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Encyclopedia > Hyena
Hyenas
Fossil range: Early Miocene to Recent
Spotted Hyena
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Hyaenidae
Gray, 1821
Living Genera
Synonyms
  • Protelidae Flower, 1869

The Hyaenidae is a mammalian family of order Carnivora. The Hyaenidae family, native to both African and Asian continents consists of four living species, the Striped Hyena and Brown Hyena (genus Hyaena), the Spotted Hyena (genus Crocuta) and the Aardwolf (genus Proteles). DC Comics had at least two villains called Hyena, one male and one female. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena range The Spotted Hyena, or Laughing Hyena, (Crocuta crocuta) is a carnivorous mammal of the family hyaenidae. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... John Edward Gray. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena range The Spotted Hyena, or Laughing Hyena, (Crocuta crocuta) is a carnivorous mammal of the family hyaenidae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Striped Hyena range The Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is closely related to the Brown Hyena. ... Binomial name Proteles cristatus Sparrman 1783 Aardwolf range The Aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) is a small insectivorous hyena, native to Eastern and Southern Africa. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Striped Hyena range The Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is closely related to the Brown Hyena. ... Binomial name Thunberg, 1820 The Brown Hyena (Parahyaena brunnea, formerly Hyaena brunnea) lives mainly in the Kalahari and Namib deserts of southern Africa. ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena range The Spotted Hyena, or Laughing Hyena, (Crocuta crocuta) is a carnivorous mammal of the family hyaenidae. ... Binomial name Proteles cristatus Sparrman 1783 Aardwolf range The Aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) is a small insectivorous hyena, native to Eastern and Southern Africa. ...

Contents

Evolution

Skull of Hyaena eximia.
Skull of Hyaena eximia.
Lower jaw of Hyaena eximia.
Lower jaw of Hyaena eximia.

Hyenas seem to have originated 22 million years ago from arboreal ancestors bearing similarities to the modern Banded Palm Civet. Plioviverrops, one of the earliest hyenas, was a lithe civet-like creature that inhabited Eurasia 20-22 million years ago. Details from the middle ear and dental structure marked it as a primitive hyena. This genus proved successful, its descendants flourishing with more pointed jowels and racier legs, much as the Canidae had done in North America. Fifteen million years ago, dog-like hyenas flourished, with 30 different species being identified. Unlike some of their modern descendants, these hyenas were not specialized bone-crushers, but were more nimble, wolf-like animals. The dog-like hyenas had canid-like molars, allowing them to supplement their carnivorous diet with vegetation and invertebrates.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Hyaena_eximia_head. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hyaena_eximia_head. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hyaena_eximia_jaw. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hyaena_eximia_jaw. ... Binomial name Hemigalus derbyanus (Gray, 1837) The Banded Palm Civet (Hemigalus derbyanus) is a civet. ... Genera Chrotogale Cynogale Diplogale Hemigalus Arctogalidia Macrogalidia Paguma Paradoxurus Civettictis Viverra Viverricula Civets are mammals, most of which are species in the family Viverridae. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dē, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... North American redirects here. ...


Five to seven million years ago, the dog-like hyenas were outcompeted by canids traveling from North America to Eurasia via the Bering land bridge. The ancestral aardwolves survived by having adapted themselves to an insectivorous diet to which few canids had specialized. Some hyenas began evolving bone crushing teeth in order to avoid competing with the canids, resulting in the hyenas eventually outcompeting a family of similarly built bone crushers called "percrocutoids". The percrocutoids became extinct 7 million years ago, coinciding exactly with the rise of bone crushing hyena species. Unlike the canids who flourished in the newly colonized Eurasian continent, only one hyena species, the cheetah-like Chasmaporthetes managed to cross to North America. It went extinct 1.5 million years ago.[1] Nautical chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at... This article is about the animal. ... Chasmaporthetes was a hyena which hunted prey at high speed, rather like a modern cheetah. ...


