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Encyclopedia > Hydroxyzine
Hydroxyzine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Hydroxyzine:

2-(2-{4-[(4-chlorophenyl)(phenyl)methyl]piperazin-1-yl}ethoxy)ethanol

Hydroxyzine pamoate:
1-(p-chlorobenzhydryl) 4- [2-(2-hydroxyethoxy) ethyl] diethylenediamine salt of 1,1'-methylene bis(2-hydroxy-3-naphthalene carboxylic acid)
Image File history File links Hydroxyzine. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ...

Identifiers
CAS number 68-88-2
ATC code N05BB01
PubChem 3658
DrugBank APRD00688
Chemical data
Formula C21H27ClN2O2 
Mol. mass 374.904 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Synonyms Hydroxyzine pamoate:
Vistaril

Hydroxyzine hydrochloride:
Atarax (see Ataraxia) [1], Ucerax [2], Serecid [3], ANX CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Ataraxia (Ἀταραξία) is a Greek term used by Pyrrho and Epicurus for freedom from worry or any other preoccupation, and for Epicurus to achieve Hêdonê, the great pleasure. ...

Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability High in-vivo
Protein binding 93%
Metabolism Renal
Half life 20 to 25 hours
Excretion Urine, Feces
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

A(AU) C(US) In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ... A drugs efficacy may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Legal status

Prescription only The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ...

Routes Oral, intramuscular injection

Hydroxyzine (pronounced /haɪˈdrɒksɨziːn/) is a first-generation antihistamine, of the piperazine class that is an H1 receptor antagonist. It was synthesised in the early 1950s and the medicinal formulation of this drug was announced in the 04. August 1956 issue of Chemistry Week. It is used primarily as an antihistamine for the treatment of itches and irritations, an antiemetic for the reduction of nausea, as a weak analgesic by itself and as an opioid potentiator, and as an anxiolytic for the treatment of anxiety.[1] In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Look up oral in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... Basic piperazine structure Piperazine is a six-sided organic ring compound containing two opposing nitrogen atoms (see image). ... The histamine receptors are a class of G-protein coupled receptors with histamine as their endogenous ligand. ... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ...


Its most common formulation is 25 mg small white, capsule-shaped and scored tablets of the hydrochloride salt made by UCB in the Netherlands. In the United States, a nearly-spherical dark green tablet is the most-commonly encountered version of it, with 25 and 100 mg capsules being available as well as a series of colour-coded round tablets from Mallinkrodt (25 mg white, 50 mg orange, 100 mg blue). Hydroxyzine preparations usually require a doctor's prescription as do other potent antihistamines in many countries whereas some countries allow hydroxyzine and all or most other antihistamines to be sold over the counter.


Even though it is an effective sedative, hypnotic, and tranquilliser, it shares almost none of the abuse, dependence, addiction, and toxicity potential of other drugs used for the same range of therapeutic reasons. The drug is available in two formulations, the pamoate and the dihydrochloride or hydrochloride salts. Vistaril, Equipose, Masmoran, Paxistil, and Vistaril Pamoate are preparations of the pamoate salt whilst Atarax, Alamon, Aterax, Durrax, Tran-Q, Orgatrax, Quiess, Vistaril Parenteral, and Tranquizine are hydroxyzine hydrochloride. Formulation ...


Other drugs related to hydroxyzine are cyclizine (Marezine), buclizine, and meclizine (Dramamine II) and they share all or most of the benefits, indications, contraindications, cautions, and side effects of hydroxyzine. The second-generation antihistamine cetirizine is in fact one of the metabolites of hydroxyzine produced in the human body, therefore having a narrower spectrum of effects, making it an effective antihistamine but removing some or all of the anxiolytic and analgesic-sparing properties. Cyclizine is an antihistamine drug used to treat nausea, vomiting and dizziness associated with motion sickness, vertigo and post-operative following administration of general anaesthesia and opioids. ... Buclizine is an antihistamine of the piperazine derivative family. ... Meclizine (proposed INN is meclozine) is an antihistamine, considered to be an antiemetic. ... Cetirizine hydrochloride (IPA sɛ.ˈtɪɹ.ɪ.ˌzin) is a major metabolite of hydroxyzine, and a racemic selective H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergies, hay fever, angioedema, and urticaria. ...

Contents

Prescription and use

Hydroxyzine is both an antihistamine and anxiolytic (see below) and its use as a mild tranquilliser is especially common in dentistry and it retains some popularity in obstetrics, where for many years it was especially preferred for its ability to boost the effectiveness of alphaprodine (Nisentil), a narcotic analgesic related to pethidine as well as permit later use of scopolamine or benzodiazepines better than other drugs might. An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... A sedative is a drug that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), which causes calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, slowed breathing, slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Prodine (Prisilidine, Nisentil) is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of pethidine (meperidine). ... Pethidine (INN) or meperidine (USAN) (also referred to as: isonipecaine; lidol; pethanol; piridosal; Algil®; Alodan®; Centralgin®; Demerol®; Dispadol®; Dolantin®; Dolargan® (in Poland);[1] Dolestine®; Dolosal®; Dolsin®; Mefedina®) is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug. ...


Hydroxyzine hydrochloride is distributed by several manufacturers as tablets and capsules with strengths of 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg. Oral liquids and ampoules and multi-dose phials for injection are also available. Less commonly, tablets of 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg are manufactured, as are 25 mg suppositories. The latter four strengths of tablets are apparently used both in human medical and vetrinary settings.


