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Encyclopedia > Hygiene

Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. The scientific term "hygiene" refers to the maintenance of health and healthy living. The term appears in phrases such as personal hygiene, domestic hygiene, dental hygiene, and occupational hygiene and is frequently used in connection with public health. The term "hygiene" is derived from Hygieia, the Greek goddess of health, cleanliness and sanitation. Hygiene is also a science that deals with the promotion and preservation of health. Also called hygienics. Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ... Occupational Hygiene is both a technical field of study and a profession. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... In Greek mythology, Hygieia (Roman equivalent: Salus) was a daughter of Asclepius. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ...


Personal hygiene

Examples of practised personal hygiene:

  • Washing the body and hair frequently.
  • Frequent washing of hands and face.
  • Oral hygiene—taking care of the teeth and gums, and treating or preventing bad breath
  • Cleaning of the clothes and living area.
  • Avoiding contact with bodily fluids, such as blood, feces, urine, and vomit.
  • Not touching animals before eating, or washing hands thoroughly between animal-touching and eating.
  • Holding a tissue over the mouth or using the upper arm/elbow region when coughing or sneezing, rather than a bare hand. Alternatively, washing hands afterwards.
  • Suppression of objectionable habits, such as nose-picking, touching pimples, biting fingernails etc.
  • Not licking fingers before picking up sheets of paper or turning pages in a book. (Rubber fingertip covers and Glycerine-based products are available for this purpose, which are available from stationery stores.)
  • Wearing clean underwear or pantyhose or tights and clothing daily. Washing working / social-uniform / clothing at a regular time-interval.
  • Washing hands after using the toilet.
  • Carefully remove any fecal matter that may cling to hair on or near the rectal area, better known as dingleberries.
  • Not sharing towels, combs, hair brushes, and other personal things.
  • Changing bedsheets when a new person sleeps on the bed.
  • For uncircumcised men, cleaning daily under the foreskin with soap and water.
  • Washing hands after masturbation.
  • Combing the hairs that grow in the nostrils.

Children bathing in a small metal bathtub Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. ... Schoolchildren washing their hands before eating lunch. ... Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... The gingiva, or gums, consist of the tissue surrounding the roots of the teeth and covering the jawbone. ... Halitosis, breath odour, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odours exhaled in breathing. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Modern toothpaste gel Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and improve the aesthetic appearance and health of teeth. ... Dental hygienist flossing a patients teeth Dental floss is either a bundle of thin nylon filaments or a plastic (teflon or polyethylene) ribbon used to remove food and dental plaque from teeth. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... Periodontal disease is the name for bacterial infections of the gums in the mouth. ... Chewing gum Chewing gum is a type of confectionery, traditionally, made of chicle, a natural latex product, although for reasons of economy and quality many modern chewing gums use rubber instead of chicle. ... Various Listerine products Listerine is a brand name for antiseptic mouthwash. ... Halitosis, breath odour, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odours exhaled in breathing. ... Italian street, with laundry hung to dry Laundry can be: items of clothing and other textiles that require washing the act of washing clothing and textiles the room of a house in which this is done // Man and woman washing linen in a brook, from William Henry Pynes Microcosm... Chore redirects here. ... // Bodily fluids listed below are found in the bodies of men and/or women. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... Tissue paper or wrapping tissue is a type of thin, translucent paper used for wrapping and cushioning items. ... A sneeze is the semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the nose. ... Nose picking in progress Nose-picking is the act of extracting mucus or foreign bodies from the nose with a finger. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Glycerin, also known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet tasting viscous liquid. ... Stationery is a general name given to paper and office supplies such as envelopes, notepads, pens, pencils, erasers, paper clips, staples, etc. ... A pair of mens briefs Undergarments, also called underwear or sometimes intimate clothing, are clothes worn next to the skin, usually under other clothes. ... Sheer pantyhose Pantyhose (also called tights) are sheer, close fitting coverings of the body from the waist to the feet, most frequently worn by women. ... Three women wearing different styles of tights. ... For other uses, see Uniform (disambiguation). ... Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ... A nostril is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening. ...

