FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "HyperCard" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > HyperCard
HyperCard
Image:HyperCard 2-icon.png

HyperCard Screenshot
Developer: Apple Computer
Latest release: 2.4.1 / 1998
OS: System Software 6, System 7, Mac OS 8, Mac OS 9
Use: hypermedia, development
License: Proprietary
Website: N/A

HyperCard was an application program from Apple Computer that was among the first successful hypermedia systems before the World Wide Web. It most closely resembles a database application in concept, in that it stores information, and is graphical, flexible and creates files that are easy to modify. It also includes HyperTalk, a powerful and relatively easy to use programming language, to manipulate data and the user interface. HyperCard users often used it as a programming system for Rapid Application Development as opposed to a database. Image File history File links HyperCard_2-icon. ... A screen shot of a HyperCard stack in development. ... Software development is the translation of a user need or marketing goal into a software product. ... Apple Inc. ... A software release refers to the creation and availability of a new version of a computer software product. ... An operating system (OS) is a computer program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... This article is about the Macintosh operating system version. ... System 7 (codenamed Big Bang) was a version of Mac OS, the operating system of the Apple Macintosh computer. ... Mac OS 8 is a series of versions of the Mac OS that supported a transition through major changes in the Macintosh hardware platform. ... Sherlock 2 for Mac OS 9 with the new metallic appearance Mac OS 9, introduced by Apple Computer on 1999-10-23, is the last version of the Classic Macintosh Operating System (Mac OS) released before being succeeded by Mac OS X. Upon introduction, Mac OS 9 was advertised as... Hypermedia is a term used as a logical extension of the term hypertext, in which audio, video, plain text, and non-linear hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear medium of information. ... Software development is the translation of a user need or marketing goal into a software product. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... A website (or Web site) is a collection of web pages, typically common to a particular domain name or subdomain on the World Wide Web on the Internet. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Apple Inc. ... Hypermedia is a term used as a logical extension of the term hypertext, in which audio, video, plain text, and non-linear hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear medium of information. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the Internet. ... A database is an information set with a regular structure. ... HyperTalk is a high-level programming language created in 1987 by Dan Winkler and used in conjunction with Apple Computers HyperCard hypermedia program by Bill Atkinson. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... // [edit] History Application Development refers to the developing of programming applications and differs from programming itself in that it has a higher level of responsibility, including for requirement capturing and testing. ...


HyperCard was originally released with System Software 6 in 1987, and was finally withdrawn from sale in March 2004, although it had not been updated for many years at that time. HyperCard runs natively only in Mac OS versions 9 or earlier, but it can still be used in Mac OS X's Classic mode. This article is about the Macintosh operating system version. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Classic, or Classic Environment, is a hardware and software abstraction layer in Mac OS X that allows applications compatible with Mac OS 9 to run on the OS X operating system. ...

Contents

Description

HyperCard is based on the concept of a "stack" of virtual "cards". Cards hold data, just as they would in a rolodex. The layout engine was similar in concept to a "form" as used in most Rapid Application Development (RAD) environments (such as Borland Delphi or Visual BASIC).. Categories: Office equipment | Stub ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Visual Basic (VB) is an event driven programming language and associated development environment from Microsoft for its COM programming model. ...


HyperCard was not only a database system — the layout of each card could be unique, just as one can write additional non-standard information on a rolodex card. The background of a stack contained elements that appeared on all cards of that stack or on all cards based on a certain background. Backgrounds could include pictures (its original purpose, "background picture"), in addition to the objects also available for each card: picture fields, buttons, (static) text, (editable) text fields and other common GUI elements. Each card then could contain different data attached to the text or picture fields, thereby creating the database functionality. GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ...


For instance, an address book could be built by adding to the background a few text fields to hold the name and address. Once completed, the user adds a new card (by typing Command-N) and types into the fields. The background could be modified at any time, allowing changes to be made easily. Basic operations such as search, add and delete were built into the HyperCard environment, allowing simple databases to be set up and used by anyone able to use the Macintosh computer. The Macintosh 128K, the first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac The Macintosh, or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple. ...


