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Encyclopedia > Hyksos
An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle.

The Hyksos (Egyptian heqa khasewet, "foreign rulers"; Greek Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς, Arabic: الملوك الرعاة , shepherd kings) were an Asiatic people who invaded the eastern Nile Delta, initiating the Second Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt. They rose to power in the 17th century BC, (according to the traditional chronology) and ruled Lower and Middle Egypt for 108 years, forming the Fifteenth and possibly the Sixteenth Dynasties of Egypt, (c. 1648–1540 BC).[1] This 108-year period follows the Turin Canon, which gives the six kings of the Hyksos 15th Dynasty a total reign length of 108 years.[2] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nebpehtire[4] The Lord of Strength is Re Nomen Ahmose[3] The Moon is Born Horus name Aakheperu[5] Great of Developments[6] Nebty name Tutmesut[5] Perfect of Birth[6] Golden Horus Tjestawy[5] He who Knots Together the Two Lands[6] Consort(s) Ahmose-Nefertari Gods Wife... Arabic redirects here. ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... // Overview Events 1700 – 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Fifteenth Dynasty. ... Categories: Articles to be expanded ... The Turin King List also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is a unique papyrus, written in hieratic, currently in the Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum) at Turin, to which it owes its modern name. ...


Traditionally, only the six Fifteenth Dynasty rulers are called "Hyksos". The Hyksos had Canaanite names, as seen in those which contain the names of Semitic deities such as Anath or Ba'al. They introduced new tools of warfare into Egypt, most notably the composite bow and the horse-drawn chariot. // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (Englished as Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti, or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ... Baal (בַּעַל / בָּעַל, Standard Hebrew Báʿal, Tiberian Hebrew Báʿal / Báʿal) is a northwest Semitic word signifying The Lord, master, owner (male), husband cognate with Akkadian Bēl of the same meanings. ... A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ...


Some scholars, as early as Josephus, have associated the Semitic Hyksos with the ancient Hebrews, seeing their departure from Egypt as the story retold in the Exodus. Notably, Canaanite/Hebrew names occur among the Hyksos. A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ...

Contents

Hyksos rule in Egypt

Scarab bearing the name of the Hyksos pharaoh Apophis, now at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Scarab bearing the name of the Hyksos pharaoh Apophis, now at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

The Hyksos kingdom was centered in the eastern Nile Delta and Middle Egypt and was limited in size, never extending south into Upper Egypt, which was under control by Theban-based rulers. Hyksos relations with the south seem to have been mainly of a commercial nature, although Theban princes appear to have recognized the Hyksos rulers and may possibly have provided them with tribute for a period. The Hyksos Fifteenth Dynasty rulers established their capital and seat of government at Memphis and their summer residence at Avaris. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (Doù venons-nous? Que faisons-nous? Où allons-nous?) (1897). ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... Middle Egypt refers to the northern section of Upper Egypt, stretching from El-Aiyat in the north to Asyut in the south. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... Two important places in antiquity were called Thebes: Thebes, Greece – Thebes of the Seven Gates; one-time capital of Boeotia. ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. ... For other uses, see Memphis. ... Avaris Avaris (Egyptian: , Hatwaret, Greek: αυαρις, Auaris), thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ...


The known rulers for the Hyksos 15th dynasty are: Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Fifteenth Dynasty. ...

Name Dates
Sakir-Har Named as an early Hyksos king on a door jamb found at Avaris. Regnal order uncertain.
Khyan c. 1620 BC
Apophis c. 1580 BC to 1540 BC
Khamudi c. 1540 BC to 1534 BC

