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Encyclopedia > Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide
Structural formula of hydrogen peroxide
Ball-and-stick model of the hydrogen peroxide molecule
IUPAC name Hydrogen peroxide
Other names μ-1κO,2κO’-Dioxidodihydrogen
Dihydrogen dioxide
Hydrogen dioxide
Dioxidane
Identifiers
CAS number [7722-84-1]
RTECS number MX0900000
Properties
Molecular formula H2O2
Molar mass 34.0147 g·mol·−1.
Appearance Very pale blue color; colorless in solution
Density 1.4 g/cm3, liquid
Melting point

-11 °C (262.15 K) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x639, 24 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hydrogen peroxide Carbamide peroxide ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x744, 114 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hydrogen peroxide ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

150.2 °C (423.35 K) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water Miscible
Acidity (pKa) 11.65
Viscosity 1.245 cP at 20 °C
Dipole moment 2.26 D
Hazards
MSDS 30% hydrogen peroxide msds
60% hydrogen peroxide msds
Main hazards Oxidant, corrosive
NFPA 704
0
3
1
OX
R-phrases R5, R8, R20, R22, R35
S-phrases (S1), (S2), S17, S26, S28, S36, S37, S39, S45
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Related compounds Water
Ozone
Hydrazine
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. It is a weak acid. It has strong oxidizing properties and is therefore a powerful bleaching agent that is mostly used for bleaching paper, but has also found use as a disinfectant, as an oxidizer, as an antiseptic, and in rocketry (particularly in high concentrations as high-test peroxide (HTP)) as a monopropellant, and in bipropellant systems.[citation needed] The oxidizing capacity of hydrogen peroxide is so strong that the chemical is considered a highly reactive oxygen species. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... An acid dissociation constant, denoted by Ka, is an equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a weak acid. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... The poise (P; IPA: ) is the unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimetre gram second system of units. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... This article is about the properties of water. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... A bleaching agent is any compound that bleaches the colour out of fabrics, paper, or other materials. ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... High test peroxide or HTP is a high (85 to 98 percent) concentration solution of hydrogen peroxide. ... A (usually liquid) rocket propellant that can be used by itself, without the need for a second component. ... F-1 rocket engine (The kind used by the Saturn V.) A bipropellant rocket is a rocket that uses separate fuel and oxidizer propellants. ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include oxygen ions, free radicals and peroxides both inorganic and organic. ...


Hydrogen peroxide is naturally produced as a byproduct of oxygen metabolism, and virtually all organisms possess enzymes known as peroxidases, which harmlessly catalytically decompose low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen (see Decomposition below). Glutathione Peroxidase 1 A peroxidase (eg. ...

Contents

History

Hydrogen peroxide was first isolated in 1818 by Louis Jacques Thénard by reacting barium peroxide with nitric acid.[1] An improved version of this process used hydrochloric acid, followed by sulfuric acid to precipitate the barium sulfate byproduct. Thénard's process was used from the end of the 19th century until the middle of the 20th century.[2] Modern production methods are discussed below. Louis Jacques Thénard. ... Barium peroxide is a grey-white compound and oxidising agent. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Granulated Barium Sulfate Barium sulfate (or barium sulphate) is the white crystalline solid with the formula BaSO4. ...


For a long time it was believed that pure hydrogen peroxide was unstable, because attempts to separate the hydrogen peroxide from the water, which is present during synthesis, failed. This was because traces of solids and heavy metal ions led to a catalytic decomposition or explosions of the hydrogen peroxide. 100% pure hydrogen peroxide was first obtained through vacuum distillation by Richard Wolffenstein in 1894.[3] For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Uses

Industrial applications

About 50% of the world's production of hydrogen peroxide in 1994 was used for pulp- and paper-bleaching.[4] Other bleaching applications are becoming more important as hydrogen peroxide is seen as an environmentally benign alternative to chlorine-based bleaches. It is highly corrosive to metal. General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...


Other major industrial applications for hydrogen peroxide include the manufacture of sodium percarbonate and sodium perborate, used as mild bleaches in laundry detergents. It is used in the production of certain organic peroxides such as dibenzoyl peroxide, used in polymerisations and other chemical processes. Hydrogen peroxide is also used in the production of epoxides such as propylene oxide. Reaction with carboxylic acids produces a corresponding peroxy acid. Peracetic acid and meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (commonly abbreviated mCPBA) are prepared from acetic acid and meta-chlorobenzoic acid, respectively. The latter is commonly reacted with alkenes to give the corresponding epoxide. Sodium percarbonate (or sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate) is an addition compound of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide. ... Sodium perborate (PBS), also called perboric acid or metaborate peroxyhydrate, is a white, odorless, water-soluble chemical compound with chemical formula NaBO3. ... Italian street, with laundry hung to dry Laundry can be: items of clothing and other textiles that require washing the act of washing clothing and textiles the room of a house in which this is done // Man and woman washing linen in a brook, from William Henry Pynes Microcosm... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... The general structure of an organic peroxide. ... Dibenzoyl peroxide is an organic peroxides used in polymerisations and other chemical processes. ... Radical polymerization is a type of polymerization in which the propagation head of a polymer chain consists of a radical. ... An epoxide is a cyclic ether with only three ring atoms. ... Propylene oxide is a highly toxic flammable chemical compound. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... A peroxy acid, is an acid in which an acidic -OH group has been replaced by an -OOH group. ... Properties: CAS no 79-21-0 Synonyms peroxy acetic acid, acetylhydroperoxide, PAA Physical data Melting point: 0. ... Chemical structure of meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid meta-Chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA) is a peroxy acid with chemical formula C7H5ClO3 and CAS number 937-14-4. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... An epoxide is a cyclic ether with only three ring atoms. ...