Food and cooking hygiene

Main article: Food and cooking hygiene. See also Food safety.

The purposes of food and cooking hygiene are to prevent food contamination, the transmission of disease, and to prevent food poisoning. Food and cooking hygiene protocols specify safe ways to handle and prepare food, and safe methods of serving and eating it. Such protocols include Food and cooking hygiene includes a number of routines which should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. ... Food safety is a scientific discipline describing the handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent Foodborne illness. ... Food contamination refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness. ... Disease transmission is the way that an infectious disease or pathogen is passed on or communicated from one individual to another in a population of humans, or in groups of other animals. ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ...

  • Cleaning of food-preparation areas and equipment (for example using designated cutting boards for preparing raw meats and vegetables). (Cleaning may involve use of chlorine bleach for sterilization.)
  • Careful avoidance of meats contaminated by trichina worms, salmonella, and other pathogens; or thorough cooking of questionable meats.
  • Extreme care in preparing raw foods, such as sushi and sashimi.
  • Institutional dish sanitizing by washing with soap and clean water.
  • Washing of hands after touching uncooked food when preparing meals.
  • Not using the same utensils to prepare different foods.
  • Not sharing cutlery when eating.
  • Not licking fingers or hands while or after eating.
  • Not reusing serving utensils that have been licked.
  • Proper storage of food so as to prevent contamination by vermin.
  • Refrigeration of foods (and avoidance of specific foods in environments where refrigeration is or was not feasible).
  • Labeling food to indicate when it was produced (or, as food manufacturers prefer, to indicate its "best before" date).
  • Proper disposal of uneaten food and packaging.

A raw food diet consists of uncooked and unprocessed, and often organic foods. ... Commercial chlorine bleach To bleach something is to remove or lighten its colour, sometimes as a preliminary step in the process of dyeing; a bleach is a chemical that produces these effects, often via oxidation. ... Trichinosis, also called trichinellosis, is a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork and wild game products infected with the larvae of a species of roundworm Trichinella spiralis, commonly called the trichina worm. ... Species S. enterica This article is about the bacteria. ... This article is about Japanese cuisine. ... Assorted sashimi Sashimi (Japanese: ) is a Japanese delicacy primarily consisting of very fresh raw seafoods, thinly sliced into pieces about 2. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... This is a list of food preparation utensils, also known as kitchenware. ... Used cutlery: a plate, a fork and knife, and a drinking glass. ... Food caches, Hooper Bay, Alaska, 1929. ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ... Look up vermin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ... Shelf-life is the length of time that corresponds to a tolerable loss in quality of a processed food. ...

Medical hygiene

Most of these practices were developed in the 19th century and were well established by the mid-20th century. Some procedures (such as disposal of medical waste) were tightened up as a result of late-20th century disease outbreaks, notably AIDS and Ebola. Bandages are also used in martial arts to prevent dislocated joints. ... A dressing is a piece of material, usually cloth, used to cover a wound and stop bleeding. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... A surgical mask is designed to be worn by health professionals during surgery and at other times to catch the bacteria shed from the wearers mouth and nose. ... A hospital gown is a short-sleeved, thigh-length garment worn by patients in hospitals or other medical facilities. ... A cap is a form of headgear. ... Also see Personal protective equipment: Eye protection. ... A blue nitrile medical glove. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Waste management is literally the process of managing waste materials (normally those produced as a result of human activities). ... This article describes hazardous waste as a substance; for the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal see Basel Convention Put simply, a Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment and generally exhibits one... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ...

Personal service / served hygiene

A hairdresser is someone whose occupation is to cut or style hair, in order to change or maintain a persons image as they desire. ... Front loading autoclaves are common Stovetop autoclaves need to be monitored carefully and are the simplest of all autoclaves Multiple large autoclaves are used for processing substantial quantities of laboratory equipment prior to reuse, and infectious material prior to disposal. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Tattoo (disambiguation). ... ΚA wet wipe, also known as a wet nap or a moist towelette, is a small moistened piece of paper or cloth that often comes folded and individually wrapped in its own wrapper for convenience, much like a packet of sugar or a condom. ...