The peak diversity of the Hyenidae was during the Pleistocene, with 4 genera and 9 species of hyena.[2] The bone crushing hyenas became the Old World's dominant scavengers, managing to take advantage of the amount of meat left over from the kills of sabre-toothed cats. One such species was Pachycrocuta, a up 200 kg (440 lb) mega-scavenger that could crush elephant bones.[1] As the sabre-toothed cats began to die out and be replaced by short-fanged felids which were more efficient eaters, more hyenas began to hunt for themselves and began evolving into new species, the modern spotted hyena being among them.[3] The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Species Smilodon californicus Smilodon fatalis Smilodon gracilis Smilodon populator The large extinct cats known as smilodon lived approximately 3 million-10,000 years ago in North America and South America. ... Pachycrocuta brevisteris was a lion-sized short-faced cave hyena species. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea...


Genera of the Hyaenidae (extinct and recent)

Skull of Ictitherium viverrinum"American Museum of Natural History"
Skull of Ictitherium viverrinum
"American Museum of Natural History"

The list follows McKenna and Bells Classification of Mammals for prehistoric genera (1997)[4] and Wozencraft (2005) in Wilson and Reeders Mammal Species of the World for extant genera [5]. The Percrocutids are in contrast to McKenna and Bells classification not included as a subfamily into the Hyaenidae but as a separate family Percrocutidae. Furthermore, the genus Paracrocuta, to which the living brown hyena belongs, is not included into the genus Pachycrocuta but in the genus Hyaena. The Protelinae (Aardwolves) are not traded as a separate subfamily but included in the Hyaeninae. Main Lobby in the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial. ... Mammal Species of the World, now in its 3rd edition, is a standard reference work in zoology giving descriptions and bibliographic data for the known species of mammals, An updated Third Edition of Mammal Species of the World was published late in 2005: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder... Binomial name Thunberg, 1820 The Brown Hyena (Parahyaena brunnea, formerly Hyaena brunnea) lives mainly in the Kalahari and Namib deserts of southern Africa. ...

  • Family Hyaenidae
      • Tongxinictis (Middle Miocene of Asia)
    • Subfamily Ictitheriinae
      • Herpestides (Early Miocene of Africa and Eurasia)
      • Plioviverrops (including Jordanictis, Protoviverrops, Mesoviverrops; Early Miocene to Early Pliocene of Europe, Late Miocene of Asia)
      • Ictitherium (=Galeotherium; including Lepthyaena, Sinictitherium, Paraictitherium; Middle Miocene of Africa, Late Miocene to Early Pliocene of Eurasia)
      • Thalassictis (including Palhyaena, Miohyaena, Hyaenictitherium, Hyaenalopex; Middle to Late Miocene of Asia, Late Miocene of Africa and Europe)
      • Hyaenotherium (Late Miocene to ?Early Pliocene of Eurasia)
      • Miohyaenotherium (Late Miocene of Europe)
      • Lychyaena (Late Miocene of Eurasia)
      • Tungurictis (Middle Miocene of Africa and Eurasia)
      • Proictitherium (Middle Miocene of Africa and Asia, Middle to Late Miocene of Europe)
    • Subfamily Hyaeninae
      • Palinhyaena (Late Miocene of Asia)
      • Ikelohyaena (Early Pliocene of Africa)
      • Hyaena (=Euhyaena, =Hyena; including Parahyaena, Pliohyaena, Pliocrocuta, Anomalopithecus) Early Pliocene (?Middle Miocene) to Recent of Africa, Late Pliocene (?Late Miocene) to Late Pleistocene of Eurasia)
      • Hyaenictis (Late Miocene of Asia?, Late Miocene of Europe, Early Pliocene (?Early Pleistocene) of Africa)
      • Leecyaena (Late Miocene and/or Early Pliocene of Asia)
      • Chasmaporthetes (=Ailuriaena; including Lycaenops, Euryboas; Late Miocene to Early Pleistocene of Eurasia, Early Pliocene to Late pliocene or Early Pleistocene of Africa, Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene of North America)
      • Pachycrocuta (Pliocene and Pleistocene of Eurasia and Africa)
      • Adcrocuta (Late Miocene of Eurasia)
      • Crocuta (=Crocotta; including Eucrocuta; Late Pliocene to recent of Africa, Late Pliocene to Late Pleistocene of Eurasia)
      • Proteles (=Geocyon; Pleistocene to Recent of Africa)

Species  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ? Ictitherium is an extinct genus of hyena. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Striped Hyena range The Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is closely related to the Brown Hyena. ... Binomial name Thunberg, 1820 The Brown Hyena (Parahyaena brunnea, formerly Hyaena brunnea) lives mainly in the Kalahari and Namib deserts of southern Africa. ... Chasmaporthetes was a hyena which hunted prey at high speed, rather like a modern cheetah. ... Pachycrocuta brevisteris was a lion-sized short-faced cave hyena species. ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena range The Spotted Hyena, or Laughing Hyena, (Crocuta crocuta) is a carnivorous mammal of the family hyaenidae. ... Binomial name Proteles cristatus Sparrman, 1783 The Aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) is a small mammal related to the Hyena, native to southern Africa. ...

