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Encyclopedia > HyperTransport
HyperTransport logo

HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001.[1] The HyperTransport Consortium is in charge of promoting and developing HyperTransport technology. The technology is used by AMD and Transmeta in x86 processors, PMC-Sierra, Broadcom, and Raza Microelectronics in MIPS microprocessors, AMD, NVIDIA, VIA and SiS in PC chipsets, HP, Sun Microsystems, IBM, and IWill in servers, Cray, Newisys, and QLogic in high performance computing, Microsoft in its Xbox game console, and Cisco Systems in routers. Notably missing from this list is semiconductor giant Intel, which continues to use a shared bus architecture. Image File history File links HyperTransport logo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links HyperTransport logo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In computing, memory latency is the time between initiating a request for a byte or word in memory until it is retrieved. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The HyperTransport Consortium is an industry consortium responsible for specifying and promoting the computer bus technology HyperTransport. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Transmeta NASDAQ: TMTA develops computing technologies with a focus on reducing power consumption in electronic devices. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... PMC-Sierra NASDAQ: PMCS is a fabless semiconductor company which develops and sells devices into the communications, storage, printing, and embedding computing marketplaces. ... Broadcom Corporation is a leading American supplier of integrated circuits (ICs) for broadband communications. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... NVIDIA Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) is an American corporation specializing in the manufacture of GPU technologies for video cards, graphics cards, workstations, desktop computers, handhelds and more. ... VIA Technologies logo VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics Group. ... Silicon Integrated Systems (SiS) is a company that manufactures, among other things, motherboards. ... HP may refer to: Handley Page Aircraft Company Harry Potter, a series of fantasy novels by British writer J. K. Rowling Hello! Project (H!P), a Japanese pop recording project Hewlett-Packard, a computer and computer peripheral company High Point, North Carolina High potency, a term used in biology, pharmacology... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... International Business Machines Corporation (known as IBM or Big Blue; NYSE: IBM) is a multinational computer technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. ... For alternate meanings, see Cray (disambiguation). ... Newisys was a server and NAS company with expertise in glue-chips for Opterons. ... QLogic Corporation NASDAQ: QLGC is a California-based manufacturer of storage networking infrastructure solutions. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... The Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. ... A Cisco ASM/2-32EM router deployed at CERN in 1987. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...

Contents

Overview

HyperTransport comes in three versions — 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 — which run from 200 MHz to 2.6 GHz (compared to PCI at either 33 or 66 MHz). It is also a DDR or "Double Data Rate" connection, meaning it sends data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal. This allows for a maximum data rate of 5200 MTransfers/s when running at 2.6 GHz; this frequency is auto-negotiated. MHZ redirects here. ... MHZ redirects here. ... 64-bit PCI expansion slots inside a Power Macintosh G4 The Peripheral Component Interconnect, or PCI Standard (in practice almost always shortened to PCI) specifies a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. ... In computing, a computer bus operating with double data rate transfers data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal, effectively nearly doubling the data transmission rate without having to deal with the additional problems of timing skew that increasing the number of data lines would introduce. ... In synchronous digital electronics, such as most computers, a clock signal is a signal used to coordinate the actions of two or more circuits. ...


HyperTransport supports an auto-negotiated bit width, based on two 2-bit lines to 32-bit lines. The full-sized, full-speed, 32-bit interconnect in each direction has a transfer rate of 20.8 GByte/s (2.6 GHz * (32 bits / 8)), aggregate 41.6 GB/s bandwidth in two directions, making it much faster than many existing standards. Links of various widths can be mixed together into a single application (for example, 2x8 instead of 1x16), which allows for higher speed interconnects between main memory and the CPU, and lower speed interconnects among peripherals as appropriate. The technology also has much lower latency than other solutions. Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6. ... A peripheral is a type of computer hardware that is added to a host computer in order to expand its abilities. ...