The rule of these kings overlaps with that of the native-Egyptian pharaohs of the 16th and 17th dynasties of Egypt, better known as the Second Intermediate Period. The first pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, Ahmose I, finally expelled the Hyksos from their last holdout at Sharuhen in Gaza by the 16th year of his reign.[3][4] The obscure Hyksos king Sakir-Har was discovered in a recently excavated door jamb from Tell el-Daba. ... Avaris Avaris (Egyptian: , Hatwaret, Greek: αυαρις, Auaris), thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... praenomen or throne name nomen or birth name Khyan, Khian or Khayan was reportedly the fourth King of the Hyksos Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled around 1610-1580 BC. The Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt who published an extensive catalogue of the monuments of all the numerous Pharaohs of the... 1627 BC — Beginning of a several years lasting cooling of world climate recorded in tree-rings all over the world. ... Apepi I, (also Auserre Apepi or Apophis) was a ruler of Lower Egypt during the Fifteenth dynasty and the end of the Second Intermediate Period. ... (Redirected from 1580 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC 1600s BC 1590s BC - 1580s BC - 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC Events and Trends Significant People Categories: 1580s BC ... (Redirected from 1540 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC - 1540s BC - 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC Events and Trends History of ancient Israel and Judah - earliest date for Amhose... nomen or birth name Khamudi was the last pharaoh of the Hyksos Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt who came to power around the tenth year of Ahmose I, and was defeated by his 16th year. ... (Redirected from 1540 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC - 1540s BC - 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC Events and Trends History of ancient Israel and Judah - earliest date for Amhose... (Redirected from 1534 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC 1540s BC - 1530s BC - 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC Events and Trends 1539 BC: Approximate first use of the Valley of the... Categories: Articles to be expanded ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Seventeenth Dynasty. ... The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ... Nebpehtire[4] The Lord of Strength is Re Nomen Ahmose[3] The Moon is Born Horus name Aakheperu[5] Great of Developments[6] Nebty name Tutmesut[5] Perfect of Birth[6] Golden Horus Tjestawy[5] He who Knots Together the Two Lands[6] Consort(s) Ahmose-Nefertari Gods Wife... Sharuhen was an ancient town in the Negev Desert, between Raphia and Gaza. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ...


Scholars have taken the increasing use of scarabs and the adoption of some Egyptian forms of art by the Fifteenth Dynasty Hyksos kings and their wide distribution as an indication of their becoming progressively Egyptianized.[5] The Hyksos used Egyptian titles associated with traditional Egyptian kingship, and took Egyptian god Seth to represent their own titulary deity.[6] It would appear as though Hyksos administration was accepted in most quarters, if not actually supported by many of their northern-Egyptian subjects. The flip side is that in spite of the prosperity that the stable political situation brought to the land, the native Egyptians continued to view the Hyksos as non-Egyptian "invaders". When they eventually were driven out of Egypt all traces of their occupation were erased. History is written by the victors, and in this case the victors were the rulers of the Egyptian-native Eighteenth Dynasty, the direct successor of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. It was the latter which started and led a sustained war against the Hyksos. These native kings from Thebes had an incentive to demonize the Asiatic rulers in the North, thus accounting for the ruthless destruction of their monuments. This note of warning tells us that the historical situation most probably lay somewhere between these two extreme positions: the Hyksos dynasties represented superficially Egyptianized foreigners who were tolerated, but not truly accepted, by their Egyptian subjects. In Egyptian mythology, Set (also spelled Sutekh, Setesh, Seteh, Seth) is an ancient god, who was originally the god of the desert, one of the two main biomes that constitutes Egypt, the other being the small fertile area on either side of the Nile. ...


The independent native rulers in Thebes do seem, however, to have reached a practical modus vivendi with the later Hyksos rulers. This included transit rights through Hyksos-controlled Middle and Lower Egypt and pasturage rights in the fertile Delta. One text, the Carnarvon Tablet I, relates the misgivings of the Theban ruler’s council of advisors when Kamose proposed moving against the Hyksos, who he claimed were a humiliating stain upon the holy land of Egypt. The councillors clearly did not wish to disturb the status quo: Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ... nomen or birth name Kamose was the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. ...

…we are at ease in our (part of) Egypt. Elephantine (at the First Cataract) is strong, and the middle (of the land) is with us as far as Cusae [near modern Asyut]. The sleekest of their fields are plowed for us, and our cattle are pastured in the Delta. Emmer is sent for our pigs. Our cattle have not been taken away… He holds the land of the Asiatics; we hold Egypt…"[7]

Was there a Hyksos invasion?