Appearance & Biology

Striped Hyena, Hyaena hyaena
Striped Hyena, Hyaena hyaena

Although hyenas bear some physical resemblance to canids, they make up a separate biological family that is most closely related to Herpestidae (the family of mongooses and meerkats), thereby falling within the Feliformia. All species have a distinctly bear-like gait due to their front legs being longer than their back legs. The Aardwolf, Striped Hyena and Brown Hyena have striped pelts and manes lining the top of their necks which erect when frightened. The Spotted Hyena's fur is considerably shorter and spotted rather than striped. Unlike other species, its mane is reversed forwards. Image File history File links Striped_Hyena. ... Image File history File links Striped_Hyena. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Striped Hyena range The Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is closely related to the Brown Hyena. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Dusicyon Fennecus Lycalopex Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes Canidae is the family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals commonly known as canines. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Genera 17 genera, see text The mongoose is any member of the Herpestidae family of small, cat-like carnivores. ... For other uses, see Mongoose (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Schreber, 1776) Meerkat range The meerkat or suricate Suricata suricatta is a small mammal and a member of the mongoose family. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Binomial name Proteles cristatus Sparrman 1783 Aardwolf range The Aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) is a small insectivorous hyena, native to Eastern and Southern Africa. ...


Spotted Hyenas and, to a lesser extent, Striped and Brown Hyenas, have powerful carnassial teeth adapted for cutting flesh and premolars for crushing bone. Spotted hyenas have a strong bite proportional to their size, but the view that they have the strongest bite is a myth; and a number of other animals (including the Tasmanian devil) are proportionately stronger.[6][7] The Aardwolf has greatly reduced cheek teeth, sometimes absent in the adult, but otherwise has the same dentition as the other three species.[8] The dental formula for all hyena species is: Carnassials are large teeth found in carnivorous mammals, designed for shearing flesh and bone in a scissor-like way. ... The premolar teeth or bicuspids are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. ... For other uses, see Tasmanian Devil (disambiguation). ... Dentition is the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth. ...

3.1.4.1
3.1.3.1
Brown Hyena Parahyaena brunnea.
Brown Hyena Parahyaena brunnea.

Labiolingually, their mandibles are much stronger at the canine teeth than in canids, reflecting the fact that hyenas crack bones with both their anterior dentition and premolars, unlike canids which do so with their post-carnassial molars.[9] Like felids, hyenas lack the rearward molars of canids and vivverids. By organising their teeth so that the bone-crushing premolars do not interfere with the meat-slicing carnassials to the rear, hyenas can crush bone without blunting the carnassials' blades.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Thunberg, 1820 The Brown Hyena (Parahyaena brunnea, formerly Hyaena brunnea) lives mainly in the Kalahari and Namib deserts of southern Africa. ... This article is about the human bone. ... The Canine teeth are the long, pointed teeth used for grabbing hold of and tearing apart foods, also called cuspids, dogteeth or fangs. Species that feature them, such as humans and dogs, usually have four, two in the top jaw, two in the lower, on either side of the Incisors. ... “Feline” redirects here. ...


Hyenas, in particular the spotted hyena, are highly intelligent animals, with some studies strongly suggesting convergent evolution in hyena and primate intelligence. Spotted hyena societies are more complex than those of other carnivorous mammals, and have been reported to be remarkably similar to those cercopithecine primates in respect to group size, structure, competition and cooperation.[10] One indication of hyena intelligence is that they will move their kills closer to each other to protect them from scavengers; another indication is their strategic hunting methods.[11] In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Genera Allenopithecus Miopithecus Erythrocebus Chlorocebus Cercopithecus Macaca Lophocebus Papio Theropithecus Cercocebus Mandrillus The Cercopithecinae are a subfamily of the Old World monkeys, that includes in its roughly 71 species the baboons, the macaques and the vervet monkeys. ... For a person who scavenges, see Waste picker. ...