Scripting in the HyperTalk language allowed the system to be easily modified and extended. Unlike many scripting languages, HyperTalk proved to be usable by a wide range of users; allowable syntax included multiple versions of the same statement, all in more or less readable English. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


For instance, put the first word of the third line of the field "hello" into the field "goodbye" would do exactly what it seems to do. HyperTalk included redundancy in the hope of making programming easier; for example, numbers could be specified either numerically (1, 2), as cardinals (one, two), or as ordinals (first, second). Aleph-0, the smallest infinite cardinal In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalized kind of number used to denote the size of a set. ... Commonly, ordinal numbers, or ordinals for short, are numbers used to denote the position in an ordered sequence: first, second, third, fourth, etc. ...


Referring to objects and the items on cards or backgrounds was easy. The example above shows how to access data within a field on a particular card, but one could refer to any object in the same fashion — including the stack itself. All objects could be named, as in the example above. In addition, each object (including the stack itself) had unique numeric IDs.


HyperCard's find command would navigate to cards containing text. This could be made more selective with modifications such as find "Bob" in card field "hello". Similarly, it had a "sort" command that allowed evaluating entire expressions to classify sort order.


Adding scripts was also easy. The user simply "command-option-clicked" (or they could click the "Script" button in the item's property dialog) on any element in the stack, and an editor would pop up. The script could then be edited, saved, and used immediately. In addition, HyperCard contained the "Message Box", an interactive command-line in a floating window that could execute single lines of script. This also included the "find" command, so it doubled as a search dialog. HyperCard 2.0 added a debugger as well. Debug redirects here. ...


HyperTalk was sufficiently popular that one of the main uses of HyperCard was not as a database, but as a programming tool. Thousands of "stacks" were written and distributed as "stackware" in the few years when HyperCard was widely available.


Externals

The power of HyperCard could be increased significantly through the use of external command and external function modules, more commonly known as XCMDs and XFCNs. These were code libraries packaged in a resource fork that integrated into the system and/or the HyperTalk language — an early example of the plugin concept. Unlike conventional plugins, these did not require separate installation before they were available for use; they could be included in a stack, where they were directly available to scripts in that stack. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A plugin (or plug-in) is a computer program that interacts with a main (or host) application (a web browser or an email program, for example) to provide a certain, usually very specific, function on-demand. ...


During HyperCard's peak popularity in the late 1980s, a whole ecology of vendors offered thousands of these externals for everything from HyperTalk compilers to graphing systems, database access, internet connectivity, and animation.


Applications

HyperCard has been used for all sorts of hypertext and artistic purposes. Before the advent of PowerPoint, HyperCard was often used as a general-purpose presentation program. Examples of HyperCard applications include simple databases, "choose your own adventure"—type games, educational teaching aids, and the first (off-line) wiki. Wikibooks has more about this subject: Powerpoint Microsoft Office PowerPoint is a ubiquitous presentation program developed for the Microsoft Windows and Mac OS computer operating systems. ... The Cave of Time, the first Choose Your Own Adventure book. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Due to its rapid application design facilities, HyperCard was also sometimes used for prototyping of applications, and sometimes even for version 1.0 implementations. Inside Apple, the QuickTime team was one of HyperCard's biggest customers.

Beethoven's Ninth stack

A number of commercial software products were created in HyperCard, most notably the original version of the interactive game narrative Myst, the Voyager Company's Expanded Books, and multimedia CD-ROMs of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony CD-ROM, the Beatles' A Hard Day's Night, and the Voyager MacBeth. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Myst (or MYST) is a graphic adventure computer game designed and directed by the brothers Robyn and Rand Miller. ... The Voyager Company was a pioneer in CD-ROM production in the 1980s and early 1990s. ... The Expanded Books Project was an undertaking at The Voyager Company during 1991, that investigated ideas on how a book could be presented on a computer screen in a way that would be both familiar and useful to regular book readers. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... The Beatles were an English rock band from Liverpool whose members were John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr. ... This article is about the film. ... Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. Painting by William Rimmer Macbeth is among the most famous of William Shakespeares plays, as well as his shortest tragedy. ...


The prototype and demo of the popular game You Don't Know Jack was written in HyperCard. You Dont Know Jack is a series of computer games developed by Jellyvision. ...


Activision, which was until that time primarily a game company, saw HyperCard as an entry point into the business market. Changing their name to Mediagenic, they published several major HyperCard based applications, most notably Danny Goodman's Focal Point, a personal information manager, and Reports For HyperCard, a program by Nine To Five Software that allowed users to treat HyperCard as a full-fledged database system with robust information viewing and printing features. Activision, Inc. ... Danny Goodman is a computer programmer, technology consultant, and a well known award-winning author of over three dozen books and hundreds of magazine articles on computer-related topics. ...