Manetho's account of the appearance of the Hyksos in Egypt describes it as an armed invasion by a horde of foreign barbarians who met little resistance and who subdued the country by military force. It has been claimed that new revolutionary methods of warfare ensured the Hyksos the ascendancy in their invasion. Herbert E. Winlock describes new military hardware, such as the composite bow, as well as the improved recurve bow and most importantly the horse-drawn war chariot, as well as improved arrowheads, various kinds of swords and daggers, a new type of shield, mailed shirts, and the metal helmet.[8] Herbert Eustis Winlock (February 1, 1884, in Washington D.C.–January 26, 1950, in Venice, Florida) was an American Egyptologyst employed with the Metropolitan Museum of Art during his entire career as an Egyptologyst. ... A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... Modern recurve bow // A recurve bow is a form of bow defined by the side-view profile; in contrast to the simple longbow, a recurve bow has tips that curve away from the archer when the bow is aimed. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The traditional explanation is there was an invasion; one that took several years and that wasn't a coordinated effort of some foreign kingdom, but mostly a migration of particular groups, tribes or federated tribes, which had access to new and superior weapons developed further away in Asia that helped them conquer a rich piece of land to live in, and were possibly being routed from their own areas.


In the last decades, however, the idea of a simple migration, with little or no violence involved, has gained some support.[9] Under this theory, the Egyptian rulers of 13th Dynasty were unable to stop these new migrants from travelling to Egypt from Asia because they were weak kings who were struggling to cope with various domestic problems including possibly famine. The ceramic evidence in the Memphis-Fayum region of Lower Egypt also strongly argues against the presence of new invading foreigners. Indeed, Janine Bourriau's excavation from Memphis as well as study of ceramic materials retrieved from Lisht and Dahshur during the Second Intermediate Period shows a continuity of Middle Kingdom ceramic wares throughout this era with little to no evidence of intrusion of Hyksos-type wares.[10] Bourriau's evidence militates against the traditional Egyptian view--as espoused by Manetho--that the Hyksos invaded and sacked the Memphite region and imposed their authority there. Not until the beginning of the Theban wars of liberation during the 17th Dynasty are Theban wares found in the Fayum-Memphis region which indicates that the Hyksos controlled the Delta region while Middle Egypt and the Thebaid functioned autonomously and shared limited contact with each other.[11] Unlike as explained as being chaos and disorder by later texts, the Thriteenth dynasty wasnt as bad as once thought. ...


At some point in time, the foreigners, whose elite might have already been local rulers in the name of the Pharaoh, realized there was no need to pay tribute and obedience to a weak king, and took the title of Pharaoh for themselves. (in the north of the country — the Hyksos never penetrated the south)


Josephus, quoting from the work of the historian Manetho, described the invasion:

By main force they easily seized it without striking a blow; and having overpowered the rulers of the land, they then burned our cities ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of gods… Finally, they appointed as king one of their number whose name was Salitis.

Supporters of the peaceful takeover of Egypt claim that there is little evidence of battles or wars in general in this period.[12] They also maintain that the chariot didn't play any relevant role, so there was no real technological superiority on the Hyksos side. The case for the invasion, on the other side, is based mostly on: (a) the traditional Manetho's explanation; (b) the fact that the chariot was a new technology spreading from Central Asia and that there are other theories of invasions by nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes mounted on chariots in 1700–1300 BC, most notably Hurrians in the Near East (Helck) and Aryans in India (the Vedas), with the Hurrians in particular being active quite near where the Hyksos appeared; and (c) the fact that the chariot became the master weapon of that period, the weapon of nobles and kings, and one of the most important symbols of power in Eurasia, because in Mycenaean Greece, India, Mesopotamia, Eastern Europe and China, kings and gods started to be portrayed on chariots, buried in chariots and always went to war in chariots. With such an important new weapon, the advocates of the invasion theory say, it seems strange to consider that the Hyksos just entered peacefully in the north of Egypt from Asia, with no knowledge of the chariot, or knowing it but choosing not to use it. Hence, the Egyptian description of the Hyksos was likely propaganda. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... This article is about the term Aryan. For Arian, a follower of the ancient Christian sect, See Arianism. ... Veda redirects here. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