History of hygienic practices

Elaborate codes of hygiene can be found in several Hindu texts such as the Manusmriti and the Vishnu Purana.[1] Bathing is one of the five Nitya karmas (daily duties) in Sikhism, not performing which leads to sin according to some scriptures. These codes were based on the notion of ritual purity and were not informed by an understanding of the causes of diseases and their means of transmission. However, some of the ritual-purity codes did improve hygiene, from an epidemiological point of view, more or less by accident. The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... The Vishnu Purana is one of the oldest of the Puranas (dating to maybe the 5th century), containing some 23,000 shlokas, presented as a dialogue between Parasara with his disciple Maitreya. ... Nitya karma refers to those karmas (or rituals) which have to be performed daily by Hindus. ... Ritual purification is a feature of many religions. ...

Regular bathing was a hallmark of Roman civilization.[citation needed] Elaborate baths were constructed in urban areas to serve the public, who typically demanded the infrastructure to maintain personal cleanliness. The complexes usually consisted of large, swimming pool-like baths, smaller cold and hot pools, saunas, and spa-like facilities where individuals could be depilated, oiled, and massaged. Water was constantly changed by an aqueduct-fed flow. Bathing outside of urban centers involved smaller, less elaborate bathing facilities, or simply the use of clean bodies of water. Roman cities also had large sewers, such as Rome's Cloaca Maxima, into which public and private latrines drained. Romans didn't have demand-flush toilets but did have some toilets with a continuous flow of water under them. (Similar toilets are seen in Acre Prison in the film Exodus.) Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Roman public baths in Bath, England. ... For other uses, see Aqueduct (disambiguation). ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ... For the album by CMX, see Cloaca Maxima (album). ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ...

Until the late 19th Century, only the elite in Western cities typically possessed indoor facilities for relieving bodily functions. The poorer majority used communal facilities built above cesspools in backyards and courtyards. This changed after Dr. John Snow discovered that cholera was transmitted by the fecal contamination of water. Though it took decades for his findings to gain wide acceptance, governments and sanitary reformers were eventually convinced of the health benefits of using sewers to keep human waste from contaminating water. This encouraged the widespread adoption of both the flush toilet and the moral imperative that bathrooms should be indoors and as private as possible.[2] Dr. John Snow John Snow (16 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was a British physician and a leader in the adoption of anaesthesia and medical hygiene. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... For other uses, see Toilet (disambiguation). ...


Contrary to popular belief, bathing and sanitation were not lost in Europe with the collapse of the Roman Empire. As a matter of fact, soapmaking first became an established trade during the so-called "Dark Ages." The Romans used scented oils (mostly from Egypt), among other alternatives. Also, contrary to myth, chamber pots were not emptied out the window and into streets in the European Middle Ages—this was instead a Roman practice. Bathing in fact did not fall out of fashion in Europe until shortly after the Renaissance, replaced by the heavy use of sweat-bathing and perfume, as it was thought in Europe that water could carry disease into the body through the skin. (Water, in fact, does carry disease, but more often if it is drunk than if one bathes in it; and water only carries disease if it is contaminated by pathogens.) Modern sanitation as we know it was not widely adopted until the 19th and 20th centuries. According to medieval historian Lynn Thorndike, people in Medieval Europe probably bathed more than Westerners did in the 19th century.[3] Soapmaking is the process of creating soap from raw ingredients such as fats, oils and lye. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Perfume (disambiguation). ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ...