Hydroxyzine is prescribed when the onset of an organic disease state manifests through anxiety, as general anxiety disorder, or in other more serious cases as psychoneurosis, and is therefore prescribed as a means of regulating normal function. Hydroxyzine can also be used for the treatment of allergic conditions, such as chronic urticaria, atopic or contact dermatoses, and histamine-mediated pruritus.[1] These have also been confirmed in both recent and past studies to have no adverse effects on the liver, blood, nervous system or urinary tract.[2] General anxiety disorder or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by excessive and uncontrollable worry about everyday things. ... In modern psychology, the term neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a general term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but (unlike a psychosis or personality disorder) does not prevent rational thought or an individuals ability to function in daily life. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Atopic dermatitis, also known as atopic eczema, is an atopic, hereditary, and non-contagious skin disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the skin. ... Contact dermatitis is a term for a skin reaction resulting from exposure to allergens or irritants. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An itch (Latin: pruritus) is a sensation felt on an area of skin that makes a person or animal want to scratch it. ...


In the case of both the pamoate and hydrochloride salts, use of hydroxyzine for premedication as a sedative has no effects on belladonna alkaloids, such as atropine, but may, following general anesthesia, potentiate meperidine and barbiturates, and use in pre-anesthetic adjunctive therapy should be modified depending upon the state of the individual.[2] Hydroxyzine is also safe to use alongside other medications or cardiac agents derived from the digitalis plant, as it does not yield any side-effects, due to its effects on the sympathetic, rather than the central nervous system.[2] Premedication refers to a drug treatment given to a patient before a (surgical or invasive) medical procedure. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Pethidine (INN) or meperidine (USAN) (also referred to as: isonipecaine; lidol; pethanol; piridosal; Algil®; Alodan®; Centralgin®; Demerol®; Dispadol®; Dolantin®; Dolargan® (in Poland);[1] Dolestine®; Dolosal®; Dolsin®; Mefedina®) is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug. ... Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Species About 20 species, including: Digitalis cariensis Digitalis ciliata Digitalis davisiana Digitalis dubia Digitalis ferruginea Digitalis grandiflora Digitalis laevigata Digitalis lanata Digitalis leucophaea Digitalis lutea Digitalis obscura Digitalis parviflora Digitalis purpurea Digitalis thapsi Digitalis trojana Digitalis viridiflora Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...


Whilst the analgesic-sparing (potentiating) effect is most marked with pethidine and relatives in certain cases such as post-operative pain, the effect can be noticed and used with most or all opioid analgesics and other centrally-acting analgesics which are not opioids such as orphenadrine and nefopam and may also help reduce muscle spasm and set the stage for ibuprofen, naproxen, other NSAIDs, aspirin and paracetamol to work better for the patient, especially if used in conjunction with diphenhydramine (Tylenol PM, Percogesic Extra-Strength and its aspirin, naproxen, diclofenac, and ibuprofen analogues) or phenyltoloxamine (Percogesic original forumla, some extra-strength backache remedies like Momentum and Doan's Pills) Orphenadrine (Norflex®, Disipal®, Banflex®, Flexon® and others) is an anticholinergic and NMDA receptor antagonist [1]drug belonging to the ethanolamine class of antihistamines. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Nurofen and since under various trademarks, including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Dorival, Herron Blue, Panafen, Motrin, Nuprin and Burana (Finland), Ipren or Ibumetin (Denmark and Sweden), Ibuprom... Naproxen (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used for the reduction of mild to moderate pain, fever, inflammation and stiffness caused by conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, injury (like fractures), menstrual cramps, tendonitis, bursitis, and the treatment of primary... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... This article is about the drug. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl, as produced by J&J, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. ... Phenyltoloxamine is an antihistamine with sedative and analgesic effects. ...