Theban offensive

Under Seqenenre Tao (II)

Drawing of the mummified head of Tao II, bearing axe-blade wounds. The common theory is that he died in a battle against the Hyksos
Drawing of the mummified head of Tao II, bearing axe-blade wounds. The common theory is that he died in a battle against the Hyksos

The war against the Hyksos began in the closing years of the Seventeenth Dynasty at Thebes. Later New Kingdom literary tradition has brought one of these Theban kings, Seqenenre Tao (II), into contact with his Hyksos contemporary in the north, Auserra Apophis (also known as Apepi or Apophis). The tradition took the form of a tale in which the Hyksos king Apopi sent a messenger to Seqenenre in Thebes to demand that the Theban sport of harpooning hippopotami be done away with, his excuse was that the noise of these beasts was such that he was unable to sleep in far-away Avaris. The real reason was probably that their main god was Seth, who was represented as part man part hippopotamus. Perhaps the only historical information that can be gleaned from the tale is that Egypt was a divided land, the area of direct Hyksos control being in the north, but the whole of Egypt possibly paying tribute to the Hyksos kings. Image File history File links TaoII-mummy-head. ... Image File history File links TaoII-mummy-head. ... Seqenenre[1] Who Strikes like Re Nomen   Thot-aa[1] Horus name Khaemwaset He appears in Thebes Issues Kamose, Ahmose, Ahmose-Nefertari Father Tao I the Elder Mother Tetisheri Burial Mummy found in Deir el-Bahri cache Major Monuments Palace and fortifications at Deir el-Ballas Sekenenra Tao II, (also... Apepi I, (also Auserre Apepi or Apophis) was a ruler of Lower Egypt during the Fifteenth dynasty and the end of the Second Intermediate Period. ... Avaris Avaris (Egyptian: , Hatwaret, Greek: αυαρις, Auaris), thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... In Egyptian mythology, Set (also spelled Sutekh, Setesh, Seteh, Seth) is an ancient god, who was originally the god of the desert, one of the two main biomes that constitutes Egypt, the other being the small fertile area on either side of the Nile. ...


Seqenenre participated in active diplomatic posturing, which probably consisted of more than simply exchanging insults with the Asiatic ruler in the North. He seems to have led military skirmishes against the Hyksos, and judging by the vicious head wound on his mummy in the Cairo Museum, he may have died during one of them. His son and successor, Wadjkheperra Kamose, the last ruler of the Seventeenth Dynasty at Thebes, is credited with the first significant defeats in the Theban-led war against the Hyksos. A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or airlessness. ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... nomen or birth name Kamose was the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Seventeenth Dynasty. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome...


Under Kamose

There is little evidence to support Pierre Montet's assertion in his 1964 book Eternal Egypt that Kamose's war of liberation was sponsored by the priests of Amun as an attack against the Seth-worshipers in the north (i.e. a religious motive). The Carnarvon Tablet I, does state that Kamose travelled north to attack the Asiatics by the command of Amun, the titulary deity of his dynasty, but this is simple hyperbole common to virtually all Egyptian royal inscriptions at all periods of time and should not be understood as the god’s having specifically commanded the attack itself for religious reasons. Kamose's reason for launching his attack on the Hyksos was nationalistic pride, for in this same text he complains that he is sandwiched at Thebes between the Asiatics in the north and the Nubians (Sudanese) in the south, each holding "his slice of Egypt, dividing up the land with me… My wish is to save Egypt and to smite the Asiatics!" Hence, it was native Egyptian nationalism that prompted Kamose to embark and sailed north from Thebes at the head of his army in his third regnal year. Pierre Montet (1885 — 1966) was a French Egyptologist. ...