The majority of hyena species show little sexual dimorphism, usually with males being only slightly larger than the females. The spotted hyena is an exception to this as females are larger than the males. One unusual feature of the spotted hyena is that females have an enlarged clitoris called a pseudo-penis, demi-penis or sometimes mistakenly referred to as a nanophallus. Female hyenas give birth, copulate, and urinate through their protruding genitalia, which stretches to allow the male penis to enter for copulation, and it also stretches during birth. The anatomical position of the genitalia gives females total sexual control over who is allowed to mate with them. Researchers originally thought that one cause of this characteristic of the genitals was androgens that were introduced to the fetus very early on in its development. However, it was discovered that when the androgens were held back from the fetus, the development of the female genitalia was not altered.[citation needed] Female spotted hyenas have pseudo-penises, which may function as a social signal. ...


All species excrete an oily, yellow substance from their anal glands onto objects to mark their territories. When scent marking, the anal pouch is turned inside out, or everted. Hyenas also do this as a submissive posture to more dominant hyenas. Genitals, the anal area, and the anal glands are sniffed during greeting ceremonies in which each hyena lifts its leg and allows the other to sniff its anal sacks and genitals. All four species maintain latrines far from the main denning area where dung is deposited. Scent marking is also done by scraping the ground with the paws, which deposits scent from glands on the bottoms of the feet. Hyenas do not raise their legs when urinating as male or dominant canids do.[12]


Unlike the canids, hyenas do not regurgitate or carry back food for their young[12], due to the speed with which the food is digested.[1]


Habitat

With the exception of the Striped Hyena which has been seen in the jungles of India, all modern Hyena species generally reside in arid environments like African savannahs and deserts. Savannah redirects here. ...


Dietary habits

Hyena in Masai Mara, Kenya is feeding on zebra carcass
Hyena in Masai Mara, Kenya is feeding on zebra carcass

Except for the Aardwolf, all hyena species are efficient hunters and scavengers.[citation needed] They have extremely strong jaws in relation to their body size and have a very powerful digestive system with highly acidic fluids, making them capable of eating and digesting their entire prey, including skin, teeth, horns, bones . Hair and hooves are usually regurgitated. Since they have no aversion to and readily eat carrion, their digestive system deals very well with bacteria. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 759 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,536 × 1,214 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 759 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,536 × 1,214 pixels, file size: 1. ... Wildebeest and zebra migration in Masai Mara The Masai Mara (also spelled Maasai Mara) is a large park reserve in south-western Kenya, which is effectively the northern continuation of the Serengeti National Park game reserve in Tanzania. ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


The spotted hyena is primarily a predator, unlike some of its cousins. Spotted hyenas are successful pack hunters of small to large sized ungulates and are the most abundant carnivore on the African continent. A pack-hunter is a predator belonging to the animal kingdom, which has evolved to hunt its prey by working together with other members of its species. ...


The Aardwolf is a specialised feeder of termites, thus lacking the size and physical power of its cousins. Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Reference: Earthlife as of 2002-07-26 A termite (also known as a white ant) is any member of the order Isoptera, a group of social insects that eat wood and other cellulose-rich vegetable matter. ...


In culture

Spotted Hyena, Crocuta crocuta, inhabits most of Africa.
Spotted Hyena, Crocuta crocuta, inhabits most of Africa.

Negative associations have generally stemmed from Hyenas' tendency to scavenge graves for food. They are one of the few creatures naturally suited for this due to their ability to devour and digest every part of a carcass, including bone.[2] As such, many associate hyenas with gluttony, uncleanliness, and cowardice. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 1. ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena range The Spotted Hyena, or Laughing Hyena, (Crocuta crocuta) is a carnivorous mammal of the family hyaenidae. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Look up Grave in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The haunting laughter-like calls of the spotted hyena inspired the idea in local cultures that they could imitate human voices and call their victims by name. Hyenas are also associated with divination and sometimes thought of as tools of demons and witches. In African folklore, witches and sorcerers are thought to ride hyenas, or even turn into them. For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... The demon Satan In folklore, mythology, and religion, a demon is a supernatural being that is generally described as an evil spirit, but is also depicted to be good in some instances. ... This article is part of the Witchcraft series. ...