One of the more common regimens for moderate to moderately-severe pain -- be it acute, recurring acute or chronic -- prescribed in the United States and Canada and some European and Asian countries is a prescription for codeine tablets or paracetamol with codeine (Tylenol With Codeine, the 222 series, and many other trade names) and instructions to combine an anti-inflammatory pain reliever like ibuprofen or naproxen with it and to combine this with a prescription for hydroxyzine to be taken in dosages of 12.5 to 100 mg either along with the codeine or at a fixed schedule of its own. In the case of sports injuries, other injuries, severe sinus infections and others, another part is added to the regimen in the form of a centrally-acting non-benzodiazepine muscle relaxant such as orphenadrine (Norflex), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), chlorzoxazone (Parafon), baclofen (Lioresal) and others. Of course, the narcotic can be changed to hydrocodone, dihydrocodeine, ethylmorphine, tramadol, pentazocine, nicodicodeine, propiram, oxycodone, benzylmorphine, thebacon, nicocodeine, dextropropoxyphene, tilidine, meptazinol or others; they can be found alone or in preparations which contain the narcotic along with aspirin, ibuprofen, or other similar drugs with or without paracetamol. The selection of carisoprodol (Soma) as the muscle relaxant often yields a particularly powerful combination and the doses of the narcotic as well as the hydroxyzine must be cut down substantially to start the careful titration of the dose. Such cases may produce enough somnolence to require the elimination of the hydroxyzine or replacement of it with cyclizine and/or addition of caffeine to the regimen by itself or as an ingredient in the narcotic combination product. Orphenadrine (Norflex®, Disipal®, Banflex®, Flexon® and others) is an anticholinergic and NMDA receptor antagonist [1]drug belonging to the ethanolamine class of antihistamines. ... Cyclobenzaprine is a skeletal muscle relaxant and a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Baclofen (brand names Kemstro® and Lioresal®) is a derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid, and is an agonist specific to mammalian but not fruit fly (Drosophila) GABAB receptors[1][2]. It is used for the treatment of spastic movement, especially in instances of spinal cord injury, spastic diplegia and multiple sclerosis. ... Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from two of the naturally occurring opiates, codeine and thebaine. ... Dihydrocodeine, also called DHC, Drocode, Paracodeine and Parzone and by the brand names of Synalgos DC, Panlor DC, Panlor SS, SS Bron, Drocode, Paracodin, Codidol, Didor Continus, Dicogesic, Codhydrine, Dekacodin, DH-Codeine, Didrate, Dihydrin, Hydrocodin, Nadeine, Novicodin, Rapacodin, Fortuss, Dico, and DF-118 amongst others, is a semi-synthetic opioid... Ethylmorphine is a drug in the class of both opiates (representing a minor synthetic change from morphine) and opioids (being effective in the CNSs opioid reception system) . Its effects in humans mainly stem from its metabolic conversion to morphine. ... Tramadol (INN) (IPA: ) is an atypical opioid which is a centrally acting analgesic, used for treating moderate to severe pain. ... Pentazocine is a synthetically-prepared narcotic (opioid analgesic) drug used to treat mild to moderately severe pain. ... Nicodicodeine is an opiate derivative developed as a cough suppressant and analgesic. ... Propiram (Algeril) is an opioid analgesic from the ampromide family of drugs. ... Not to be confused with oxytocin. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The chemical structure of dihydrocodeinone enol acetate Dihydrocodeinone Enol Acetate, or Thebacon, formerly marketed as its hydrochloride salt under the trade name Acedicon, is a semisynthetic opioid once used as an antitussive, primarily in Europe. ... Nicocodeine (Lyopect) is an opiate derivative developed as a cough suppressant and analgesic. ... Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category. ... Tilidine (INN, USAN), or tilidate (BAN) (Valoron®, Valtran®, Tilidin) is a synthetic opioid analgesic, used for treatment of moderate to severe pain, both acute and chronic[1]. Considered a low- to medium-potency opioid, it has the oral potency of about 0. ... Meptazinol is an opioid analgesic for use with moderate to severe pain, most commonly used to treat pain in obstetrics (childbirth). ... Carisoprodol is a centrally-acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose active metabolite is meprobamate. ... Cyclizine is an antihistamine drug used to treat nausea, vomiting and dizziness associated with motion sickness, vertigo and post-operative following administration of general anaesthesia and opioids. ...


In other cases, the usage of hydroxyzine is as a form of non-barbiturate tranquilliser[3] used in the pre-operative sedation and treatment of neurological disorders, such as psychoneurosis and other forms of anxiety or tension states.[3] The trade name Atarax for the hydrochloride points to this ataractic (anti-anxiety) effect and Tranquizine and Tran-Q are trade names which point to a similar spectrum of actions. Physicians and patients both often prefer hydroxyzine to benzodiazepines, babiturates, and meprobamate-glutethemide type depressants as first-line treatments for insomnia and daytime anxiety as hydroxyzine is safer, clears out of the system more quickly than many depressants like diazepam, phenobarbital, chloral hydrate and others, and does not cause physical dependence nor does it generate a morbid seek orientation for the drug in the patient.


It has been suggested through pharmacological trials that the usage of hydroxyzine on dogs reduced the incidence and duration of ventricular arrythmias,[4] and that it is able to block the spasmogenic actions associated with other substances such as serotonin, reserpine, histamine, acetylcholine and the effect of pituitary extract on the duodenum.[3] Similarly, in experiments conducted on the ileum of small rabbits, hydroxyzine was found to inhibit hypermotility caused by the presence of barium chloride.[3] A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for the relief of psychotic behaviors, although because of the development of better drugs for these purposes and because of its numerous side-effects, it is rarely used today. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Grays Fig. ... Barium chloride is the chemical compound with the formula BaCl2. ...


For dentistry and obstetrics as well as other surgeries and procedures and acute pain situations like accidents, hydroxyzine is useful as a first line anxiolytic and opioid adjunct because it lacks both antagonism and synergy with benzodiazepines and scopolamine, allowing either of these agents to be used simultanteously or later in the procedure if need be. Benzodiazepine tablets The benzodiazepines are a class of drugs with hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, amnestic and muscle relaxant properties. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). ...


Hydroxyzine is one of the least anticholinergic first-generation antihistamines at about 8-10 per cent of the antimuscarinic power of atropine. It is also, along with its relatives cyclizine, buclizine, meclizine, and others as well as phenindamine (Thephorin, Nolahist) and cyproheptadine (Periactin) (the prototype of the piperidine chemical class of first-generation antihistamines), and the phenothiazines, part of a small number of antihistamines to have clinically significant antiserotonergic effects as well. An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Cyclizine is an antihistamine drug used to treat nausea, vomiting and dizziness associated with motion sickness, vertigo and post-operative following administration of general anaesthesia and opioids. ... Buclizine is an antihistamine of the piperazine derivative family. ... Meclizine (proposed INN is meclozine) is an antihistamine, considered to be an antiemetic. ... Phenindamine is an antihistamine. ... Cyproheptadine (usually as cyproheptadine hydrochloride, trade name Periactin) is an antihistaminic and antiserotonergic agent. ... Phenothiazines are the largest of the 5 main classes of antipsychotic drugs. ...


