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Encyclopedia > Hyoscyamine

Hyoscyamine is a chemical compound, a tropane alkaloid it is the levo-isomer to atropine. It is a secondary metabolite of some plants. Chemical structure of hyoscyamine. ... Background: Alkaloids are plant metabolites that have a nitrogen-containing chemical ring structure, alkali-like chemical reactivity, and pharmacologic activity. ... An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. ... Atropine is an alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Secondary metabolites, also known as natural products, are those products (chemical compounds) of metabolism that are not essential for normal growth, development or reproduction of an organism. ...

It is used in medicine under a number of brand names but also as a generic compound. It is used to provide symptomatic relief to various gastrointestinal disorders including spasms, peptic ulcers, IBS, pancreatitis, colic and cystitis. It has also been used to relieve some heart problems and control some of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It is anticholinergic, working by inhibting the action of acetylcholine in smooth and cardiac muscle, the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes and the exocrine glands. Peptic ulcer is a non-malignant ulcer of the stomach (called gastric ulcer) or duodenum (called duodenal ulcer). ... In medicine (gastroenterology), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of functional bowel disorders which are fairly common and make up 20–50% of visits to a specialist. ... Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. ... Colic may refer to: Baby colic – a condition, usually in infants, caused by severe abdominal pain. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ...

Side effects include eye pain, blurred vision, restlessness, dizziness, arrythmia, flushing, faintness. An overdose will cause headache, nausea, vomiting and CNS symptoms including disorientation, hallucinations, euphoria, inappropriate affect, short-term memory loss and coma.

It can be extracted from plants of the Solanaceae family, notably Datura stramonium. Empirically it is C17H23NO3. Its structural name is α-(hydroxymethyl)-, 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl ester, [3(S)-endo]-1αH,5αH-Tropan-3α-ol. It is also known as benzeneacetic acid. Genera Acnistus Anisodus Anthocercis Anthotroche Archiphysalis Althenaea Atropa (deadly nightshade) Atropanthe Benthamiella Bouchetia Brachistus Browallia Brugmansia (floripondio) Brunfelsia Calibrachoa Capsicum (chilli peppers) Cestrum Chamaesaracha Combera Crenidium Cuatresia Cyphanthera Cyphomandra Datura (jimsonweed) Deprea Discopodium Duboisia Dunalia Dyssochroma Ectozma Exodeconus Fabiana Grabowskia Grammosolen Hawkesiophyton Heteranthia Hunzikeria Hyoscyamus (henbane) Iochroma Jaborosa Jaltomata Juanulloa... Binomial name Datura stramonium Datura stramonium is the name of a poisonous weed, sometimes used as a hallucinogen. ...

  Results from FactBites:
MedlinePlus Drug Information: Hyoscyamine (691 words)
Hyoscyamine is used to control symptoms associated with disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Hyoscyamine is also used in the treatment of bladder spasms, peptic ulcer disease, diverticulitis, colic, irritable bowel syndrome, cystitis, and pancreatitis.
Hyoscyamine may also be used to treat certain heart conditions, to control the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and rhinitis (runny nose), and to reduce excess saliva production.
  More results at FactBites »



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