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Encyclopedia > Hypertext

In computing, hypertext is a user interface paradigm for displaying documents which, according to an early definition (Nelson 1970), "branch or perform on request." Hypertext is a way of organizing material that attempts to overcome the inherent limitations of traditional text and in particular its linearity. The prefix hyper- (Modern Greek term for over or beyond) signifies the overcoming of such constraints. The most frequently discussed form of hypertext document contains automated cross-references to other documents called hyperlinks. Selecting a hyperlink causes the computer to load and display the linked document. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Originally, the word computing was synonymous with counting and calculating, and a science and technology that deals with the original sense of computing mathematical calculations. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... Since the late 1960s, the word paradigm has referred to a thought pattern in any scientific discipline or other epistemological context. ... A document contains information. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... In a catalogue or index, a direction that leads a user from one entry or subject heading to another. ... A hyperlink (often referred to as simply a link), is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document, another document, or a specified section of another document, that automatically brings the referred information to the user when the navigation element is selected by...


A document can be static (prepared and stored in advance) or dynamically generated (in response to user input). Therefore, a well-constructed hypertext system can encompass, incorporate or supersede many other user interface paradigms like menus and command lines, and can be used to access both static collections of cross-referenced documents and interactive applications. The documents and applications can be local or can come from anywhere with the assistance of a computer network like the Internet. The most famous implementation of hypertext is the World Wide Web. The term input has a variety of uses in different fields. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the Internet. ...


The term "hypertext" is often used where the term hypermedia might seem appropriate; the two have always been synonymous but "hypertext" is grammatically simpler. Hypermedia is a term used as a logical extension of the term hypertext, in which audio, video, plain text, and non-linear hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear medium of information. ...

Contents

History

Foreshadowing hypertext was a simple technique used in various reference works (dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc.), consisting of setting a term in small capital letters, as an indication that an entry or article existed for that term (within the same reference work). Sometimes the term would be preceded by a pointing hand dingbat, ☞like this, or an arrow, ➧like this. In addition to such manual cross-references, there were experiments with various methods for arranging layers of annotations around a document. The most famous example is the Talmud. Look up Technique in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In general, a reference is something that refers to or designates something else, or acts as a connection or a link between two things. ... The dictionary is a list of words with their definitions, a list of characters with their glyphs, or a list of words with corresponding words in other languages. ... Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902 An encylopedia, encyclopaedia or (traditionally) encyclopædia,[1] is a comprehensive written compendium that contains information on all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. ... A dingbat is an ornament or spacer used in typesetting, sometimes more formally known as a printers ornament. The term supposedly originated as onomatopoeia in old style metal-type print shops, where extra space around text or illustrations would be filled by dinging an ornament into the space... An arrow is a graphical symbol like →, ←, used to point or indicate direction, being in its simplest form a line segment with a triangle affixed to one end, and in more complex forms a representation of an actual arrow. ... Annotation is extra information associated with a particular point in a document or other piece of information. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ...


The point of hypertext is to deal with the problem of information overload. All of the persons mentioned below were obsessed with the realization that humanity is simply drowning in information, so that, too often, decisionmakers keep making foolish decisions and scientists inadvertently duplicate existing work (e.g., the belated rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's work). Information overload is a term that is usually used in conjunction with various forms of Computer-mediated communication such as Electronic mail. ... Humanity refers to the human race or mankind as a whole, to that which is characteristically human, or to that which distinguishes human beings from other animals or from other animal species primal nature. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20, 1822[1] – January 6, 1884) was a German-Czech scientist often called the father of modern genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ...


In the early 20th century, two visionaries attacked the cross-referencing problem through proposals based on labor-intensive brute force methods. Paul Otlet proposed a proto-hypertext concept based on his monographic principle in which all documents would be decomposed down to unique phrases stored on index cards. In the 1930s, H.G. Wells proposed the creation of a World Brain. For reasons of cost, neither proposal got very far. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... In computer science, a brute-force search consists of systematically enumerating every possible solution of a problem until a solution is found, or all possible solutions have been exhausted. ... The Belgian Paul Otlet (August 23, 1868 - December 10, 1944) was the founding father of documentation, or what is now called information science. ... An index card is a piece of heavy paper stock, cut to a standard size and often used for recording individual items of information that can then be easily rearranged and filed. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... In 1938, aged 72, English writer H. G. Wells published a little book of essays and speeches titled World Brain. ...