Hydroxyzine has beneficial effects listed in this article but stands out in this pharmacotherapeutic category for its virtually non-existent addiction liability. The piperazine class of antihistamines is the fourth or even lower of the seven categories of first-generation antihistamines in the generation of euphoria in patients. The euphoria, which is mild (certainly not at the same level as morphine &c.) and tends to be either transient or long-lasting, appears to be part of the impact either direct or indirect on dopamine, acetylcholine, and possibly serotonin, norepinephrine, and even endorphin levels and ratios and possible activation of parts of the NMDA systems. Therefore, it would also stand to reason that it is reinforced by the alleviation of discomfort, much in the same way as some people experiencing transient euphoria after taking ibuprofen or naproxen. The ethanolamines (diphenhydramine, orphenadrine, dimenhydrinate, carbinoxamine and others) and alkylamines (triprolidine, pheniramine, brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine and others) are the strongest euphoriants amongst antihistamines and some ethylenediamines like pyrilamine and tripelennamine are on the list as well. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl, as produced by J&J, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. ... Orphenadrine (Norflex®, Disipal®, Banflex®, Flexon® and others) is an anticholinergic and NMDA receptor antagonist [1]drug belonging to the ethanolamine class of antihistamines. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carbinoxamine is an antihistamine. ... Triprolidine hydrochloride is an over-the-counter antihistamine. ... Pheniramine maleate is an antihistamine used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria. ... Categories: Stub | Antihistamines ... Chlorphenamine (INN) or chlorpheniramine (USAN, former BAN), commonly marketed as its salt chlorphenamine maleate (CPM), is first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria. ... Mepyramine (INN, also known as pyrilamine) [1] is a first generation antihistamine, targeting the H1 receptor. ... Tripelennamine (INN, also known as pyribenzamine) is a first generation pyridine antipruritic and antihistamine in the ethylenediamine class. ...


Hydroxyzine is not thought to be an effective treatment for anxiety if used for a period of over 4 months, and it is therefore a prerequisite of any medical professional prescribing such drugs, to re-assess the usefulness for the individual patient. Reasoning for this decision stems from the fact that hydroxyzine is mainly used as an antihistamine and has a somewhat short shelf-life in its common form. Rather than its use as an anxiety-reducing agent, hydroxyzine should be reconsidered if the patient has more intense anxiety or other psychoneurosis; then other compounds specifically designed for such conditions should be considered.[5]


Treatment of learned helplessness

Aside from its prescription as an antihistamine, hydroxyzine has also shown slight possibilities for use in other species, such as dogs, from results and effects observed in rats with "learned helplessness" induced through the use of random inescapable shocks (max 0.8 mA) administered in 1 minute intervals for a period of 15 seconds for an hour.[6] After the condition was induced, rats were then given a conditioned stimulus of a light, and shocked if unable to move to safety from the area producing the current within 3 seconds.[7] Those unable to move were determined as having a conditioned stimulus of expecting shocks from the initial random condition.[6][7] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioning) is a type of associative learning. ...


In the initial treatment to this condition, rats were given hydroxyzine as a curative treatment for the shocks received and as a treatment for the prevention of learned helplessness by injection beforehand; results indicating that beforehand, hydroxyzine decreased the overall amount of escape failures by a similar amount to those observed in diazepam, which achieved similar results, however, with side effects of amnesia.[8][7] Despite the fact that hydroxyzine clearly increased the ability of the rats to avoid stimuli, it had almost no effect on the rats ability to respond to the shocks nor remove "stress" after exposure to shocks.[8]


Clinical description

Metabolisation and pharmacokinetics

Hydroxyzine can be administered orally as hydroxyzine hydrochloride or hydroxyzine embonate, or via intramuscular injection as hydroxyzine hydrochloride. When given orally, hydroxyzine is rapidly absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract. The effect of hydroxyzine is notable in 30 minutes. In chemistry, hydrochlorides are salts resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (mostly amines). ...


Pharmacokinetically, hydroxyzine is rapidly diffused in the body and absorbed in oral and intramuscular administration, and is metabolised in the liver; the main metabolite (45%) through oxidation of the alcohol moiety to a carboxylic acid, is cetirizine and overall effects are observed within one hour of administration. It has a half-life observed on average for around 7-10 hours in adults, 6-7 hours in children, and 18-21 hours in the elderly, or those with renal insufficiency, with higher concentrations found in the skin than in the plasma. Cetirizine, although less sedating, is non-dialyzable and possesses similar anti-histaminergic properties. "In animals, hydroxyzine and its metabolites are excreted in feces via biliary elimination."[4] "The extent of renal excretion of VISTARIL has not been determined"[5] Administration in geriatrics differs from the administration of hydroxyzine (pamoate or Vistaril) in younger patients; according to the FDA, there have not been significant studies made (2004), which include population groups over 65, and therefore have not provided a distinction between elderly aged patients and other younger groups:[9] any hydroxyzine administered should be done with doses at the small end of the dosing range, and be carried out with the knowledge that any existing concomitant disease, or decrease in the function, or lessened excretion, such as the case may be with hepatic, renal or cardiac states.[9] Pharmacokinetics (in Greek: pharmacon meaning drug, and kinetikos meaning putting in motion) is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism. ... Cetirizine hydrochloride (IPA sɛ.ˈtɪɹ.ɪ.ˌzin) is a major metabolite of hydroxyzine, and a racemic selective H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergies, hay fever, angioedema, and urticaria. ... Renal failure is when the kidneys fail to function properly. ... In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... This page is about the muscular organ, the Heart. ...


