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Encyclopedia > Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy
Classification and external resources
MeSH D006984

Hypertrophy is the increase of the size of an organ or in a select area of the tissue. It should be distinguished from hyperplasia which occurs due to cell division increasing the number of cells while their size stays the same; hypertrophy occurs due to an increase in the size of cells, while the number stays the same. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Hyperplasia (or hypergenesis) is a general term referring to the proliferation of cells within an organ or tissue beyond that which is ordinarily seen in e. ...

Contents

Examples of hypertrophy

Muscular hypertrophy

Main article: Muscle hypertrophy

One of the most common and visible forms of organ hypertrophy occurs in skeletal muscles in response to strength training (known as muscle hypertrophy). Depending on the type of training, the hypertrophy can occur through increased sarcoplasmic volume or increased contractile proteins. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Strength training is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, endurance and size of skeletal muscles. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sarcoplasm of a muscle fiber is comparable to the cytoplasm of other cells, but it houses unusually large amounts of glycosomes (granules of stored glycogen) and significant amounts of myoglobin, an oxygen binding protein. ... The sliding filament mechanism is a process used by muscles to contract. ...


Ventricular hypertrophy

Ventricular hypertrophy is the increase in size of the ventricles of the heart. Changes can be beneficial or healthy if they occur in response to aerobic or anaerobic exercise, but ventricular hypertrophy is generally associated with pathological changes due to high blood pressure or other disease states. Although ventricular hypertrophy may occur in either the left or right or both ventricles of the heart , left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is more commonly encountered. ... Although ventricular hypertrophy may occur in either the left or right or both ventricles of the heart , left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is more commonly encountered. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a heart chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle) and pumps it out of the heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Aerobic exercise refers to exercise that is of moderate intensity, undertaken for a long duration. ... Fox and Haskell formula Anaerobic exercise is typically used by athletes in non-endurance sports to build power and by body builders to build muscle mass. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ...


Hypertrophy of the breasts

Main article: Gigantomastia

Gigantomastia is the extreme growth of the breasts, i.e. 10 pounds (5 kg) per breast and more. In severe cases it is possible for women to have breasts that weigh well in excess of 20 lb (9 kg) each. Gigantomastia can occur as a rare complication of pregnancy, but also with the more frequently juvenile gigantomastia during puberty (virginal breast hypertrophy). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Virginal breast hypertrophy (VBH) is not a medical name, but the more known name for juvenile macromastia and juvenile gigantomastia. ...


Hypertrophy of the clitoris

Main article: Clitoromegaly

In the most pronounced cases, clitoromegaly is a symptom of intersexuality since the large clitoris resembles a penis (the different grade of genital ambiguity is commonly measured by the Prader classification ranging, in ascending order of masculinisation, from 1: Female external genitalia with clitoromegaly through 5: Pseudo-phallus looking like normal male external genitalia). Clitoromegaly (or macroclitoris [1]) is an abnormal enlargement of the clitoris (not to be confused with the normal enlargement of the clitoris seen during sexual arousal). ...


External links

  • University of California Muscle Physiology Home Page: Hypertrophy

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hypertrophy-Specific Training : : Official Home of HST (1264 words)
As hypertrophy-specific research progressed in specificity it was clear that traditional training routines had stumbled across many important principles of load induced muscle hypertrophy, but because of their limited perspective (volume and intensity) they failed to capitalize on some critical truths exposed by research at the cellular level.
In order for the loading to result in significant hypertrophy, the stimulus must be applied with sufficient frequency to create a new "environment", as opposed to seemingly random and acute assaults on the mechanical integrity of the tissue.
As opposed to hypertrophy, the foundation for the development of strength is neuromuscular in nature.
hypertrophy - HighBeam Encyclopedia (356 words)
HYPERTROPHY [hypertrophy], enlargement of a tissue or organ of the body resulting from an increase in the size of its cells.
In normal physiology the growth in size of muscles (e.g., in an athlete as a result of increased exercise) and also the enlargement of a uterus in pregnancy are caused by hypertrophy of muscle cells.
In pathology the thickening of the heart muscle from overstrain, as in hypertension (high blood pressure), is the result of hypertrophy.
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