The HyperCard-inspired SuperCard for a while included the "Roadster" plugin that allowed stacks to be placed inside Web pages and viewed by browsers with an appropriate browser plugin. There even was a Windows version of this plugin allowing computers other than Macintoshes to use the plugin. WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the Internet. ...


History

HyperCard was created by Bill Atkinson. Work for it began in March of 1985 under the name of WildCard (hence the creator id of 'WILD'). In 1986 Dan Winkler began work on HyperTalk and the name was changed to HyperCard. It was initially released in August 1987, with the understanding that Atkinson would give HyperCard to Apple only if they promised to release it for free on all Macs. Apple timed its release to coincide with the MacWorld Conference & Expo in Boston, Massachusetts to guarantee maximum publicity. HyperCard was a huge hit almost instantly. Many people who thought they would never be able to program a computer started using HyperCard for all sorts of automation and prototyping tasks, a surprise even to its creator. Bill Atkinson worked at Apple Computer in the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... HyperTalk is a high-level programming language created in 1987 by Dan Winkler and used in conjunction with Apple Computers HyperCard hypermedia program by Bill Atkinson. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, Athens of America, The Hub (of the Universe)1 Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County  - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area    - City  89. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Apple itself never seemed to understand what HyperCard was. Management saw that it was being used by a huge number of people, internally and externally, and bug reports and upgrade suggestions continued to flow in demonstrating it had a wide variety of users. However, it was also free, which made it difficult to justify dedicating engineering resources to improving it.


HyperCard 2.0

In late 1989, Kevin Calhoun, then a HyperCard engineer at Apple, led an effort to upgrade the program. This resulted in 1990's HyperCard 2.0. The new version included an on-the-fly compiler that greatly increased performance of computationally intensive code, a new debugger and a number of improvements to the underlying HyperTalk language. John Kevin Calhoun was a programmer at Apple Computer. ... This article is about the computing term. ... Debug redirects here. ...


At the same time HyperCard 2.0 was being developed, a separate group within Apple developed and in 1991 released "HyperCard IIGS", a version of HyperCard for the Apple IIGS system. Aimed mainly at the education market, HyperCard IIGS had roughly the same feature set as the 1.x versions of Macintosh HyperCard, while adding support for the color graphics capabilities of the IIGS. Although "stacks" (HyperCard program documents) were not binary-compatible, a translator program (itself a HyperCard stack) allowed stacks to be moved from one platform to the other. The Apple IIGS, the fifth model inception of the Apple II, was the most powerful member of the Apple II series of personal computers made by Apple Computer. ...


Then, Apple decided that most of its application software packages, including HyperCard, would be the property of a wholly owned subsidiary called Claris. Many of the HyperCard developers chose to stay at Apple rather than move to Claris, causing the development team to be split. Claris, in the business of selling software for a profit, attempted to create a business model where HyperCard could also generate revenues. They wrote a new "viewer only" version, the HyperCard Player which Apple distributed with the Macintosh operating system, while Claris sold the "full" version commercially. Many users were upset that they had to pay to use software that had traditionally been supplied free and which many considered a basic part of the Mac. Claris was a computer software company formed as a spin-off from Apple Computer in 1987. ...


Despite the new revenue stream, Claris did little to market HyperCard. Development continued with minor upgrades, as well as the first failed attempt to create a third generation of HyperCard. During this period, HyperCard began losing market share. Without a number of important, basic features, HyperCard authors began moving to systems such as SuperCard and Macromedia Authorware. Nevertheless HyperCard continued to be popular and used for a widening range of applications, from the game The Manhole, an earlier effort by the creators of Myst, to corporate information services and many thousands in between. SuperCard is a high-level development environment that runs on Macintosh computers, under OS 8 and 9, and OS X. It is inspired by HyperCard, but includes a richer language, a full GUI toolkit, and native colour. ... Macromedia Authorware is an interpreted, flowchart based, graphical programming language. ... This article is about a computer game. ... Myst (or MYST) is a graphic adventure computer game designed and directed by the brothers Robyn and Rand Miller. ...