Therefore, all major histories of hypertext start with 1945, when Vannevar Bush wrote an article in The Atlantic Monthly called "As We May Think," about a futuristic device he called a Memex. He described the device as a mechanical desk linked to an extensive archive of microfilms and able to display books, writings or any document from the library, and further able to automatically follow references from any given page to the specific page referenced. History studies the past in human terms. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 30, 1974) was an American engineer and science administrator, known for his political role in the development of the atomic bomb, and the idea of the memex—seen as a pioneering concept for the World Wide Web. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... Vannevar Bushs essay As We May Think, first published in The Atlantic Monthly in July 1945, argued that as humans turned from war, scientific efforts should shift from increasing physical abilities to making all previous collected human knowledge more accessible. ... The memex was a theoretical analog computer described by the scientist and engineer Vannevar Bush in the 1945 The Atlantic Monthly article As We May Think. The word was a portmanteau of memory extender. Bush described the device as electronically linked to a library and able to display books and... Microfilm machines may be available at libraries or record archives. ... A chained book in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University A Chinese bamboo book, in a collection at the University of California, Riverside. ... Scribe Writing Writing, in its most common sense, is the preservation and the preserved text on a medium, with the use of signs or symbols. ... A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information resources and services, organized for use, and maintained by a public body, institution, or private individual. ...


Most experts do not consider the Memex to be a true hypertext system. However, the story starts with the Memex because "As We May Think" directly influenced and inspired the two American men generally credited with the invention of hypertext, Ted Nelson and Douglas Engelbart. Ted Nelson at OpenTech, London, 2005 Theodor Holm Nelson (born 1937) is an American sociologist, philosopher, and pioneer of information technology. ... Dr. Douglas C. Engelbart (born January 30, 1925 in Oregon) is an American inventor of German descent. ...


Nelson coined the words "hypertext" and "hypermedia" in 1965 and helped Andries van Dam develop the Hypertext Editing System in 1968 at Brown University; Engelbart had begun working on his NLS system in 1962 at Stanford Research Institute, although delays in obtaining funding, personnel and equipment meant that its key features were not completed until 1968. That year, Engelbart demonstrated a hypertext interface to the public for the first time, in what has come to be known as "The Mother of All Demos". 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Andries Andy van Dam is a professor of computer science and former Vice-President for Research at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. ... HES is also for Historical European Swordsmanship. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... Brown University is a private university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... The NLS workstation showing the CRT display, keyboard, pushbuttons, and mouse NLS, or the oNLine System, was a revolutionary computer collaboration system designed by Douglas Engelbart and the researchers at the Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) during the 1960s. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... SRI International is one of the worlds largest contract research institutions. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... Douglas Engelbarts 1968 demonstration at the Convention Center in San Francisco is often called The Mother of All Demos. ...


After funding for NLS slowed to a trickle in 1974, progress on hypertext research nearly came to a halt. During this time, the ZOG at Carnegie Mellon started as an artificial intelligence research project under the supervision of Allen Newell. Only much later would its participants realize that their system was a hypertext system. ZOG was deployed in 1980 on the U.S.S. Carl Vinson and later commercialized as Knowledge Management System. 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... ZOG was an early hypertext system developed at Carnegie Mellon University during the 1970s by Donald McCracken and Robert Akscyn. ... Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Hondas humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 - July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND corporation and at Carnegie-Mellon’s School of Computer Science. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70) is a United States Navy Nimitz class supercarrier named after Carl Vinson, a Congressman from Georgia. ... Knowledge Management System (KMS) is a distributed hypermedia system for managing knowledge in organizations, supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of expertise and knowledge. ...