He surprised and overran the southernmost garrison of the Hyksos at Nefrusy, just north of Cusae [near modern Asyut], and Kamose then led his army as far north as the neighborhood of Avaris itself. Though the city was not taken, the fields around it were devastated by the Thebans. A second stele discovered at Thebes continues the account of the war broken off on the Carnarvon Tablet I, and mentions the interception and capture of a courier bearing a message from the Hyksos king Aawoserra Apophis at Avaris to his ally the ruler of Kush (modern Sudan), requesting the latter's urgent support against the threat posed by Kamose's activities against both their kingdoms. Kamose promptly ordered a detachment of his troops to occupy the Bahriya Oasis in the Western Desert to control and block the desert route to the south. Kamose, called "the Strong", then sailed back up the Nile to Thebes for a joyous victory celebration after what was probably not much more than a surprise spoiling raid in force which caught the Hyksos off guard. His Year 3 is the only date attested for Kamose. Avaris Avaris (Egyptian: , Hatwaret, Greek: αυαρις, Auaris), thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... This article is about the Nubian civilization. ...


By the end of the reign of Apophis, perhaps the second last Hyksos kings of the Fifteenth Dynasty, the Hyksos had been routed from Middle Egypt and had retreated northward and regrouped in the vicinity of the entrance of the Fayyum at Atfih. This great Hyksos king had outlived his first Egyptian contemporary, Seqenenra Tao II, and was still on the throne (albeit of a much reduced kingdom) at the end of Kamose's reign. The last Hyksos ruler of the Fifteenth Dynasty, Khamudi, undoubtedly had a relatively short reign which fell some time within the first half of the reign of Ahmose, Kamose's successor and the founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Apepi I, (also Auserre Apepi or Apophis) was a ruler of Lower Egypt during the Fifteenth dynasty and the end of the Second Intermediate Period. ... Al Fayyum is one of the governorates of Egypt located in the centre of the country. ... Nebpehtire[4] The Lord of Strength is Re Nomen Ahmose[3] The Moon is Born Horus name Aakheperu[5] Great of Developments[6] Nebty name Tutmesut[5] Perfect of Birth[6] Golden Horus Tjestawy[5] He who Knots Together the Two Lands[6] Consort(s) Ahmose-Nefertari Gods Wife...


Under Ahmose

Close-up of a drawing of axe blade depicting Ahmose I striking down a Hyksos soldier, part of the burial equipment of Queen Ahhotep.
Close-up of a drawing of axe blade depicting Ahmose I striking down a Hyksos soldier, part of the burial equipment of Queen Ahhotep.

Ahmose, who is regarded as the first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty may have been on the Theban throne for some time before he resumed the war against the Hyksos. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Eighteenth Dynasty was founded by Ahmose, the brother of Kamose, the last ruler of the Seventeenth Dynasty. ...


The details of his military campaigns are taken from the account on the walls of the tomb of another Ahmose, a soldier from El-Kab, a town in southern Upper Egypt, whose father had served under Seqenenra Tao II, and whose family had long been nomarchs of the district. It seems that several campaigns against the stronghold at Avaris were needed before the Hyksos were finally dislodged and driven from Lower Egypt. When this occurred is not known with certainty. Some authorities place the expulsion as early as Ahmose's fourth year, while Donald Redford, whose chronological structure has been adopted here, places it as late as the king's fifteenth year. A soldier (named Ahmose) specifically states that he followed on foot as his King Ahmose rode to war in his chariot. This is the first mention of the use of the horse and chariot by the Egyptians. In the repeated fighting around Avaris, the soldier captured prisoners and carried off several hands, which when reported to the royal herald resulted in his being awarded the "Gold of Valor" on three separate occasions. The actual fall of Avaris is only briefly mentioned: Ahmose, son of Ebana served in the Egyptian military under the pharaohs Tao II Seqenenre, Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, and Thutmose I. His autobiography has survived intact on the wall of his tomb and has proven a valuable source of information on the late 17th Dynasty and the early 18th... ... Seqenenre[1] Who Strikes like Re Nomen   Thot-aa[1] Horus name Khaemwaset He appears in Thebes Issues Kamose, Ahmose, Ahmose-Nefertari Father Tao I the Elder Mother Tetisheri Burial Mummy found in Deir el-Bahri cache Major Monuments Palace and fortifications at Deir el-Ballas Sekenenra Tao II, (also... A nomarch in ancient Egypt was a provincial governor, the regional authority over one of the 40 or so nomes (Egyptian: sepat) into which the country was divided. ... Avaris Avaris (Egyptian: , Hatwaret, Greek: αυαρις, Auaris), thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

