Europeans use the hyphen to delineate parts within a written date. Germans and Slavs also used Roman numerals for the month; 14‑VII‑1789, for example, is one way of writing the first Bastille Day, though this usage is rapidly falling out of favour. Plaques on the wall of the Moscow Kremlin are written this way. Usage of hyphens, as opposed to the slashes used in the English language, is specified for international standards. // Different stylistic conventions and habits exist around the world in order to express date and time in written and spoken language. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... For the Battlestar Galactica episode, see Bastille Day (Battlestar Galactica). ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken by westerners as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


International standard ISO 8601, which was accepted as European Standard EN 28601 and incorporated into various typographic style guides (e.g., DIN 5008 in Germany), brought about a new standard using the hyphen. Now all official European governmental documents use this. These norms prescribe writing dates using hyphens: 1789-07-14 is the new way of writing the first Bastille Day. Standards are produced by many organizations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ... ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Look up din in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


This method has gained influence within North America, as most common computer filesystems make the use of slashes difficult or impossible. Windows uses both and / as the directory separator, and / is also used to introduce and separate switches to shell commands. Unix-like systems use / as a directory separator and, while is legal in filenames, it is awkward to use as the shell uses it as an escape character. Unix also uses a space followed by a hyphen to introduce switches. The non-year form is also identical apart from the separator used to the standard American representation.


The ISO date format sorts correctly using a default collation, which can be useful in many computing situations including for filenames, so many computer systems and IT technicians have switched to this method. The government of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, for example, has switched to this method.[citation needed] Alphabetical redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Other uses

The hyphen is sometimes used to hide letters in words, as in G-d. At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form &#1497;&#1492;&#1493;&#1492; (YHWH), the name of God. ...


Current Propriety and Validity of Hyphens

The hyphen is becoming obsolete in the spelling of words of the English language. As of 2007, about 16,000 words are succumbing to pressures of the Internet Age and are losing their hyphens. This is because words containing the hyphen have been censored and squeezed as informal ways of communicating, as such words are regularly honed into text messages and emails, then they spread on websites and eventually the hyphenated words seep into newspapers and books. English writers, editors and journalists are beginning to lose confidence in the hyphen as part of spelling. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Look up editor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ...


Thousands of hyphens are perishing as English marches forward, according to the Yahoo! News Article cited below. Please keep in mind that most of the words referenced in this Yahoo! News article lost their hyphens long before the Internet became popular, at least in the United States [1]


See also

The Hyphen War (in Czech Pomlčková válka, in Slovak Pomlčková vojna — literally Dash War) was the tongue-in-cheek name given to the conflict over what to call Czechoslovakia after the fall of Communism. ... Double hyphen in the Fraktur typeface. ... For other uses, see Dash (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, subtraction is one of the four basic arithmetic operations. ... The requested page title was invalid, empty, or an incorrectly linked inter-language or inter-wiki title. ...

External links

Look up Hyphen in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hyphens (1450 words)
This may be because the hyphen has no analogue in speech; it is punctuation created purely by the needs of print.
The tendency is for compounds to begin life as two-word or hyphenated terms, and when they have become acceptable in general usage and gotten into dictionaries, they lose the hyphen and are spelled solid, as one word.
AP Style Manual is more choosy: pro- and co- are hyphenated when certain meanings are intended; anti- and non- are usually hyphenated, with some exceptions noted; post-, pre-, and over- follow the dictionary in general; and under-, un-, re-, semi-, intra-, extra-, ultra-, sub-, super-, and supra- are usually spelled solid.
hyphen definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta (306 words)
For some the hyphens are optional, or inserted only when the word or phrase is used before a noun: a coffee-table book;a well-timed attack (but the book on the coffee table;if the attack is well timed).
A hyphen is sometimes inserted when a prefix ending in a vowel is added to a word beginning with a vowel (e.g., co-opt,de-ice).
In writing and printing, a hyphen may also be used to show that a word has been broken at the end of a line.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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