HyperTransport is packet-based, with each packet always consisting of a set of 32-bit words, regardless of the physical width of the connection. The first word in a packet is always a command word. If a packet contains an address, then the last 8 bits of the command word are chained with the next 32-bit word in order to make a 40-bit address. An additional 32-bit control packet is allowed to be prepended when 64-bit addressing is required. The remaining 32-bit words in a packet are the data payload. Transfers are always padded to a multiple of 32 bits, regardless of their actual length. In information technology, a packet is a formatted block of information carried by a computer network. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ...


HyperTransport packets enter the interconnect in segments known as bit times. The number of bit times that it necessitates depends on the width of the interconnect. HyperTransport can be used for generating system management messages, signaling interrupts, issuing probes to adjacent devices or processors, and general I/O and data transactions. There are usually two different kinds of write commands that can be used - posted and non-posted. Posted writes are ones that do not require a response from the target. This is usually used for high bandwidth devices such as Uniform Memory Access traffic or Direct memory access transfers. Non-posted writes require a response from the receiver in the form of a "target done". Reads also cause the receiver to generate a read response. Uniform Memory Access is a computer memory architecture used in parallel computers having multiple processors and probably multiple memory chips. ... Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of modern computers that allows certain hardware subsystems within the computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently of the central processing unit. ...


HyperTransport also facilitates power management as it is ACPI compliant. This means that changes in processor sleep states (C states) can signal changes in device states (D states), e.g. powering off disks when the CPU goes to sleep. Power management is a feature of some electrical appliances, especially copiers and computer peripherals such as monitors and printers, that turns off the power or switches the system to a low-power state after a period of inactivity. ... ACPI stands for Advanced Configuration and Power Interface, which is the alternative to APM. It is an open industry specification co-developed by Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Microsoft, Phoenix and Toshiba. ...


Electrically, HyperTransport is similar to Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) operating at 2.5V. Low voltage differential signaling, or LVDS, is an electrical signaling system that can run at very high speeds over cheap, twisted-pair copper cables. ...


There has been marketing confusion between the use of HT referring to HyperTransport and the use of HT to refer to Intel's Hyper-Threading feature of some Pentium 4 based microprocessors. Hyper-Threading is officially known as Hyper-Threading Technology (HTT) or HT-Technology. Because of this potential for confusion, the HyperTransport Consortium always uses the written out form: "HyperTransport". Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Hyper-Threading (HTT = Hyper Threading Technology) is Intels trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. ... The Pentium 4 brand refers - since 2000 - to Intels mainstream desktop and mobile single-core CPUs with the seventh-generation NetBurst architecture, which was the companys first all-new design since the Intel P6 of the Pentium Pro branded CPUs of 1995. ...


Applications for HyperTransport

Front-Side Bus Replacement

The primary use for HyperTransport is to replace the front-side bus, which is currently different for every type of machine. For instance, a Pentium cannot be plugged into a PCI bus. In order to expand the system, the front-side bus must connect through adaptors for the various standard buses, like AGP or PCI. These are typically included in the respective controller functions, namely the northbridge and southbridge. Front Side Bus (FSB) is the term used to describe the CPU data bus. ... The Pentium is a fifth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor from Intel. ... 64-bit PCI expansion slots inside a Power Macintosh G4 The Peripheral Component Interconnect, or PCI Standard (in practice almost always shortened to PCI) specifies a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In theory, a similar computer implemented with HyperTransport is faster and more flexible. A single PCI↔HyperTransport adaptor chip will work with any HyperTransport enabled microprocessor and allow the use of PCI cards with these processors. For example, the NVIDIA nForce chipset uses HyperTransport to connect its north and south bridges. NVIDIA Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) is an American corporation specializing in the manufacture of GPU technologies for video cards, graphics cards, workstations, desktop computers, handhelds and more. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Multiprocessor interconnect