"Then Avaris was despoiled. Then I carried off spoil from there: one man, three women, a total of four persons. Then his majesty gave them to me to be slaves."[13]

After the fall of Avaris, the fleeing Hyksos were pursued by the Egyptian army across northern Sinai and into southern Canaan. Here, in the Negev desert between Rafah and Gaza, the fortified town of Sharuhen was reduced after, according to the soldier from El-Kab, a long three-year siege operation. How soon after the sack of Avaris this Asiatic campaign took place is uncertain. One can reasonably conclude that the thrust into southern Canaan probably followed the Hyksos’ eviction from Avaris fairly closely, but, given a period of protracted struggle before Avaris fell and possibly more than one season of campaigning before the Hyksos were shut up in Sharuhen, the chronological sequence must remain uncertain. Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Rock face in the Negev Desert near Beersheba on the way to Eilat. ... Rafah (Arabic: رفح Hebrew: רפיח) is a town in the Gaza Strip, on the Egyptian border, and a nearby town on the Egyptian side of the border, on the Sinai Peninsula. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Sharuhen was an ancient town in the Negev Desert, between Raphia and Gaza. ... Sharuhen was an ancient town in the Negev Desert, between Raphia and Gaza. ...


Later times

The Hyksos continued to play a role in Egyptian literature as a synonym for "Asiatic" down to Hellenistic times. The term was frequently evoked against such groups as the Semites settled in Aswan or the Delta, and this may have led the Egyptian priest and historian Manetho to identify the coming of the Hyksos with the sojourn in Egypt of Joseph and his brothers, and helped modern historians identify the expulsion of the Hyksos with the Exodus. Significant in this identification is the fact that some Hyksos pharaohs had names familiar from Israelite traditions, such as Jacobaam of the 16th dynasty. It may also indicate that the "expulsion" of the Hyksos reported in the Egyptian records mainly refers to the expulsion of the Semitic rulers and military/political elite and does not indicate a mass expulsion of the lower classes who, in the Ancient World, were traditionally exploited by their conquerors rather than expelled or massacred. Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ...


There seems to be slight evidence that the Kings of the 19th Egyptian Dynasty may have had some Hyksos connections: Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ...

  • Ramesses I had hereditary estates in the vicinity of Avaris.
  • Ramesses II:
    • Celebrated the 400th anniversary of the worship of Sutekh, in honor of his father, Seti I (Seth was identified by the Hyksos with Baal),
    • Adopted a Semitic name for one of his favourite daughters (Bintanath meaning "the daughter of the goddess Anath"),
    • Dedicated several of his favourite chariot horses to Anath (naming them accordingly), and
    • Pharaoh Ramesses II moved his capital city back to Avaris — and named it after himself (Pi Rameses).
  • The early Ramesside kings promoted Asiatics to positions of prominence in the civil administration.
  • The anti-Hyksos invectives found during the first part of the 18th dynasty are almost wholly lacking.

With the chaos at the end of the 19th Dynasty, the first pharaohs of the 20th Dynasty in the Elephantine Stele and the Harris Papyrus re-invigorated an anti-Hyksos stance to strengthen their nativist reaction towards the Asiatic settlers of the north, who may again have been expelled from the country. Setnakht, the founder of the 20th Dynasty, records in a Year 2 stela from Elephantine that he defeated and expelled a large force of Asiatics who had invaded Egypt during the chaos between the end Twosret's reign and the beginning of the 20th dynasty and captured much of their stolen gold and silver booty. Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issue Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Rameses ) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... Set, in KV34 Set (also Setekh, Seth, etc) was originally a god of strength, war, storms, foreign lands (and foreigners) and deserts in Egyptian mythology. ... This article is about the Biblical Seth. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Bintanath (or Bentanath) was the firstborn daughter and Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh, Ramesses II. She was born possibly when her father was still a co-regent with his father, Sethi I. Her mother was Isetnofret, one of the two most prominent wives of Ramesses. ... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (Englished as Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti, or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ... The Ramesside Period encompasses the Nineteenth and Twentieth dynasties of Ancient Egypt. ... Papyrus Harris I is also known as the Great Harris Papyrus and (less accurately) simply the Harris Papyrus (though there are a number of other papyri in the Harris collection). ... Setnakhte (also Sethnakhte or Setnakht) was the first Pharaoh (1186 BC-1183 BC) of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt and father of Ramesses III. Originally, he was believed to have enjoyed a reign of only 2 Years based upon his Year 2 Elephantine stela but... nomen or birth name Queen Twosret Sitre Meryamun was a Queen of Egypt and the last Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ...