Apple eventually folded Claris back into the parent company, returning HyperCard to Apple's core engineering group. In 1992, Apple released the eagerly anticipated upgrade of HyperCard 2.2 and made many HyperCard enthusiasts happy by including licensed versions of Color Tools and Addmotion II, adding support for color pictures and animations. However, these tools were limited and often cumbersome to use; HyperCard still continued to lack true, internal color support.


HyperCard 3.0

Several attempts were made to restart HyperCard development once it returned to Apple. Because of the product's widespread use as a multimedia authoring tool it was rolled into the QuickTime group. A new effort to allow HyperCard to create QuickTime interactive (QTi) movies started, once again under the direction of Kevin Calhoun. QTi extended QuickTime's core multimedia playback features to provide true interactive facilities and a low-level programming language based on 68000 assembly language. The resulting HyperCard 3.0 was first presented in 1996 when an alpha-quality version was shown to developers at Apple's annual Worldwide Developers Conference. Demos throughout the late 1990s showed many popular features such as color support, internet connectivity, and the ability to play HyperCard stacks (which were now special QuickTime movies) in a web browser. Development of HyperCard 3.0 stalled when the QuickTime team was focused away from development of QuickTime interactive to the streaming features of QuickTime 4.0. Finally in 2000 the HyperCard engineering team was reassigned to other tasks after Steve Jobs decided to abandon the product. Kevin Calhoun left Apple shortly after in 2001. QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc. ... WWDC 2005, at Moscone Center The Worldwide Developers Conference, commonly abbreviated WWDC, is an annual trade show for Apple developers. ... An example of a web browser (Mozilla Firefox), displaying the English Wikipedia main page. ... Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is the co-founder and CEO of Apple and was the CEO of Pixar until its acquisition by Disney. ...


In the years that followed, the program saw no additional support from Apple and its use shrank and people grew fed up with what was now a hopelessly outdated product. Apple finally ceased selling HyperCard in March 2004.


Legacy

HyperCard is one of the first products that made use of and popularized the hypertext concept to a large popular base of users. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Jakob Nielsen has pointed out that HyperCard was really only a hypermedia program since its links started from regions on a card, not text objects; actual HTML-style text hyperlinks were possible in later versions, but were awkward to implement and seldom used. Jakob Nielsen (born 1957 in Copenhagen, Denmark) is a writer, speaker, and consultant on software and web-design usability. ... Hypermedia is a term used as a logical extension of the term hypertext, in which audio, video, plain text, and non-linear hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear medium of information. ... HTML, short for HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... A hyperlink (often referred to as simply a link), is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document, another document, or a specified section of another document, that automatically brings the referred information to the user when the navigation element is selected by...


HyperCard saw a loss in popularity with the growth of the World Wide Web, since the Web could handle and deliver data in much the same way as HyperCard without being limited to files on one's own hard disk. Interestingly, HyperCard had a significant impact on the web as it inspired the creation of both HTTP itself and JavaScript (through its influence on Tim Berners-Lee's colleague Robert Cailliau). It was also a key inspiration for ViolaWWW, an early web browser. HTTP (for HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web. ... JavaScript is the name of Netscape Communications Corporations and now the Mozilla Foundations implementation of the ECMAScript standard, a scripting language based on the concept of prototype-based programming. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... Robert Cailliau. ... ViolaWWW was one of the first graphically-based web browsers. ...

The pointing-finger cursor used for navigating stacks later found its way into the first web browsers, as the hyperlink cursor. Image File history File links HyperCard_cursor. ... A typical arrow-like mouse cursor. ...


Other companies were quick to see the power of HyperCard and offer their own versions. Two products are currently available which offer HyperCard-like functionality:

  • Runtime's Revolution incorporates all of HyperTalk (the HyperCard scripting language), and a large part of the feature set. It expands significantly on HyperCard's feature set and offers a full GUI toolkit. It runs on, and creates standalone applications for, Macintosh Classic, Macintosh OS X, Windows 98 through Vista, and Linux/Unix.
  • SuperCard is a color version of HyperCard on the Mac with additional features, a full GUI toolkit, and now Mac OS X compatibility.

Past products included: Revolution is a development environment/multimedia authoring software in the tradition of Hypercard. ... SuperCard is a high-level development environment that runs on Macintosh computers, under OS 8 and 9, and OS X. It is inspired by HyperCard, but includes a richer language, a full GUI toolkit, and native colour. ...

