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Encyclopedia > Hydrophobe

Hydrophobe (from the Greek (hydros) "water" and (phobos) "fear") in chemistry refers to the physical property of a molecule that is repelled by water. Hydrophobic molecules in water often cluster together. Chemistry (derived from alchemy) is the science of matter at or near the atomic scale. ... In chemistry, a molecule is an aggregate of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by special forces. ... Water (from the Old English waeter; c. ...


Hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. Hydrophobic is often used interchangeably with "oily" or "lipophilic." Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions. ... In chemistry, a nonpolar compound is one that does not have concentrations of positive or negative electric charge. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ...


The term hydrophobic interaction (HI) has been used in the context of several closely-related phenomena to hydrophobic species.


According to thermodynamics, matter seeks to be in a low-energy state, and bonding reduces chemical energy. Water is electrically polarized, and is able to form hydrogen bonds internally, which gives it many of its unique physical properties. But, since hydrophobes are not electrically polarized, and because they are unable to form hydrogen bonds, water repels hydrophobes, in favour of bonding with itself. It is this effect that causes the hydrophobic interaction - which in itself is incorrectly named as the energetic force comes from the hydrophilic molecules. Thus the two immiscible phases (hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic) will change so that their corresponding interfacial area will be minimal. This effect can be visualized in the phenomenon called phase separation. Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamis meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Snapshot from a simulation of liquid water. ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ...


Examples of hydrophobic molecules include the alkanes, oils, fats, and greasy substances in general. Hydrophobic materials are used for oil removal from water, the management of oil spills, and chemical separation processes to remove non-polar from polar compounds. In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ...


See also

Superhydrophobic materials have surfaces that are extremely difficult to wet with water contact angles in excess of 150°. Many of these very hydrophobic materials made by nature rely on Cassies law and are biphasic on the submicrometre level with one component air. ... Hydrophile, from the Greek (hydros) water and φιλια (philia) friendship, refers to a physical property of a molecule that can transiently bond with water (H2O) through hydrogen bonding. ... Amphiphile (from the Greek αμφις, amphis: both and φιλíα, philia: love, friendship) is a term describing a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature. ... Wetting of different fluids. ...

References

  • Aryeh Ben-Na'im Hydrophobic Interaction Plenum Press, New York (ISBN 0-306-40222-X)

External links

  • Webtool to calculate and plot the hydrophobicity of proteins.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hydrophobe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (285 words)
Hydrophobe (from the Greek (hydros) "water" and (phobos) "fear") in chemistry refers to the physical property of a molecule that is repelled by water.
Hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments.
It is this effect that causes the hydrophobic interaction - which in itself is incorrectly named as the energetic force comes from the hydrophilic molecules.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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