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Encyclopedia > Hydronephrosis
Hydronephrosis
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ICD-10 N13.0-N13.3
ICD-O: {{{ICDO}}}
ICD-9 591
OMIM {{{OMIM}}}
MedlinePlus {{{MedlinePlus}}}
eMedicine {{{eMedicineSubj}}}/{{{eMedicineTopic}}}
DiseasesDB {{{DiseasesDB}}}

Hydronephrosis is distention and dilation of the renal pelvis, usually caused by obstruction of the free flow of urine from the kidney. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... Dilation in physiological context may mean: pupil dilation (mydriasis) dilation of blood vessels (vasodilation) cervical dilation (or dilation of the cervix) in childbirth Dilation and curettage (surgical dilation) In mathematics: Dilation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The renal pelvis represents the dilated proximal part of the ureter. ... Urine is liquid waste excreted by the kidneys and is produced by the process of filtration. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ...

Contents


Signs and symptoms

The signs and symptoms of hydronephrosis depends upon whether the obstruction is acute or chronic. Unilateral hydronephrosis may even occur without symptoms. Unilateralism is an antonym for multilateralism. ...


Blood tests can show elevated creatinine and electrolyte imbalance. Urinalysis may show an elevated pH due to the secondary destruction of nephrons within the affected kidney. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass). ... An electrolyte is a substance that dissociates into free ions when dissolved (or molten), to produce an electrically conductive medium. ... A urinalysis (or UA) is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis. ... Secondary can mean: An ordinal adjective indicating Second or second hand, see Primary The secondary in American football refers to the group of (usually four) defensive backs. ... Nephron of the kidney A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ...


Symptoms that occur regardless of where the obstruction lies include loin or flank pain. An enlarged kidney may be palpable on examination. A loincloth is one-piece garment, sometimes kept in place by a belt, that is used: in societies where there is no more advanced clothing as an undergarment to express soberness Mohandas Gandhi wore a dhoti, a Hindu loincloth, as a way of identifying with the poorest Indians, even though... A flank is the side of either a horse or a military unit. ... Pain is an unpleasant sensation which may be associated with actual or potential tissue damage and which may have physical and emotional components. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely, hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person. ...


Where to obstruction occurs in the lower urinary tract, suprapubic tenderness (with or without a history of bladder outflow obstruction) along with a palpable bladder are strongly suggestive of acute urinary retention, which left untreated is highly likely to cause hydronephrosis. A bladder is a pouch or other flexible enclosure with waterproof or gasproof walls. ... Acute may refer to: An acute accent is a diacritic character. ... Urine is liquid waste excreted by the kidneys and is produced by the process of filtration. ... Instance of retaining (e. ...


Upper urinary tract obstruction is characterised by pain in the flank, often radiating to either the abdomen or the groin. Where the obstruction is chronic renal failure may also be present. If the obstruction is complete, an enlarged kidney is often palpable on examination. A flank is the side of either a horse or a military unit. ... In anatomy, the abdomen is a part of the body; in humans, it is the region between the thorax and the pelvis. ... The groin is the long narrow depression, usually of the human body, that separates the trunk from the legs. ... The word chronic comes from Chronos, the ancient Greek god of time. ... Renal failure is the condition where the kidneys fail to function properly. ...


Etiology

The obstruction may be either partial or complete and can occur anywhere from the urethral meatus to the calyces of the renal pelvis. Female anatomy In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... In anatomy, a meatus is a natural body opening or canal (pl. ... A calyx is a component of a flower. ... The renal pelvis represents the dilated proximal part of the ureter. ...


The obstruction may arise from either inside or outside the urinary tract or may come from the wall of the urinary tract itself. Intrinsic obstructions (those that occur within the tract) include blood clots, stones, sloughed papilla along with tumours of the kidney, ureter and bladder. Extrinsic obstructions (those that are caused by factors outside of the urinary tract) include pelvic or abdominal tumours or masses, retroperitoneal fibrosis or neurological defecits. Strictures of the ureters (congenital or acquired), neuromuscular dysfunctions or schistosomiasis are other causes which originate from the wall of the urnary tract. The urinary system is a system of organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry, urine. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ...


Tests

Blood (U&E, creatinine) and urine (MSU, pH) tests should be taken. IVUs, ultrasounds, CTs and MRIs are also important tests. Ultrasound allows for visualisation of the ureters and kidneys and can be used to assess the presence of hydronephrosis and/or hydroureter. An IVU is useful for assessing the position of the obstruction. Antegrade or retrograde pyelography will show similar findings to an IVU but offer a therapeutic option aswell.


Complications

Left untreated bilateral obstruction (obstruction occurring to both kidneys rather than one) has a poor prognosis. Bilateralism is a term referring to trade or political relations between two states. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ...


Treatment

Treatment of hydronephrosis focuses upon the removal of the obstruction and drainage of the urine that has accumulated behind the obstruction. Therefore, the specific treatment depends upon where the obstruction lies, and whether it is acute or chronic. Acute may refer to: An acute accent is a diacritic character. ... The word chronic comes from Chronos, the ancient Greek god of time. ...


Acute obstruction of the upper urinary tract is usually treated by the insertion of a nephrostomy tube. Chronic upper urinary tract obstruction is treated by the insertion of a ureteric stent or a pyeloplasty. Acute may refer to: An acute accent is a diacritic character. ... A nephrostomy is an artificial opening created between the kidney and the skin which allows for the drainage of urine directly from the upper part of the urinary system (renal pelvis). ...


Lower urinary tract obstruction (such as that caused by bladder outflow obstruction secondary to prostatic hypertrophy) is usually treated by insertion of a urinary catheter or a suprapubic catheter. In urinary catheterization, a urinary catheter, (such as a Foley catheter) is a slender plastic tube which is inserted through a patients urinary tract into their bladder. ... A suprapubic cystostomy is a surgically-created connection between the urinary bladder and the skin which is used to drain urine from the bladder in individuals with obstruction of normal urinary flow. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Digital Urology Journal: Neonatal Hydronephrosis (797 words)
Hydronephrosis has never been linked to anything the parents have done during pregnancy and is usually not passed from parent to child or found in more than one sibling in a family.
The severity of hydronephrosis depends on the extent of the blockage and the amount of stretching of the kidney.
To determine the amount of hydronephrosis present, nuclear medicine and radiologic tests to measure kidney function and structure may be recommended by the physician.
Bilateral Hydronephrosis - Health Encyclopedia (732 words)
Bilateral hydronephrosis is the distention of the pelvis and calyces of both kidneys.
Bilateral hydronephrosis develops when the pelvis and calyces (the urine-collecting structures of the kidneys) of both kidneys become distended because urine is unable to drain from the kidney down the ureters into the bladder.
Hydronephrosis is not itself a?disease, but rather a physical result of whatever?disease is?keeping urine from draining out of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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