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Encyclopedia > Hydrography

Hydrography focuses on the measurement of physical characteristics of waters and marginal land. In the generalized usage, "hydrography" pertains to measurement and description of any waters. With that usage oceanography and limnology are subsets of hydrography. In specialized usage the term applies to those measurements and descriptions of navigable waters necessary for safe navigation of vessels. Water (from the Old English word wæter; c. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Limnology is a discipline that concerns the study of in-land waters (both saline and fresh), specifically lakes, ponds and rivers (both natural and manmade), including their biological, physical, chemical, and hydrological aspects. ... A river or canal is Navigatable if the water is deep and wide enough, and not flowing too fast. ... There are several traditions of navigation. ...


Large scale hydrography is usually undertaken by national or international organizations that sponsor data collection through precise surveys and the publication of charts and descriptive material for navigational purposes. The science of oceanography is, in part, an outgrowth of classical hydrography. In many respects the data are interchangeable, but marine hydrographic data will be particularly directed toward marine navigation and safety of that navigation.


Hydrographic measurements will include the tidal, current and wave information of physical oceanography. They will include bottom measurements, with particular emphasis on those marine geographical features that pose a hazard to navigation such as rocks, shoals, reefs and other features that obstruct ship passage. Unlike oceanography, hydrography will include shore features, natural and manmade, that aid in navigation. A hydrographic survey will therefore include accurate positions and representations of hills, mountains and even lights and towers that will aid in fixing a ship's position as well as the aspects of the sea and seabed. This article is about tides in the ocean. ... An ocean current is any more or less permanent or continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ... A wave is a disturbance that propagates in a periodically repeating fashion, often transferring energy. ... The seabed (also sea floor, seafloor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean. ... A shoal is a sandbank or bar creating a shallow. ... A reef surrounding an islet. ... Italian ship-rigged vessel Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large, sea-going watercraft, sometimes with multiple decks. ... Hydrographic survey is the process of gathering information about navigable waters for the purposes of safe navigation of vessels. ...


Hydrography, partly for reasons of safety, tends to be more traditional in outlook and has conventions that are not entirely "scientific" in some views. For example, hydrographic charts will usually tend to over represent least depths and ignore the actual submarine topography that will be portrayed on bathymetric charts. The former are the mariner's tools to avoid accident. The later are best representations of the actual seabed, as in a topographic map, for scientific and other purposes. Surface of the Earth Topography, a term in geography, has come to refer to the lay of the land, or the physiogeographic characteristics of land in terms of elevation, slope, and orientation. ... Bathymetric chart of Bear Lake. ...


A hydrographic survey differs from a bathymetric survey in some important respects, particularly in a bias toward least depths, due to the safety requirements of the former and geomorphologic descriptive requirements of the latter. As just one important example the echosoundings will be conducted under settings biased toward least depths while in bathymetric surveys they will be set for best description of the submarine topographical features that may include sound velocity and slope corrections that are more accurate but eliminate the safety bias. Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ... Echo sounding is the use of sound pulses directed from the surface or from a submarine vertically down to measure the distance to the bottom by means of sound waves. ...


Hydrography of streams will include information on the stream bed, flows, water quality and surrounding land. Basin or Interior Hydrography pays special attention to rivers and potable water. A running stream. ... The word flow has several different meanings: In fluid mechanics, the word flow is often used to mean a complete description of the motion of a fluid. ... To most people not professionally involved in water quality issues, water is either drinkable (technically potable) or contains potentially harmful or toxic substances. ... A watershed is a region of land where water flows into a specified body of water, such as a river, lake, sea, or ocean. ... For the Second World War frigate class, see River class frigate The Murray River in Australia A waterfall on the Ova da Fedoz, Switzerland A river is a large natural waterway. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ...

Contents


History

Hydrography's origin lies in the making of maps done by geographers in by means drawings and notations made by individual mariners. These were usually the private property, even closely held secrets, of individuals who used them for commercial or military advantage. Eventually organizations, particularly navies, realized the collection of this individualized knowledge and distribution to their members gave an organizational advantage. The next step was to organize members to actively collect information. Thus were born dedicated hydrographic organizations for the collection, organization, publication and distribution of hydrography incorporated into charts and sailing directions.


An interesting historical relationship is that of James Whistler to hydrography. His artistic talents were applied to the sometimes beautiful shore profiles that appeared on charts during his work as a cartographer with both the civilian and naval U. S. hydrographic organizations. Those profiles on early charts were etchings designed to aid mariners in identifying their landfall and harbor approaches. James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 14, 1834 - July 17, 1903) was an American painter and etcher. ... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ...


Organisations

Hydrographic services in most countries are carried out by specialised hydrographic offices. The international coordination of hydrographic efforts lies with the International Hydrographic Organization. A hydrographic office is an organisation which is devoted to acquiring and publishing hydrographic information. ... The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental international organization established in 1921. ...


See also

CARIS is the abbreviation of Computer Aided Resource Information System, a company based in Fredericton, New Brunswick which produces GIS and hydrographic data processing software. ... Look up Flood on Wiktionary, the free dictionary A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ... A drought is an extended period where water availability falls below the statistical requirements for a region. ... A transvasement is an artificial passing of water from one river basin to another one, to solve problems of hydrographic imbalance. ... Virtual water refers to the water required in the production of a good or service. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hydrography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (625 words)
Hydrography focuses on the measurement of physical characteristics of waters and marginal land.
With that usage oceanography and limnology are subsets of hydrography.
The hydrography of an Italian region: by the Regione Abruzzo Settore Turismo.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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