Another use for HyperTransport is as an interconnect for NUMA multiprocessor computers. AMD uses HyperTransport with a proprietary cache coherency extension as part of their Direct Connect Architecture in their Opteron and Athlon 64 FX (Dual Socket Direct Connect (DSDC) Architecture) line of processors. The HORUS interconnect from Newisys extends this concept to larger clusters. Non-Uniform Memory Access or Non-Uniform Memory Architecture (NUMA) is a computer memory design used in multiprocessors, where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to a processor. ... Multiprocessing is traditionally known as the use of multiple concurrent processes in a system as opposed to a single process at any one instant. ... Cache coherence refers to the integrity of data stored in local caches of a shared resource. ... The Direct Connect Architecture is the I/O architecture of the Athlon64 and Opteron microprocessors from AMD. It consists of the combination of three elements: The microprocessor is directly connected to DRAM memory through an integrated memory controller. ... The AMD Opteron (codenamed SledgeHammer during development) was the first of AMDs eighth-generation x86 processors based on the K8 or Hammer core, and the first processor to implement the AMD64 (formerly x86-64) instruction set architecture. ... The Athlon 64 FX is an AMD K8 series processor targeted at enthusiasts. ... The AMD Quad FX platform is an AMD platform targeted at enthusiasts which allows users to plug two Socket F Athlon 64 FX or 2-way Opteron processors (CPUs) into a single motherboard for a total of four physical cores [1]. This is a type of dual processor setup, where... The Horus Bus, made by Newisys for AMD, is designed to solve the inability of current motherboards to scale easily beyond 4-8 CPUs by utilizing an already developed HyperTransport system to solve interconnection issues. ...


Router or Switch Bus Replacement

HyperTransport can also be used as a bus in routers and switches. Routers and switches have multiple connections ports and data has to be forwarded between these ports as fast as possible. E.g. a four port 100 MBit/s Ethernet router needs a bus that is 800 MBit/s fast (100 MBit/s * 4 ports * 2 directions). HyperTransport greatly exceeds the bandwidth needed for this application. However, Hypertransport has largely fallen out of favor with the networking community, in favor of SPI 4.2 and PCI-Express. Cisco 1800 Router ERS-8600 In simple layman terms, a router is a device that determines the proper path for data to travel between different networks. ... Linksys 8 port consumer switch Linksys 48 port switch A network switch is a computer networking device that connects network segments. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operates at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... The System Packet Interface family of Interoperability Agreements from the Optical Internetworking Forum specify a packet level interface. ... PCI Express is a computer expansion card interface format. ...


HTX and Co-processor interconnect

The issue of bandwidth between CPUs and co-processors has usually been the major stumbling block to their practical implementation. After years without an officially recognized one, a connector designed for such expansion using a HyperTransport interface was introduced and is known as HyperTransport eXpansion (HTX). Using the same mechanical connector as a 16-lane PCI-Express slot (plus an x1 connector for power pins), HTX allows plug-in cards to be developed which support direct access to a CPU and DMA access to the system RAM. The initial card for this slot was the QLogic InfiniPath InfiniBand HCA. Recently, co-processors such as FPGAs have appeared which can access the HyperTransport bus and become first-class citizens on the motherboard. Current generation FPGAs from both of the main manufacturers (Altera and Xilinx) can directly support the HyperTransport interface and have IP Cores available. PCI Express is a computer expansion card interface format. ... Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of modern computers that allows certain hardware subsystems within the computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently of the central processing unit. ... Random access memory (usually known by its acronym, RAM) is a type of data storage used in computers. ... A field-programmable gate array or FPGA is a semiconductor device used to process digital information, similar to a microprocessor. ... Altera headquarters in San Jose Altera Corporation (NASDAQ: ALTR) is a leading manufacturer of programmable logic devices. ... Xilinx, Inc. ... In electronic design a semiconductor intellectual property core, IP block, or IP core is a reusable unit of logic, cell, or chip layout design and is also the property of one party. ...