The first hypermedia application was the Aspen Movie Map in 1977. The Aspen Movie Map was a revolutionary hypermedia system developed at MIT by a team working with Andrew Lippman in 1978 with funding from ARPA. // Features The Aspen Movie Map allowed the user to take a virtual tour through the city of Aspen, Colorado. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...


The early 1980s saw a number of experimental hypertext and hypermedia programs, many of whose features and terminology were later integrated into the Web. The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions and observations, performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... Hypermedia is a term used as a logical extension of the term hypertext, in which audio, video, plain text, and non-linear hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear medium of information. ... Terminology, in its general sense, simply refers to the usage and study of terms, that is to say words and compound words generally used in specific contexts. ...


Guide was the first hypertext system for personal computers. Guide was a hypertext system originally developed by Peter Brown at the University of Kent in 1982. ...


In August 1987, Apple Computer revealed its HyperCard application for its Macintosh line of computers at the MacWorld convention in Boston, Massachusetts. HyperCard was an immediate hit and helped to popularize the concept of hypertext with the general public. The first hypertext-specific academic conference took place that November, in Chapel Hill NC. 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apple Inc. ... HyperCard was an application program from Apple Computer that was among the first successful hypermedia systems before the World Wide Web. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, Athens of America, The Hub (of the Universe)1 Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County  - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area    - City  89. ... An academic conference is a conference for researchers (not always academics) to present and discuss their work. ...


Meanwhile, Nelson had been working on and advocating his Xanadu system for over two decades, and the commercial success of HyperCard stirred Autodesk to invest in his revolutionary ideas. The project continued at Autodesk for four years, but no product was released. Project Xanadu was founded by Ted Nelson in 1960 as the original hypertext project. ... Autodesk, Inc. ...


In 1980, Tim Berners-Lee created ENQUIRE, an early hypertext database system, somewhat like a wiki. In the late 1980s, Berners-Lee, then a scientist at CERN, invented the World Wide Web to meet the demand for automatic information sharing between scientists working in different universities and institutes all over the world. Early in 1993, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois released a first version of their Mosaic browser to supplement the two existing web browsers: one that ran only on NeXTSTEP and one that was minimally user-friendly. Mosaic ran in the X Window System environment, popular in the research community, and offered usable window-based interaction. It allowed images[1] as well as text to anchor hypertext links, and it incorporated other Internet protocols, including Gopher protocol[2]. Web traffic exploded from only 500 known web servers in 1993 to over 10,000 in 1994 after the release of browser versions for both the PC and Macintosh environments. 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... ENQUIRE was an early project (in the second half of 1980) of Tim Berners-Lee, who went on to create the World Wide Web in 1989. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... CERN logo The Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire (English: European Organization for Nuclear Research), commonly known as CERN, pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the Internet. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... National Center for Supercomputing Applications NCSA Building, 1205 W. Clark St. ... The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), is the largest campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Mosaic is a web browser (client) for the World Wide Web written at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). ... An example of a web browser (Mozilla Firefox), displaying the English Wikipedia main page. ... NEXTSTEP is the original object-oriented, multitasking operating system that NeXT Computer, Inc. ... It has been suggested that Usability Requirements be merged into this article or section. ... KDE 3. ... Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol designed for the Internet. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...


All the earlier hypertext systems were overshadowed by the success of the World Wide Web, even though it lacks many features of those earlier systems such as typed links, transclusion and source tracking. WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the Internet. ... A typed link in a hypertext system is a link to another document or part of a document that includes information about the character of the link. ... In computer science, some hypertext systems, including Ted Nelsons Xanadu Project, have the capability for documents to include sections of other documents by reference, called transclusion. ... Source tracking pertains to the ability of some hypertext systems to rigorously track the exact source of every document or partial document included in the system; that is, they remember who entered the information, when it was entered, when it was updated and by whom, and so on. ...