The story of the Hyksos was known to the Greeks, who attempted to identify it within their own mythology with the expulsion of Belus (Baal?) and the daughters of Danaos, associated with the origin of the Argive dynasty. For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Danaus, or Danaos (sleeper) was a Greek mythological character, twin of Aegyptus and son of Belus, a mythic king of Egypt. ...


Who were the Hyksos?

Main article: The origins of the Hyksos

The term Hyksos derives from the Egyptian expression heka khasewet (rulers of foreign lands), used in Egyptian texts such as the Turin King List to describe the rulers of neighbouring lands. ...

Hyksos in popular culture

The invasion and subsequent expulsion of the Hyksos form an integral part in the fictional 'Egypt' novels by Wilbur Smith, notably River God, The Seventh Scroll and Warlock ("Egyptian Series"), in the Lords of the Two Lands trilogy by Pauline Gedge which chronicles the campaigns of Sequenenre, Kamose and Ahmose against them, and in Andre Norton's novel "Shadow Hawk". Wilbur Addison Smith (born January 9, 1933 in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia)) is an author of fiction. ... Wilbur Addison Smith (born January 9, 1933 in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia)) is an author of fiction. ... Wilbur Addison Smith (born January 9, 1933 in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia)) is an author of fiction. ... Wilbur Addison Smith (born January 9, 1933 in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia)) is an author of fiction. ... Pauline Gedge (born 1945) is an award-winning and best-selling Canadian novelist who lives in Edgerton, Alberta. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Egyptian chronology.
  2. ^ Second Intermediate Period (SIP) by Ottar Vendel.
  3. ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.193. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  4. ^ Redford, Donald B. History and Chronology of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studies, pp.46–49. University of Toronto Press, 1967.
  5. ^ Booth, Charlotte. The Hyksos Period in Egypt. p.15-18. Shire Egyptology. 2005. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1
  6. ^ Booth, Charlotte. The Hyksos Period in Egypt. p.29-31. Shire Egyptology. 2005. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1
  7. ^ Pritchard (ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ANET), pp 232f.
  8. ^ Winlock, Herbert E. The Rise and Fall of the Middle Kingdom in Thebes.
  9. ^ Booth, Charlotte. The Hyksos Period in Egypt. p.10. Shire Egyptology, 2005. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1
  10. ^ The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological Perspectives, ed. Eliezer Oren, University of Pennsylvania 1997. cf. Janine Bourriau's chapter of the archaeological evidence covers pages 159-182
  11. ^ James K. Hoffmeier, Book Review of 'The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological Perspectives, ed. Eliezer Oren, University of Pennsylvania 1997.' in JEA 90 (2004), p.27
  12. ^ Booth, Charlotte. The Hyksos Period in Egypt. p.10. Shire Egyptology. 2005. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1
  13. ^ ANET, p.233f