African attitudes toward hyenas are little better than those held in the European cultures. The Bouda is a mythical tribe reputed to house members able to transform into hyenas.[13] Belief in "Werehyenas" is so entrenched within the traditional lore of the Bornu people of north-eastern Nigeria, that their language even contains a special word bultungin which translates as "I change myself into a hyena".[14] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Occident redirects here. ... Bouda is an African tribe that has been attributed with having the power to shapeshift into hyenas. ... Bornu may mean: Kanem-Bornu Empire, a historical state of West Africa Borno State, Nigeria This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Early naturalists thought hyenas were hermaphrodites or commonly practiced homosexuality, largely due to the female spotted hyena's unique urogenital system. According to early writings such as Ovid's Metamorphoses and the Physiologus, the hyena continually changed its sex and nature from male to female and back again. In Paedagogus, Clement of Alexandria noted that the hyena (along with the hare) was "quite obsessed with sexual intercourse." Many Europeans associated the hyena with sexual deformity, prostitution, and deviant sexual behavior. For other uses, see Hermaphrodite (disambiguation). ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena range The Spotted Hyena, or Laughing Hyena, (Crocuta crocuta) is a carnivorous mammal of the family hyaenidae. ... The urogenital system includes the sex organs and the urinary system of vertebrates. ... Paedagogus, second in the great trilogy of Clement of Alexandria. ... For other uses, see Hare (disambiguation). ...


Hyenas (usually "Laughing Hyenas") have been used in animated movies many times, as well as having been rendered in live action films, commonly cast as hysterical and unhinged villains. Examples include those featured in the Disney animated film The Lion King who are called Shenzi, Banzai and Ed, one ball-playing individual in Bedknobs and Broomsticks, and many more shown in animated films. Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... Animation refers to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result. ... This article is about Disneys 1994 film. ... Shenzi, Banzai and Ed are a fictional trio of villainous spotted hyenas who first appeared in the 1994 Disney animated film The Lion King. ... Bedknobs and Broomsticks is a 1971 musical film produced by Walt Disney Productions, which combines live action and animation; it premiered on October 7, 1971. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d e Macdonald, David (1992). The Velvet Claw, 256. ISBN 0563208449. 
  2. ^ a b Hyaenidae. Retrieved on 2007-05-31.
  3. ^ Denis-Huot, Christine & Denis-Huot, Michel (2003). The Art of being a Lion, pp.224. ISBN 158663707X. 
  4. ^ Malcolm C. McKenna, Susan K. Bell: [[Classification of Mammals: Above the Species Level]http://en.wikipedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/button_italic.png Kursiver Text] in Columbia University Press, New York 1997, 631 Seiten, ISBN 0-231-11013-8
  5. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 532-548. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  6. ^ Ancient Worlds News - Marsupial has the deadliest bite - 04/04/2005
  7. ^ Wroe, S, McHenry, C, and Thomason, J. (2005). "Bite club: comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa.". Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 272: 619–625. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2986. 
  8. ^ Richardson, Philip K.R. & Bearder, Simon (1984). in Macdonald, D.: The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File, 154-159. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. 
  9. ^ Journal of Zoology Volume 267, Part 1, September 2005
  10. ^ Journal of mammology, Vol. 88, No.3, June 2007
  11. ^ Lind, Hans. "Bogen om Dyrepsykologi". 
  12. ^ a b Kruuk, Hans (1972). The Spotted Hyena: A study of predation and social behavior, pp.335. ISBN 0563208449. 
  13. ^ The spotted hyena from Aristotle to the Lion King: reputation is everything - In the Company of Animals. Stephen E. Glickman. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  14. ^ lycaon