  • Plus was a product similar to HyperCard for Windows and Macintosh.
  • Asymetrix's Windows application ToolBook resembled HyperCard, and included an external converter to read HyperCard stacks.
  • Oracle purchased a cross-platform clone and released it as OracleCard, renamed Oracle Media Objects, used as a 4GL for database access.

In addition, many of the basic concepts of the original system were later re-used in other forms. Apple built their system-wide scripting engine AppleScript on a language very similar to HyperTalk; it was recently discovered as a perfect fit for DTP workflow automation needs. AppleScript gained a graphical programming front-end called Automator in the most recent major release of Mac OS X, codenamed Tiger, released in April 2005. Some see HyperCard as an ancestor to Visual Basic by Microsoft. One of HyperCard's strengths was its handling of multimedia, and many multimedia systems like Macromedia Authorware are based on concepts originating in HyperCard. A cross-platform clone of the Hypercard application that enables users to run HyperCard stacks on Mac, Windows and OS/2 (Presentation Manager). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Oracle Corporation (NASDAQ: ORCL) is one of the major companies developing database management systems (DBMS), tools for database development, middle-tier software (Fusion Middleware), enterprise resource planning software (ERP), customer relationship management software (CRM) and supply chain planning (SCM) software. ... In the early days of HyperCard at least two alternative tools were created outside of Apple Computer, Spinnaker Plus and SuperCard. ... In the early days of HyperCard at least two alternative tools were created outside of Apple Computer, Plus and SuperCard. ... A fourth-generation programming language (or 4GL) is a programming language designed with a specific purpose in mind such as the development of commercial business software. ... AppleScript is a scripting language devised by Apple, Inc. ... Apple Pages being used with one of the included templates Desktop publishing (also known as DTP) combines a personal computer and page layout software to create publication documents on a computer for either large scale publishing or small scale local economical multifunction peripheral output and distribution. ... Workflow is the operational aspect of a work procedure: how tasks are structured, who performs them, what their relative order is, how they are synchronized, how information flows to support the tasks and how tasks are being tracked. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Visual Basic (VB) is an event driven programming language and associated development environment from Microsoft for its COM programming model. ... Microsoft is one of few companies engaging itself in the console wars Where they are up against sony, nintendo, and of course sharps new console which may cause a threat. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Macromedia Authorware is an interpreted, flowchart based, graphical programming language. ...


AppWare, originally known as Serius Developer, is sometimes seen to be similar to HyperCard, as they were both rapid application development system. AppWare was sold in the early 90s and was remarkable in that its application worked on both Windows and Mac systems. AppWare was a rapid application development system for Microsoft Windows and the Mac OS based on a simple graphical programming language. ... // [edit] History Application Development refers to the developing of programming applications and differs from programming itself in that it has a higher level of responsibility, including for requirement capturing and testing. ...


On a less positive note, as HyperCard executed scripts in stacks immediately on opening it was also one of the first applications susceptible to macro viruses. The Merryxmas virus was discovered in 1993 by Ken Dunham, two years before the "Concept" virus.[1] In computing terminology, a macro virus is a virus that is written in a macro language. ...


The computer game Myst franchise, initially released as a HyperCard stack, still lives on, making HyperCard a facilitating technology for starting one of the best-selling computer games of all time. Myst (or MYST) is a graphic adventure computer game designed and directed by the brothers Robyn and Rand Miller. ...


According to Ward Cunningham, the inventor of Wikis, ideas of the concept can be traced back to a HyperCard stack he wrote in the late 1980s, making HyperCard one of the grandparents of the Wiki idea. [2] [3][4] Oh Yes, Hes Ward Cunningham! Howard Cunningham redirects here. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Trivia

Originally called WildCard during its development, the name was changed to HyperCard before official release due to trademark issues. The HyperCard application and its associated files retain a creator code of WILD, reflecting this period of development. A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by an individual, business organization or other legal entity to uniquely identify the source of its products and/or services to consumers, and to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities. ... A creator code is a mechanism used in pre-Mac OS X versions of the Macintosh operating system to link a data file to the application program which created it, in a manner similar to file extensions in other operating systems. ...


The last sixteen bytes of every HyperCard 2.x stack are the Pascal string "Nu är det slut …" (Now it is over … in Swedish) though this is never seen by users. This was probably a reference to the 1970s Swedish children's TV show Fem myror är fler än fyra elefanter ("Five ants are more than four elephants") where each episode ended with a pink animated cartoon elephant saying these words. Pascal is an imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. ...