The current HTX standard is limited to 16 bits and 800 MHz, making it slower than the PCI-E standard from which it borrows its connector. An earlier Samtec test connector[2], however, achieved full 32-bit, 2.8GHz operation.


AMD has announced an initiative named Torrenza in September 21, 2006 to further promote the usage of HyperTransport for plug-in cards and coprocessors. Torrenza is a technology developed by AMD that paves the way for specialised coprocessors to run in spare CPU sockets on multiway CPU systems. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Implementations

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... The Direct Connect Architecture is the I/O architecture of the Athlon64 and Opteron microprocessors from AMD. It consists of the combination of three elements: The microprocessor is directly connected to DRAM memory through an integrated memory controller. ... Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... Broadcom Corporation is a leading American supplier of integrated circuits (ICs) for broadband communications. ... PMC-Sierra NASDAQ: PMCS is a fabless semiconductor company which develops and sells devices into the communications, storage, printing, and embedding computing marketplaces. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... OpenCores is a loose community of people who are interested in developing open source hardware (digital hardware) through electronic design automation, with a similar ethos to the free software movement. ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ... NVIDIA Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) is an American corporation specializing in the manufacture of GPU technologies for video cards, graphics cards, workstations, desktop computers, handhelds and more. ... The nForce4 is a computer chipset released by NVIDIA in October, 2004. ... The nForce 500 computer chipset series, successor to the nForce4, was revealed by NVIDIA on 2006-03-07. ... The nForce 600 chipset was released in the first half of November 2006, coinciding with the GeForce 8 series launch on November 8, 2006. ... International Business Machines Corporation (known as IBM or Big Blue; NYSE: IBM) is a multinational computer technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. ... In computing, the PowerPC 970 and the PowerPC 970FX, also known as PowerPC G5, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM, which was introduced in 2002. ...

See also

In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), video cards, PCI expansion cards, hard disks, the memory... The Common System Interface (or CSI) is a processor interconnect standard being developed by Intel, as a competitor to HyperTransport. ... PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ... The RapidIOâ„¢ architecture is a high-performance, packet-switched, interconnect technology for interconnecting chips on a circuit board and circuit boards using a backplane. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of device bandwidths: the channel capacity (or, more informally, bandwidth) of some computer devices employing methods of data transport is listed by bit/s, kilobit/s (kbit/s), megabit/s (Mbit/s), or gigabit/s (Gbit/s) as appropriate and also MB/s or megabytes per...

References

  1. ^ hypertransport.org
  2. ^ http://www.hypertransport.org/docs/spec/HTC20021219-0017-0001.pdf

External links

  • HyperTransport Consortium Home
  • Technology Page
  • Technical Specifications
  • Technical FAQ
  • Center of Excellence for HyperTransport

  Results from FactBites:
 
New standard to speed chip connections | CNET News.com (757 words)
The HyperTransport Consortium, which controls the specifications for the chip-to-chip connection technology behind Advanced Micro Devices' upcoming Opteron processor, expects to release the new specification, HyperTransport 2.0, a year from now.
HyperTransport is an effort initiated by AMD to define a new high-speed technology for connecting PC components.
HyperTransport, an idea that partly originated out of technology from defunct computing giant Digital Equipment, is one of the primary features of AMD's upcoming Opteron and Athlon 64 chips, which are expected to help AMD move from the fringes of the corporate market toward the mainstream.
VHJ: What is Hypertransport? (1401 words)
Hypertransport is defined as a pair of unidirectional paths, each starting with a sending port and ending with a receiving port.
Thus Hypertransport is invisible to the code executing in the processor and to active logic destination ports that return data or commands/interrupts - subsystems such as udma controllers in IDE and SCSI hard drive controllers, for example.
Hypertransport is the future, IF and only if all of you abandon the safe harbors of Intel concepts and venture into new realms of design.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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