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

References

  • Aharoni, Yohanan and Michael Avi-Yonah, The MacMillan Bible Atlas, Revised Edition, pp. 30-31 (1968 & 1977 by Carta Ltd.).
  • Bimson, John J. Redating the Exodus. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1981. ISBN 0-907459-04-8
  • von Beckerath, Jürgen. Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten (1965) [Ägyptologische Forschungen, Heft 23]. Basic to any study of this period.
  • Ellis, Ralph. (2001) Tempest & Exodus: the biblical exodus inscribed on an ancient Egyptian stele. Edfu: Cheshire ISBN 0953191389
  • Ellis, Ralph. Jesus, Last of the Pharaohs
  • Gardiner, Sir Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs (1964, 1961). Still the classic work in English. See pp. 61–71 for his examination of chronology.
  • Gibson, David J., Whence Came the Hyksos, Kings of Egypt, 1962
  • Hayes, William C. "Chronology: Egypt—To End of Twentieth Dynasty." Chapter 6, Volume 1 of The Cambridge Ancient History, Revised Edition. Cambridge, 1964. With excellent bibliography up to 1964. This is CAH’s chronology volume: A basic work.
  • Hayes, William C. "Egypt: From the Death of Ammenemes III to Seqenenre II", in Chapter 2, Volume 2 of The Cambridge Ancient History, Revised Edition (1965) (Fascicle 6).
  • Helck, Wolfgang. Die Beziehungen Ägyptens zu Vorderasien im 3. und 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr. (1962) [Ägyptologische Abhandlungen, Band 5]. An important review article that should be consulted is by William A. Ward, in Orientalia 33 (1964), pp. 135–140.
  • Hornung, Erik. Untersuchungen zur Chronologie und Geschichte des Neuen Reiches (1964) [Ägyptologische Abhandlungen, Band 11]. With an excellent fold-out comparative chronological table at the back with 18th, 19th, and 20th Dynasty dates.
  • James, T.G.H. "Egypt: From the Expulsion of the Hyksos to Amenophis I", in Chapter 2, Volume 2 of The Cambridge Ancient History, Revised Edition (1965) (Fascicle 34).
  • Montet, Pierre. Eternal Egypt (1964). Translated by Doreen Weightman.
  • Pritchard, James B. (Editor). Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament(ANET), 3rd edition. (1969). This edition has an extensive Supplement at the back containing additional translations. The standard collection of excellent English translations of ancient Near Eastern texts.
  • Redford, Donald B. History and Chronology of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studies. (1967).
  • Redford, Donald B. "The Hyksos Invasion in History and Tradition" Orientalia 39 (1970).
  • Ryholt, Kim SB. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C. (1997) by Museum Tuscalanum Press.
  • Van Seters, John. The Hyksos: A New Investigation (1967). Two reviews of this volume should be consulted: Kitchen, Kenneth A. "Further Notes on New Kingdom Chronology and History", in Chronique d’Égypte XLIII, No. 86, 1968, pp. 313–324; and Simpson, William J. Review, in Journal of the American Oriental Society 90 (1970), pp. 314–315.
  • Säve-Söderbergh, T. "The Hyksos Rule in Egypt", Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 37 (1951), pp. 53–71.
  • Winlock, H. E. The Rise and Fall of the Middle Kingdom in Thebes (1947). Still a classic with much important information.

Jürgen von Beckerath (born 19 February 1920) is a prominent German Egyptologist. ... Herbert Eustis Winlock (February 1, 1884, in Washington D.C.–January 26, 1950, in Venice, Florida) was an American Egyptologyst employed with the Metropolitan Museum of Art during his entire career as an Egyptologyst. ...

External links

  • The Hyksos, Kings of Egypt and the land of Edom based on the 1962 book by David J. Gibson

  Results from FactBites:
 
Who Were the Hyksos (1473 words)
Hence, the Hyksos rule of Egypt was probably the climax of waves of Asiatic immigration and infiltration into the northeastern Delta of the Nile.
The Hyksos did eventually utilize superior bronze weapons, chariots and composite bows to help them take control of Egypt, though in reality, the relative slowness of their advance southwards from the Delta seems to support the argument that the process was gradual and did not ultimately turn on the possession of overwhelming military superiority.
Eventually, the Hyksos tolerance of rival claimants to the land beginning in the 15th Dynasty would spell their expulsion by the end of the 17th Dynasty, beginning with the reign of Kamose.
Hyksos - LoveToKnow 1911 (862 words)
HYKSOS, or "Shepherd Kings," the name of the earliest invaders of Egypt of whom we have definite evidence in tradition.
In 1850 a record of the capture of this city from the Hyksos by Ahmosi, the founder of the eighteenth dynasty, was discovered by the same scholar.
Large numbers of Hyksos scarabs are found in Upper and Lower Egypt, and they are not unknown in Palestine.
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