With a basic knowledge of HyperCard language, HyperCard could be used to bypass computer protection software such as At Ease by simply typing Close "At Ease" into the message box, for example. Also, word used excessively by Kirby Morrison. ...


References

  1. ^ Pantechnicon Wiki
  2. ^ Wiki History
  3. ^ Interview: Wikinewsie Kim Bruning discusses Wikimania
  4. ^ An Evening With Wiki Inventor Ward Cunningham in Conversation with John Gage
  • Danny Goodman, The Complete HyperCard Handbook (Bantam Books, 1987), ISBN 0-9665514-2-7

Danny Goodman is a computer programmer, technology consultant, and a well known award-winning author of over three dozen books and hundreds of magazine articles on computer-related topics. ...

See also

NoteCards was a hypertext system developed at Xerox PARC by Randall Trigg, Frank Halasz and Thomas Moran in 1984. ... Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) was a flagship research division of the Xerox Corporation, based in Palo Alto, California, USA, which essentially created the modern personal computer paper paradigm. ... SuperCard is a high-level development environment that runs on Macintosh computers, under OS 8 and 9, and OS X. It is inspired by HyperCard, but includes a richer language, a full GUI toolkit, and native colour. ... mTropolis (pronounced metropolis) was a multimedia authoring tool created in 1996 by mFactory (pronounced em-factory). The development environment was very different from the other tools around at the time - Apple Computers HyperCard and others had a card based metaphor, and Macromedia Director had a film metaphor (the content... Automator is an application developed by Apple for Mac OS X that implements point-and-click (or drag-and-drop) creation of workflows for automating repetitive tasks. ... Stagecast Creator is a visual programming language intended for use in teaching programming to kids. ... Morphic is a direct-manipulation User Interface (UI) construction kit based on display trees. ... The Apple Media Tool was a multimedia authoring tool and associated programming environment sold by Apple in the late 1990s. ... ViolaWWW was one of the first graphically-based web browsers. ...

External links

HyperCard clones

  • HyperNext Studio: a modern HyperCard-like software creation system for beginners that runs on Mac OS X and Windows
  • HyperStudio: a HyperCard-like product marketed for and popular with education users
  • PythonCard: a modern, Open Source GUI development system inspired by but not copying HyperCard and running on the Python scripting language
  • Revolution: a powerful development environment based on MetaCard (which they acquired); imports HyperCard stacks, supports Windows, Mac, and Linux
  • SuperCard: one of the first HyperCard clones, which still provides excellent support for current Mac features and Multimedia; imports HyperCard stacks
  • WildFire (formerly the Sphere Project): another open-source HyperCard clone
  • ToolBook: a versatile but Windows-only HyperCard clone, today more geared towards CBT (computer-based training).
  • FreeCard: written in Java

It has been suggested that Open source culture be merged into this article or section. ...

Discontinued

v  d  e
Apple Inc. software
OS: Mac OS XMac OS 9
Consumer: .MaciLifeiTunesiWorkAppleWorksMac OS X
Prosumer: Final Cut ExpressLogic Express
Pro: ApertureFinal Cut StudioLogic ProShake
Bundled: Front RowiChatPhoto BoothQuickTimeSafariTextEdit
Server: Apple Remote DesktopMac OS X ServerWebObjectsXsan
Discontinued: HyperCardMacDrawMac OSMacPaintMacProjectMacTerminalMacWrite

  Results from FactBites:
 
HyperCard - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2730 words)
HyperCard was originally released with System Software 6 in 1987, and was finally withdrawn from sale in March 2004, although it had not been updated for many years at that time.
HyperCard was created by Bill Atkinson and initially released in August 1987, with the understanding that Atkinson would give HyperCard to Apple only if they promised to release it for free on all Macs.
HyperCard is one of the first products that made use of and popularized the hypertext concept to a large popular base of users.
Wired News: HyperCard Forgotten, but Not Gone (793 words)
The software is HyperCard, a simple programming environment so powerful yet simple it is used by professionals and children alike.
HyperCard is used widely in schools to teach programming concepts and for creating interactive learning materials or class reports.
HyperCard supports pictures, audio and video, and can be used to make almost anything -- from games to accounting systems, scientific data tools and teaching aides.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m