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Encyclopedia > Hyoid bone

The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; "Lingual Bone") is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. Its name is derived from the Greek word hyoeides meaning "shaped like the letter upsilon" (υ). The hyoid bone is shaped like a horseshoe, and is suspended from the tips of the styloid processes of the temporal bones by the stylohyoid ligaments. It consists of five segments: a body, two greater cornua, and two lesser cornua. to fuck/have sex eg: i boned your mum last night ... Binomial name Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu (extinct) Homo sapiens sapiens Human beings define themselves in biological, social, and spiritual terms. ... The neck is the part of the body on many limbed vertebrates that distinguishes the head from the torso or trunk. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle is a contractile form of tissue. ... Many animals have longer and more flexible tongues than humans. ... In anatomy, the styloid process is any sharp protrusion of a bone. ...

Contents


The body or basihyal

The body (corpus oss. hyoidei) or central part is of a quadrilateral form. Its anterior surface [Fig. 1] is convex and directed forward and upward. It is crossed in its upper half by a well-marked transverse ridge with a slight downward convexity, and in many cases a vertical median ridge divides it into two lateral halves. The portion of the vertical ridge above the transverse line is present in a majority of specimens, but the lower portion is evident only in rare cases. The anterior surface gives insertion to the Geniohyoideus in the greater part of its extent both above and below the transverse ridge; a portion of the origin of the Hyoglossus notches the lateral margin of the Geniohyoideus attachment. Below the transverse ridge the Mylohyoideus, Sternohyoideus, and Omohyoideus are inserted. The posterior surface is smooth, concave, directed backward and downward, and separated from the epiglottis by the hyothyroid membrane and a quantity of loose areolar tissue; a bursa intervenes between it and the hyothyroid membrane. The superior border is rounded, and gives attachment to the hyothyroid membrane and some aponeurotic fibers of the Genioglossus. The inferior border affords insertion medially to the Sternohyoideus and laterally to the Omohyoideus and occasionally a portion of the Thyreohyoideus. It also gives attachment to the Levator glandulæ thyreoideæ, when this muscle is present. In early life the lateral borders are connected to the greater cornua by synchondroses; after middle life usually by bony union. In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The English word POSTERIOR is identical to the original Latin adjective, and has two different uses : as an ADJECTIVE, it indicates that someone or something is behind another, either spatially or chronologically it also became a SUBSTANTIVE, indicating the rear-end, especially of a person, i. ... The epiglottis is a structure at the back of the throat formed of cartilage covered with mucous membrane. ...

image:Gray186.png
Figure 1 : Hyoid bone. Anterior surface. Enlarged.

Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

The greater cornua or thyrohyals

The greater cornua (cornua majora) project backward from the lateral borders of the body; they are flattened from above downward and diminish in size from before backward; each ends in a tubercle to which is fixed the lateral hyothyroid ligament. The upper surface is rough close to its lateral border, for muscular attachments: the largest of these are the origins of the Hyoglossus and Constrictor pharyngis medius which extend along the whole length of the cornu; the Digastricus and Stylohyoideus have small insertions in front of these near the junction of the body with the cornu. To the medial border the hyothyroid membrane is attached, while the anterior half of the lateral border gives insertion to the Thyreohyoideus. 1. ... A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen molecules. ...


The lesser cornua or ceratohyals

The lesser cornua (cornua minora) are two small, conical eminences, attached by their bases to the angles of junction between the body and greater cornua. They are connected to the body of the bone by fibrous tissue, and occasionally to the greater cornua by distinct diarthrodial joints, which usually persist throughout life, but occasionally become ankylosed. The lesser cornua are situated in the line of the transverse ridge on the body and appear to be morphological continuations of it. The apex of each cornu gives attachment to the stylohyoid ligament; the Chondroglossus rises from the medial side of the base. Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Morphology is the following: In linguistics, morphology is the study of the structure of word forms. ...


Ossification

The hyoid is ossified from six centers: two for the body, and one for each cornu. Ossification commences in the greater cornua toward the end of fetal life, in the body shortly afterward, and in the lesser cornua during the first or second year after birth. Ossification is the process of bone formation, in which connective tissues, such as cartilage are turned to bone or bone-like tissue. ... Fetus at eight weeks A fetus (alternatively foetus or fœtus) is an unborn human offspring from the end of the 8th week of pregnancy (when the major structures have formed) until birth. ...


Fracture

Due to its position, the hyoid bone is not usually easy to fracture in most situations. In cases of suspicious death, however, a fractured hyoid is a strong sign of strangulation.


See also

This article is based on an entry from the 1918 edition of Gray's Anatomy, which is in the public domain. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. to fuck/have sex eg: i boned your mum last night ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mandibulohyoid Distance in Difficult Laryngoscopy (2218 words)
The vertical distance between the mandible and the hyoid bone (mandibulohyoid distance) was measured and the positions of the mandibular angle and hyoid bone determined in relation to the cervical vertebrae.
The mandibulohyoid distance, defined as the vertical distance between the mandible and the hyoid bone, was measured from the upper margin of the hyoid bone vertically upward to the lower margin of the mandible.
The mandibulohyoid (MH) distance was measured from the upper margin of the hyoid bone (H) vertically upward to the lower margin of the mandible (M).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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