Similarly, the use of sedating drugs alongside hydroxyzine can cause over-sedation and confusion if administered in large amounts—any form of treatment alongside sedatives should be done under supervision of the patient.[9][3]


Contraindications

The administration of hydroxyzine in large amounts by ingestion or intramuscular administration during the onset of pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities—when administered to pregnant rats, mice and rabbits, hydroxyzine caused abnormalities with doses significantly above that of the human therapeutic range.[5] In terms of humans, a significant dose has not yet been established in studies, and by default, the FDA has introduced contraindication guidelines in regard to hydroxyzine.[5] Similarly, those at risk from, or showing previous signs of hypersensitivity are also contraindicated.[5] “FDA” redirects here. ... Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by the normal immune system. ...


Other contraindications include the administration of hydroxyzine alongside depressants and other compounds which affect the central nervous system, such as narcotics, non-narcotic analgesics and barbiturates, as well as alcohol,[5] and if absolutely necessary, should only administered concomitantly in small doses[5] as any pre-existing grogginess from these substances may be enhanced. If administered in small doses with other substances, such as mentioned, then patients should refrain from using dangerous machinery, motor vehicles or any other practice requiring absolute concentration, in accordance with safety law.[5] An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ...


Studies have also been conducted which show that long-term prescription of hydroxyzine can lead to tardive dyskinesia after years of use, but has also been reported after periods of 7.5 months showed effects related to dyskinesia,[10] such as continual head rolling, lip licking and other forms of athetoid movement. In certain cases, elderly patients' previous interactions with phenothiazine derivatives or pre-existing neuroleptic treatment may have had some contribution towards dyskinesia at the administration of hydroxyzine due to hypersensitivity caused due to the prolonged treatment,[10] and therefore some contraindication is given to the short-term administration of hydroxyzine to those with previous phenothiazine use.[10] Tardive dyskinesia is a serious neurological disorder caused by the long-term and/or high-dose use of dopamine antagonists, usually antipsychotics and among them especially the typical antipsychotics. ... Athetosis is a continuous stream of slow, sinuous, writhing movements, typically of the hands and feet. ... Phenothiazines are the largest of the 5 main classes of antipsychotic drugs. ...


Adverse reactions

For a full list of side effects, consult the full technical specification of hydroxyzine.

Several reactions have been noted in manufacturer guidelines for two forms of hydroxyzine: Atarax and Vistaril. In Atarax, symptoms are similar to those of Vistaril -- deep sleep, incoordination and dizziness have been reported, as in children and adults, as well as others such as hypotension, tinnitus and headaches.[11] Gastro-intestinal effects have also been observed in both Visatril and Atarax, as well as less serious effects such as dryness of the mouth, constipation caused by antimuscarinic properties of hydroxyzine.[11] Hydroxyzine (pronounced ) is a first-generation antihistamine, of the piperazine class that is an H1 receptor antagonist. ... // The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ...


Central nervous system problems such as hallucinations or confusion have been observed in rare cases, attributed mostly to overdosage.[11][9] Such properties have been attributed to hydroxyzine in several cases, particularly in patients treated for neuropsychological disorders, as well as in cases where overdoses have been observed. While there are reports of the "hallucinogenic" or "hypnotic" properties of hydroxyzine, several clinical data trials have not reported such side effects from the sole consumption of hydroxyzine, but rather, have described its overall calming effect described through the stimulation of areas within the formatio reticularis. The description of hallucinogenic or hypnotic properties have been described as being an additional effect from overall central nervous system suppression by other CNS agents, such as Lithium or Alcohol.[12] A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This article discusses the pharmacological uses of lithium salts; for information on the chemistry of individual lithium salts, see Category:Lithium compounds. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The effect of hydroxyzine has also been tested on the ability of humans in the registration and storage of memory, and was used in comparison with relatively safe drugs, such as hydroxyzine, to illustrate the effects of benzodiazepines, which are thought to have adverse effects on the capacity of memory storage. Hydroxyzine was found to have no adverse effects on memory in relation to lorazepam, which caused several deficiencies in the capacity of memory storage.[13] Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine tranquilizer with short to medium duration of action. ...


In a comparative study with lorazepam on memory effects, patients who had taken hydroxyzine experienced sedative effects similar to drowsiness, but recalled that they felt capable, attentive and able to continue with a memory test under these conditions.[14] Conversely, those under the effects of lorazepam felt unable to continue due to the fact they felt out of control with its effects; 8 out of 10 patients describing tendencies of problems with balance and control of simple motor functions.[14]


Severe somnolence with or without vivid dreams or nightmares may occur in users with antihistamine sensitivities or other CNS depressants available in their systems. Hydroxyzine exhibits very potent anxiolytic and sedative properties in many psychiatric patients. Other studies have suggested that hydroxyzine acts as an acute hypnotic, reducing sleep onset latency and reciprocal increases in sleep duration -- also showing that some drowsiness did occur, but in female patients who also had greater hypnotic response. It did not, however, show any significant or noticeable effect of drowsiness, other than in female patients' subjective responses.[15] Somnolence (or drowsiness) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ...


Some users may report shortness of breath or wheezing, a result of a mild allergic reaction to the medication itself.


In contrast to drugs in the benzodiazepine class, (i.e. alprazolam, diazepam) which carry a potential for abuse and dependence, hydroxyzine is very unlikely to cause any dependence due to its relative strength compared to other substances. Alprazolam, also known under the trade names Xanax and Niravam, is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class used to treat severe anxiety disorders and as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety associated with clinical depression. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ...