Implementations

Besides the already mentioned Hypertext Editing System, NLS, HyperCard and World Wide Web, there are other noteworthy implementations of hypertext, with different feature sets: HES is also for Historical European Swordsmanship. ... The acronym NLS has several possible meanings: In computing: National Language Support Native Language Support, a system developed by Hewlett-Packard for software internationalization NLS (computer system) is a pioneering computer system In military use: Nimrod Line Sqn service the Nimrod MR2 based at RAF Kinloss In science: In biology... HyperCard was an application program from Apple Computer that was among the first successful hypermedia systems before the World Wide Web. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the Internet. ...

The File Retrieval and Editing System, or FRESS, was a hypertext system developed at Brown University in 1968 by Andries van Dam. ... HES is also for Historical European Swordsmanship. ... Information Presentation Facility (IPF) is a system for presenting online help and hypertext on IBM OS/2 systems. ... International Business Machines Corporation (known as IBM or Big Blue; NYSE: IBM) is a multinational computer technology corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. ... Intermedia was also the name of the third notable hypertext project to emerge from Brown University, after HES (1967) and FRESS (1969). ... Microsoft Word is a word processing application from Microsoft. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... GNU Texinfo is a free computer program for generating documentation in multiple formats from a single source file. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system - consisting of a kernel, libraries, system utilities, compilers, and end-user application software - composed entirely of free software. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... MediaWiki is a wiki software package licensed under the GNU General Public License. ... Wikipedia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Project Xanadu was founded by Ted Nelson in 1960 as the original hypertext project. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a W3C-recommended general-purpose markup language that supports a wide variety of applications. ... The XML Linking Language, or XLink, is an XML markup language used for creating hyperlinks within XML documents. ...

Academic conferences

One of the top academic conferences for new research in hypertext is the annually held ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (HT 2006) The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the worlds first scientific and educational computing society. ...


Although not exclusively about hypertext, the World Wide Web series of conferences, organized by IW3C2, includes many papers of interest. There is a list with links to all conferences in the series.


Hypertext fiction

See main article Hypertext fiction Hypertext fiction is a genre of electronic literature, characterized by the use of hypertext which provides a new context for non-linearity in literature and reader interaction. ...


The development of this branch of electronic literature coincided with the growth and proliferation of hypertext development software and the emergence of electronic networks. Two software programs specifically designed for literary hypertext, Storyspace and Intermedia became available in the 1990s. The term electronic literature refers to works with important literary aspects that take advantage of the capabilities and contexts provided by the stand-alone or networked computer. ... Intermedia was also the name of the third notable hypertext project to emerge from Brown University, after HES (1967) and FRESS (1969). ...


Authors

The term electronic literature refers to works with important literary aspects that take advantage of the capabilities and contexts provided by the stand-alone or networked computer. ... This article is about the hypertext author and scholar. ... Afternoon, a story is a hypertext fiction written in 1987 by American author Michael Joyce. ... Shelley Jackson Shelley Jackson (born 1963) is a writer and artist known for her cross-genre experiments, including important contributions to electronic literature and hypertext. ... Patchwork Girl is an early form of hypertext fiction which is not linked to the internet. ... Stuart Moulthrop is an innovator of electronic literature and hypertext fiction, both as a theoretician and as a writer. ... WWII-era poster promoting victory gardens. ... Julio Cortázar (August 26, 1914 - February 12, 1984) was an Argentine intellectual and author of several experimental novels and many short stories. ... Rayuela (translated into English as Hopscotch) is the most famous novel by Argentine writer Julio Cortázar. ... Milorad Pavić (Милорад Павић) is a noted Serbian poet, prose writer, translator, and literary historian. ... Dictionary Of The Khazars: A Lexicon Novel is the first novel by Milorad Pavich (Milorad Pavić). Originally written in Serbo-Croatian, the novel has been translated into many languages, including English. ...