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The crocotta (or corocotta, crocuta, or yena), is a mythical dog-wolf of India or Ethiopia, said to be a deadly enemy of men and dogs. ... Hyena butter is a secretion from the anal gland of hyenas used to mark territory and to identify individuals by odor. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikispecies has information related to:
  • The rite of mouth-to-mouth wild hyena feeding in Harar, Ethiopia
  • IUCN Conservation Union Hyaendiae Specialist Group
  • Hyena: Wildlife summary from the African Wildlife Foundation
  • Robin M. Weare's Hyena pages
  • Excerpt about hyenas from Richard D. Estes's "The Safari Companion" (ISBN 1-890132-44-6)
  • A mechanism for virilization of female spotted hyenas in utero
  • evolution of the family
  • Quick Guide - Spotted hyena (deals with intelligence and social interaction)
  • Hyenas- Sociable and Smart
Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Orders[1] Bobolestes Eomaia Maelestes Montanalestes Murtoilestes Prokennalestes Placentalia Superorder Xenarthra: Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa (Sloths, True Anteaters) Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Tenrecs, etc. ... Laurasiatheria is a proposed clade with the rank of cohort or super-order, of the Epitheria infraclass of the Placentalia (living) or Eutheria (Placentals and their extinct ancestors) subclass of Mammals, based on molecular and DNA research It is a sister group to Euarchontoglires. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Binomial name Nandinia binotata Gray, 1830 The African Palm Civet (Nandinia binotata), also known as the Two-spotted Palm Civet, is a small mammal, with short legs, small ears, a body resembling a cat, and a long lithe tail as long as its body. ... Species Prionodon linsang Prionodon pardicolor The Asiatic linsangs are two species traditionally classified in the mammalian family Prionodontidae, recently elevated from the family Viverridae. ... For other uses, see Felidae (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Cryptoproctinae Euplerinae Hemigalinae Paradoxurinae Viverrinae The 35 species of civet, genet and linsang make up the family Viverridae. ... Subfamilies Euplerinae Galidiinae The family Eupleridae is a group of Malagasy carnivores. ... For other uses, see Mongoose (disambiguation). ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dÄ“, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 The Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens Latin fire colored cat) Chinese: 小熊貓; (pinyin: xiǎo xióng māo) or lesser panda, is a mostly vegetarian cat-sized (60 cm long) mammal. ... Polecat redirects here. ... Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... Genera Procyon Nasua Cyonasua - extinct Chapalmalania - extinct Nasuella Bassariscus Bassaricyon Potos Procyonidae is a family of carnivores which includes the raccoons, coatis and others. ... For other uses, see Walrus (disambiguation). ... Genera Arctocephalus Callorhinus Eumetopias Neophoca Otaria Phocarctos Zalophus The eared seals or otariids are marine mammals in the family Otariidae - one of three groupings of Pinnipeds. ... Genera Monachus (Monk Seals) Mirounga (Elephant Seal) Lobodon (Crabeater Seals) Leptonychotes Hydrurga (Leopard Seals) Ommatophoca Erignathus (Bearded Seals) Phoca Halichoerus (Grey Seals) Cystophora (Hooded Seals) The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal suborder, Pinnipedia. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena range The Spotted Hyena, or Laughing Hyena, (Crocuta crocuta) is a carnivorous mammal of the family hyaenidae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Striped Hyena range The Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is closely related to the Brown Hyena. ... Binomial name Thunberg, 1820 The Brown Hyena (Parahyaena brunnea, formerly Hyaena brunnea) lives mainly in the Kalahari and Namib deserts of southern Africa. ... Binomial name Proteles cristatus Sparrman 1783 Aardwolf range The Aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) is a small insectivorous hyena, native to Eastern and Southern Africa. ... Binomial name Proteles cristatus Sparrman 1783 Aardwolf range The Aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) is a small insectivorous hyena, native to Eastern and Southern Africa. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
San Diego Zoo's Animal Bytes: Striped hyena (1114 words)
• The mongoose and the meerkat are the hyena's closest relatives.
Hyenas can hear sounds that human ears cannot, and they listen for sounds from other predators that may lead them to a kill that is miles away.
Striped hyenas at the San Diego Zoo and the Wild Animal Park are fed carnivore diet, assorted fruits and vegetables, a mouse or rat, and small bones.
Hyena - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3548 words)
Hyenas (or Hyænas) are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa and the Indian Subcontinent.
Hyenas have no illusions about their power, and only hunt the prey they are able to at the specific time (four hyenas, for example, wouldn‘t even try hunting down a zebra).
However, hyenas have learned to deal with this and usually they are fortunate enough to call more of the clan together and take their prey back, unless an adult male lion is present, as male lions seem to truly terrify hyenas and hyenas rarely challenge them.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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