References

Reference table
A drug reference table is also available for:
Hydroxyzine

Notes

  1. ^ a b RxList, et al. (2004)
  2. ^ a b c United States Food & Drug Administration, (2004), p1
  3. ^ a b c d e Dolan, C. M., (1958)
  4. ^ Hutcheon, D. E., Scriabine, A., et al. (1956)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g United States Food & Drug Administration, (2004), p2
  6. ^ a b Porsolt, R. D.; P. Martin, A. Lenegre, S. Frornage, and C.E. Giurgea (1989), p229
  7. ^ a b c Porsolt, R. D.; P. Martin, A. Lenegre, S. Frornage, and C.E. Giurgea (1989), p228
  8. ^ a b Porsolt, R. D.; P. Martin, A. Lenegre, S. Frornage, and C.E. Giurgea (1989), p230
  9. ^ a b c d United States Food & Drug Administration, (2004), p3
  10. ^ a b c Clark, B. G., Araki, M., et al. (1976)
  11. ^ a b c UCB South-Africa, et al., (2004)
  12. ^ Anderson, P. O., Knoben, J. E., et al. (2002), p794-796
  13. ^ Brabander, A. DE, Debert, W., (1990), p1
  14. ^ a b Brabander, A. DE, Debert, W., (1990), p3
  15. ^ Alford, C.; N. Rombautt, J. Jones, S. Foley, C. Idzikowskit and I. Hindmarch (1992).

Print sources

  • Hutcheon, D. E.; D.L. Morris, A. Scriabine (December 1956). "Cardiovascular action of hydroxyzine (Atarax)". J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 118 (4): 451-460. PMID 13385806. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  • Dolan, C. M. (June 1958). "Management of emotional disturbances -- Use of Hydroxyzine (Atarax®) in General Practice". Calif Med. 88 (6): 443–444. PMID 13536863. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  • Pfizer Labs, Division of Pfizer Inc, NY, NY 10017 (2004), Vistaril® (hydroxyzine pamoate) Capsules and Oral Suspension, United States Food and Drug Administration, <http://www.fda.gov/cder/ogd/rld/11795s16.pdf>. Retrieved on 9 March 2007
  • Anderson, Philip O.; James E. Knoben, William G. Troutman (2002). Handbook of Clinical Drug Data. McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0071363629. 
  • de Brabander, A.; W. Deberdt (1990). "Effect of Hydroxyzine on Attention and Memory". Human Psychopharmacology 5 (4): 357-362. Wiley. doi:10.1002/hup.470050408. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  • Clark, B. G.; M. Araki, H. W. Brown (1982). "Hydroxyzine-Associated Tardive Dyskinesia". Ann Neurol. 11 (4): 435. PMID 7103423. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  • Porsolt, R. D.; P. Martin, A. Lenegre, S. Frornage, and C.E. Giurgea (1989). "Prevention of “Learned Helplessness” in the Rat by Hydroxyzine". Drug Dev. Res. 17 (3): 227-236. doi:10.1002/ddr.430170306. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  • Alford, C.; N. Rombautt, J. Jones, S. Foley, C. Idzikowskit and I. Hindmarch (1992). "Acute Effects of Hydroxyzine on Nocturnal Sleep and Sleep Tendency the Following Day: a C-EEG Study". Human Psychopharmacology 7 (1): 25-35. doi:10.1002/hup.470070104. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pfizer Incorporated (NYSE: PFE) is the worlds largest research-based pharmaceutical company[1].[1] The company is based in New York City. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ... Look up Wiley in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Internet-based

  • RxList , et al. (2004). Atarax Indications, Dosage, Storage, Stability. RxList - The internet drug index. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  • Medscape (2004). Vistaril Oral: Monograph - Hydroxyzine Hydrochloride, Hydroxyzine Pamoate. medscape.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  • pfizer (2004). Non-print version of vistaril fact sheet.. Retrieved on 2007-07-03.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Drug information pamphlets