Main article: Personal grooming

The related term personal grooming/grooming means to enhance one's physical appearance or appeal for others, by removing obvious imperfections in one's appearance or improving one's hygiene. A domestic cat grooming itself by licking its fur clean Personal grooming, sometimes called preening, or simply grooming, is the art of cleaning, grooming, and maintaining parts of the body. ... A domestic cat grooming itself by licking its fur clean Personal grooming, sometimes called preening, or simply grooming, is the art of cleaning, grooming, and maintaining parts of the body. ... Grooming refers to removing obvious imperfections in ones appearance, or improving ones hygiene. ... Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness. ... For other uses, see Perfection (disambiguation). ...

Grooming in humans typically includes bathroom activities such as primping: washing and cleansing the hair, combing it to extract tangles and snarls, and styling. It can also include cosmetic care of the body, such as shaving and other forms of depilation. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hair care. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... “Haircut” redirects here. ... Make-up redirects here. ... This article is about the use of a razor. ... Depilation is a generic term for hair removal which affects the part of the hair above the surface of the skin. ...

Hygiene Certification

International Hygiene Certification (IHC) is awarded by International Hygiene Certification Division of Hygiene Standard Institute.International Hygiene Certification Division’s (IHCD) International Hygiene Certification programme ensures high standards of hygiene. Organisations submit their hygiene systems and training packs for independent auditing and assessment under Hygiene Standard Institute(HSI) service. Units which conform to the international hygiene standards of Hygiene Standard Institute (HSI) and have been proved to have hygienic merit will receive the International Hygiene Certificate.

Academic resources

  • International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, ISSN: 1438-4639, Elsevier

Elseviers logo. ...

See also

Brigadier General Carl Rogers Darnall, MD (25 December 1867, Weston, Texas, USA -18 January 1941, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, DC, USA) was a U.S. Army chemist and surgeon credited with originating the technique of liquid chlorination of drinking water. ... A Clean Living Movement is a period of time when a surge of health-reform crusades, many with moral overtones, erupts into the popular consciousness. ... “Cleanup” redirects here. ... Dental Hygiene (Persian: Behdasht-e Dandan) is a 1980 Iranian short film directed by Abbas Kiarostami. ... Feminine hygiene is a general term used to describe products used by women during menstruation, vaginal discharge, and other bodily functions related to the vulva. ... Schoolchildren washing their hands before eating lunch. ... In medicine, the hygiene hypothesis says that an excessively hygienic environment in early childhood may predispose some people towards asthma, allergies, and other autoimmune diseases. ... Hygiene programs are ways of providing basic hygiene facilities to homeless people. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... Natural Hygiene is a branch of alternative medicine that claims that the human body can and will heal itself if the causes of disease are removed. ... Occupational Hygiene is both a technical field of study and a profession. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Sleep hygiene is the practice of following simple guidelines to ensure restful, effective sleep promoting daytime alertness and helping avoid the onset of sleep disorders. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mary Mallon (September 23, 1869 – November 11, 1938), also known as Typhoid Mary, was an Irish immigrant who was the first known healthy carrier of typhoid fever in the United States. ...


  1. ^ http://www.sulabhtoiletmuseum.org/fact.htm
  2. ^ Poop Culture: How America is Shaped by its Grossest National Product, ISBN 1-932-59521-X
  3. ^ http://www.godecookery.com/mtales/mtales08.htm
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External links

  Results from FactBites:
Oral Hygiene: Encyclopedia of Medicine (1280 words)
Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean and healthy by brushing and flossing to prevent tooth decay and gum disease.
The purpose of oral hygiene is to prevent the buildup of plaque, the sticky film of bacteria and food that forms on the teeth.
Plaque adheres to the crevices and fissures of the teeth and generates acids that, when not removed on a regular basis, slowly eat away, or decay, the protective enamel surface of the teeth, causing holes (cavities) to form.
Hygiene - definition of Hygiene - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (72 words)
Hygiene - definition of Hygiene - Labor Law Talk Dictionary
hygiene - the science concerned with the prevention of illness and maintenance of health
That department of sanitary science which treats of the preservation of health, esp. of households and communities; a system of principles or rules designated for the promotion of health.
  More results at FactBites »



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