Critics and theorists

Jay David Bolter is a professor of Language, Communication and Culture at the Georgia Institute of Technology. ... Robert Coover (born February 4, 1932) is an American author and professor in the Literary Arts program at Brown University. ... J. Yellowlees Douglas is Director of the Center for Written and Oral Communication at the University of Florida as well as serving as serving as an Assistant Professor of English. ... N. Katherine Hayles is a noted postmodern literary critic and theorist as well as the author of How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature and Informatics which won the Rene Wellek Prize for the best book in literary theory for 1998–1999 [1]. // Background Hayles received her B... This article is about the hypertext author and scholar. ... George Landow is Professor of English and Art History at Brown University. ... Lev Manovich is Professor of Visual Arts, University of California, San Diego, USA where he teaches new media art and theory. ... Stuart Moulthrop is an innovator of electronic literature and hypertext fiction, both as a theoretician and as a writer. ... Ted Nelson at OpenTech, London, 2005 Theodor Holm Nelson (born 1937) is an American sociologist, philosopher, and pioneer of information technology. ...

See also

This article presents a timeline of hypertext technology, including hypermedia and related human-computer interaction projects and developments from 1945 on. ... HTML, short for HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

References

  • Bolter, Jay David (2001). Writing Space: Computers, Hypertext, and the Remediation of Print. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-2919-9. 
  • Byers, T. J. (April 1987). "Built by association". PC World 5: 244-251. 
  • Cicconi, Sergio (1999). ""Hypertextuality"". Mediapolis. Ed. Sam Inkinen. Berlino & New York: De Gruyter.: 21-43. 
  • Crane, Gregory (1988). "Extending the boundaries of instruction and research". T.H.E. Journal (Technological Horizons in Education) (Macintosh Special Issue): 51-54. 
  • Engelbart, Douglas C. (1962). "Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework, AFOSR-3233 Summary Report, SRI Project No. 3579".
  • Heim, Michael (1987). Electric Language: A Philosophical Study of Word Processing. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07746-7. 
  • Landow, George (2006). Hypertext 3.0 Critical Theory and New Media in a Era of Globalization: Critical Theory and New Media in a Global Era (Parallax, Re-Visions of Culture and Society). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8257-5. 
  • Yankelovich, Nicole; Landow, George P., and Cody, David (1987). "Creating hypermedia materials for English literature students". SIGCUE Outlook 20 (3): All. 
  • Nelson, Theodor H. (September 1965). "Complex information processing: a file structure for the complex, the changing and the indeterminate". ACM/CSC-ER Proceedings of the 1965 20th national conference.
  • Nelson, Theodor H. (September 1970). "No More Teachers’ Dirty Looks". Computer Decisions. 
  • Nelson, Theodor H. (1973). "A Conceptual framework for man-machine everything". AFIPS Conference Proceedings VOL. 42: M22-M23.
  • van Dam, Andries (July 1988). "Hypertext: '87 keynote address". Communications of the ACM 31: 887-895. 

External links

Look up hypertext in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hypertext - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1402 words)
Therefore, a well-constructed hypertext system can encompass, incorporate or supersede many other user interface paradigms like menus and command lines, and can be used to access both static collections of cross-referenced documents and interactive applications.
Foreshadowing hypertext was a simple technique used in various reference works (dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc.), consisting of setting a term in small capital letters, as an indication that an entry or article existed for that term (within the same reference work).
Nelson coined the word "hypertext" in 1965 and helped Andries van Dam develop the Hypertext Editing System in 1968 at Brown University; Engelbart had begun working on his NLS system in 1962 at Stanford Research Institute, although delays in obtaining funding, personnel and equipment meant that its key features were not completed until 1968.
hypertext - definition of hypertext in Encyclopedia (1025 words)
In computing, hypertext is a user interface paradigm for displaying documents which contain automated cross-references to other documents called hyperlinks.
The point of hypertext, or, to be more specific, the problem which it is allegedly the solution for, is information overload.
However, all the earlier hypertext systems were quickly overshadowed by the success of Tim Berners-Lee's World Wide Web after 1993, even though the latter lacked many features of those earlier systems such as typed links, transclusion and source tracking.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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