  • UCB South-Africa, et al., (2004). ATERAX 25 mg TABLETS; ATERAX® 100 mg TABLETS; ATERAX SYRUP (Manufacturing guidance package insert) Pharmacare Ltd, (a division of Aspen Pharmacare Ltd)
In pharmacology, a psycholeptic is a medication which produces a calming effect upon the patient. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , or benzos for short) are a class of psychoactive drugs considered minor tranquilizers with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... Adinazolam is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Alprazolam, also known under the trade names Xanax and Niravam, is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class used to treat severe anxiety disorders and as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety associated with clinical depression. ... Bretazenil was originally developed as an anti-anxiety drug, but never commercialised. ... Bromazepam (marketed under brand names Calmepam, Compendium, Creosedin, Durazanil, Lectopam, Lexaurin, Lexilium, Lexomil, Lexotan, Lexotanil, Normoc, Somalium)[1] is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Camazepam (marketed under the brand name Albego) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Chlordiazepoxide (pronounced [ˈklɔːrËŒdaɪəzepˈoksaɪd], marketed under the trade name Librium®) is a sedative/hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Clobazam is triazolobenzodiazepine, also known as a 1,5-benzodiazepine, meaning that its diazepine ring has its nitrogen atoms at the 1 and 5 positions instead of the usual 1 and 4. ... Clorazepate (marketed under the brand names Tranxene® and Tranxilium®) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Clonazepam (marketed by Roche under the trade-names Klonopin in the United States and Rivotril in Europe, South America, Canada, India, and Australia) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Clotiazepam (marketed under brand name Trecalmo) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Cloxazolam (marketed under brand name Sepazon) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... Ethyl loflazepate (marketed under brand name Meilax®) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Etizolam (marketed under brand name Sedekopan) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Fludiazepam (marketed under the brand name Erispan) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Halazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Imidazenil is an anxiolytic drug which is derived from the benzodiazepine family, and is most closely related to other imidazobenzodiazepines such as midazolam, flumazenil and bretazenil. ... Ketazolam (marketed under brand names Anseren, Anxon, Contamex, Loftran, Marcen, Sedotime, Solatran, Unakalm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine tranquilizer with short to medium duration of action. ... Medazepam is a drug of the Benzodiazepine family. ... Nordazepam (Calmday®, Stilny®, Madar®), formerly known as nordiazepam, is a 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative. ... Oxazepam (marketed under brand names Alepam, Murelax, Oxascand, Serax, Serepax, Seresta, Sobril) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Pinazepam (marketed under the brand name Domar®) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Parazepam belong to the group of medicines called central nervous system depressants (medicines that slow down the nervous system). ... Tofisopam (marketed under brand name Emandaxin) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... The nonbenzodiazepines are comparatively new drugs whose actions are very similar to those of the benzodiazepines, but are structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines and are believed to have fewer side effects. ... Alpidem is a prescription drug used for the treatment of moderate to severe anxiety. ... Etifoxine (or etafenoxine) is an anxiolytic. ... Ocinaplon is an anxiolytic drug in the pyrazolopyrimidine family of drugs. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Panadiplon (U-78875) is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure that is not closely related to other drugs of this type. ... Pipequaline (PK-8165) is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure that is not closely related to other drugs of this type. ... Diphenylmethane is a compound consisting of two phenyl groups joined to a single carbon. ... Captodiame (INN, also known as captodiamine) is an anxiolytic. ... Carbamates are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group with the general structure -NH(CO)O-. More precisely the carbamate group is considered an amide group with an alkoxy or hydroxy functional group next to the carbonyl group. ... Emylcamate (marketed as Striatran® by Merck) is an anxiolytic and muscle relaxant. ... Carisoprodol is a centrally-acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose active metabolite is meprobamate. ... Mebutamate is an anxiolytic. ... Meprobamate (marketed under the brand names Miltown® by Wallace Laboratories and Equanil® by Wyeth) is a carbamate derivative which is used as an anxiolytic drug. ... Phenprobamate is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant. ... Tybamate is an anxiolytic. ... β-Carboline (9H-pyrid-[3,4-b]-indole) is an organic amine that is the prototype of a class of compounds known as β-Carbolines. ... Abecarnil (ZK-112119) is an anxiolytic drug from the β-Carboline family. ... Gedocarnil is an anxiolytic. ... Benzoctamine is an anxiolytic. ... Azaspirodecanediones are a class of drugs with anxiolytic effects used in the treatment of anxiety. ... A serotonin receptor agonist is a compound that activates serotonin receptors, mimicking the effect of the neurotransmitter serotonin. ... Buspirone (brand-names Ansial, Ansiced, Anxiron, Axoren, Bespar, BuSpar, Buspimen, Buspinol, Buspisal, Narol, Spitomin, Sorbon) is an anxiolytic agent and a serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. ... Gepirone (BMY 13805, MJ 13805, ORG 13011, Ariza®, Variza) is a pyridinyl piperazine partial 5-HT1A agonist that has anxiolytic effects. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Mephenoxalone is an anxiolytic. ... A histamine antagonist is an agent which serves to inhibit the release or action of histamine. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Ethers can refer to: In internet routing, the term associated with hosts In Organic chemistry, the plural of ether This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bromazine (INN, also known as bromodiphenhydramine) is an antihistamine. ... Carbinoxamine is an antihistamine. ... Clemastine is an over-the-counter antihistamine sold in the United States under the name Tavist. ... Chlorphenoxamine is an antipruritic. ... Diphenylpyraline is an antihistamine. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl, as produced by J&J, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Orphenadrine (Norflex®, Disipal®, Banflex®, Flexon® and others) is an anticholinergic and NMDA receptor antagonist [1]drug belonging to the ethanolamine class of antihistamines. ... Phenyltoloxamine is an antihistamine with sedative and analgesic effects. ... Categories: Stub | Antihistamines ... Chlorphenamine (INN) or chlorpheniramine (USAN, former BAN), commonly marketed as its salt chlorphenamine maleate (CPM), is first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria. ... Dexbrompheniramine maleate is an antihistamine used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria. ... Dexchlorpheniramine maleate (Polaramine®, Schering) is an antihistamine used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria. ... Dimetindene is an antipruritic. ... Pheniramine maleate is an antihistamine used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria. ... Talastine (also known as Aganon and Ahanon) is an antihistamine. ... Ethylene diamine (EDA), or 1,2-diaminoethane, is an organic compound from the amines group. ... Chloropyramine is a classical (old or first generation) antihistamine drug approved in some Eastern European countries for the treatment of allergic conjuctivitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, and other atopic (allergic) conditions. ... Histapyrrodine is an antihistamine with anticholinergic properties. ... Mepyramine[1] is a first generation antihistamine. ... Methapyrilene is a pyridine antihistamine. ... Tripelennamine (INN, also known as pyribenzamine) is a first generation pyridine antipruritic and antihistamine in the ethylenediamine class. ... Phenothiazines are the largest of the 5 main classes of antipsychotic drugs. ... Alimemazine (INN), also known as trimeprazine (former BAN and USAN; trade names Nedeltran, Panectyl, Repeltin, Therafene, Theralen, Theralene, Vallergan, Vanectyl, or Temaril), commonly provided as a tartrate salt, is a phenothiazine derivative that is used as an antipruritic (it prevents itching from causes such as eczema or poison ivy, by... Hydroxyethylpromethazine is a promethazine derivative used as an antihistamine. ... Isothipendyl is an antipruritic. ... Mequitazine is an antihistamine. ... Methdilazine is an antihistamine. ... Oxomemazine is an antihistamine. ... Promethazine is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist antihistamine and antiemetic medication. ... Basic piperazine structure Piperazine is a six-sided organic ring compound containing two opposing nitrogen atoms (see image). ... Buclizine is an antihistamine of the piperazine derivative family. ... Cetirizine hydrochloride (IPA sÉ›.ˈtɪɹ.ɪ.ËŒzin) is a major metabolite of hydroxyzine, and a racemic selective H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergies, hay fever, angioedema, and urticaria. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Cinnarizine is an anti histaminic drug which is mainly used for the contol of vomiting due to motion sickness. ... Cyclizine is an antihistamine drug used to treat nausea, vomiting and dizziness associated with motion sickness, vertigo and post-operative following administration of general anaesthesia and opioids. ... Xyzal Levocetirizine (as levocetirizine dihydrochloride) is a third generation non-sedative antihistamine, developed from the second generation antihistamine cetirizine. ... Meclizine (proposed INN is meclozine) is an antihistamine, considered to be an antiemetic. ... Niaprazine (Nopron) is a piperazine derivative drug which acts as a sedating antihistamine. ... Oxatomide is a piperazine antihistamine. ... Systemic Relating to, or affecting a particular body system; especially the nervous system. ... Antazoline is an antihistamine used to relieve nasal congestion and in eye drops, usually in combination with naphazoline, to relieve the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. ... Azatadine is an antihistamine. ... Bamipine is an antihistamine employed as an antipruritic. ... Cyproheptadine (usually as cyproheptadine hydrochloride, trade name Periactin) is an antihistaminic and antiserotonergic agent. ... Deptropine (INN, also known as dibenzheptropine) is an antihistamine with anticholinergic properties. ... Dimebon (Dimebolin) is an antihistamine drug which has been used clinically in Russia since 1983. ... Ebastin is non sedating H1 antihistamine Does not penetratethe blood brain barrier and thus allow an effective blocked of H1 receptor in peripheral tissue without centeral side effect i. ... Epinastine hydrochloride (Elestat®) is an antihistamine that is used in eye drops to treat allergic conjunctivitis. ... Ketotifen fumarate (Zaditor®) is an H1-antihistamine available in two forms. ... Mebhydroline is an antihistamine. ... Mizolastine is an antihistamine. ... Phenindamine is an antihistamine. ... Pimethixene is an antihistamine often used to treat hyperactivity, anxiety, sleep disorders, and allergy. ... Pyrrobutamine is an antihistamine. ... Rupatadine is a new selective histamine H1 receptor and platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist. ... Triprolidine hydrochloride is an over-the-counter antihistamine. ... Acrivastine is a medication used for the treatment of allergies and hay fever. ... Astemizole is a second generation antihistamine that has a long duration of action. ... Azelastine hydrochloride is an antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer available as a nasal spray (Astelin®) for hay fever and as eye drops (Optilar®) for allergic conjunctivitis. ... Desloratadine is a drug used to treat allergies. ... Fexofenadine hydrochloride (brand names include Allegra® and Telfast®) is an antihistamine drug used in the treatment of hayfever and similar allergy symptoms. ... Loratadine is a drug used to treat allergies, and marketed for its nonsedating properties. ... Terfenadine is an antihistamine formerly used for the treatment of allergic conditions. ... In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, nasopharynx, or the eye. ... Bamipine is an antihistamine employed as an antipruritic. ... Chloropyramine is a classical (old or first generation) antihistamine drug approved in some Eastern European countries for the treatment of allergic conjuctivitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, and other atopic (allergic) conditions. ... Chlorphenoxamine is an antipruritic. ... Clemastine is an over-the-counter antihistamine sold in the United States under the name Tavist. ... Dimetindene is an antipruritic. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl, as produced by J&J, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. ... Isothipendyl is an antipruritic. ... Mepyramine[1] is a first generation antihistamine. ... Promethazine is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist antihistamine and antiemetic medication. ... Thenalidine is an antihistamine used as an antipruritic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Antazoline is an antihistamine used to relieve nasal congestion and in eye drops, usually in combination with naphazoline, to relieve the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. ... Azelastine hydrochloride is an antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer available as a nasal spray (Astelin®) for hay fever and as eye drops (Optilar®) for allergic conjunctivitis. ... Emedastine difumarate (Emadine®) is an antihistamine used in eye drops to treat allergic conjunctivitis. ... Epinastine hydrochloride (Elestat®) is an antihistamine that is used in eye drops to treat allergic conjunctivitis. ... Ketotifen fumarate (Zaditor®) is an H1-antihistamine available in two forms. ... Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) used for the maintenance treatment of asthma and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies. ... Olopatadine hydrochloride is an antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer, usually sold as a prescription eye drop (0. ...

 
 

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