In the PCB manufacturing process, hydrogen peroxide mixed with sulfuric acid was used as the microetch chemical for copper surface roughening preparation.


A combination of a powdered precious metal-based catalyst, hydrogen peroxide, methanol and water can produce superheated steam in one to two seconds, releasing only CO2 and high temperature steam for a variety of purposes.[5]. Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Domestic uses

  • Diluted H2O2 (around 15%) is used to bleach human hair, hence the phrase "peroxide blonde". It is absorbed by skin upon contact and creates a local skin capillary embolism which appears as a temporary whitening of the skin. It is used to whiten bones that are to be put on display. The strength of a solution may be described as a percentage or volume, where 1% hydrogen peroxide releases 3.3 volumes of oxygen during decomposition.Thus, a 3% solution is equivalent to 10 volume and a 6% solution to 20 volume, etc.
  • 3% H2O2 is used medically for cleaning wounds, removing dead tissue, and as an oral debriding agent. Peroxide stops slow (small vessel) wound bleeding/oozing, as well. Most over-the-counter peroxide solutions are not suitable for ingestion.
  • 3% H2O2 is effective at treating fresh (red) blood-stains in clothing and on other items. It must be applied to clothing before blood stains can be accidentally "set" with heated water. Cold water and soap are then used to remove the peroxide treated blood.
  • The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified hydrogen peroxide as a Low Regulatory Priority (LRP) drug for use in controlling fungus on fish and fish eggs. (See ectoparasite.)
  • Some gardeners and users of hydroponics advocate the use of hydrogen peroxide in watering solutions. They claim that its spontaneous decomposition releases oxygen that enhances a plant's root development and helps to treat root rot (cellular root death due to lack of oxygen).
  • Laboratory tests conducted by fish culturists in recent years have demonstrated that common household hydrogen peroxide can be used safely to provide oxygen for small fish.[6][7] Hydrogen peroxide releases oxygen by decomposition when it is exposed to catalysts such as manganese dioxide.
  • Hydrogen peroxide is a strong oxidizer effective in controlling sulfide and organic related odors in wastewater collection and treatment systems. It is typically applied to a wastewater system where there is a retention time of 30 minutes to 5 hours before hydrogen sulfide is released. Hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide and promotes bio-oxidation of organic odors. Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to oxygen and water, adding dissolved oxygen to the system thereby negating some Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD).
  • Mixed with baking soda and a small amount of hand soap, hydrogen peroxide is effective at removing skunk odor. [8]
  • Hydrogen peroxide is used with phenyl oxalate ester and an appropriate dye in glow sticks as an oxidizing agent. It reacts with the ester to form an unstable CO2 dimer which excites the dye to an excited state; the dye emits a photon (light) when it spontaneously relaxes back to the ground state.
  • Dilute hydrogen peroxide can be used in a 50/50 mixture with white vinegar in the removal of accumulated lead and gun powder from a stainless steel firearm suppressor. The acetic acid is the main reagent, but the bubbling action of the hydrogen peroxide is used to agitate the mixture and accelerate the reaction. The chemical mixture should be replaced every 24 hours as it will become ineffective after that period. The responsible care of the used chemistry is required as the end result is an aqueous solution of lead acetate, which is highly toxic and must be disposed of through a Hazardous Waste facility. This method should not be used on aluminum suppressors, as acetic acid will dissolve the aluminum and form aluminum acetate.[citation needed]

This article is about the body feature. ... Blood flows from the heart to arteries, which narrow into arterioles, and then narrow further still into capillaries. ... An embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ... Debridement is a medical term referring to the removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue. ... FDA redirects here. ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of that host. ... Plants grown in a hydroponics grow box made to look like a computer NASA researcher checking hydroponic onions with Bibb lettuce to his left and radishes to the right Example of autotrophic metabolism Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A catalyst (Greek: καταλύτης) is a substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction, at some temperature, but without itself being transformed or consumed by the reaction (see also catalysis). ... Manganese(IV) oxide is the chemical compound MnO2, commonly called manganese dioxide. ... Polecat redirects here. ... Phenyl oxalate ester, also known as Cyalume, is a liquid ester whos hydrolysis products are responsible for the luminescence in a glowstick. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Three types of lightsticks in five colours A lightstick, also called a glowstick, is a transparent plastic tube which contains chemical fluids held apart in two compartments. ... European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ... After absorbing energy, an electron may jump from the ground state to a higher energy excited state. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... Spontaneous emission is the process by which a molecule in an excited state drops to the ground state, resulting in the creation of a photon. ... In physics, the ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state. ... Lead acetate (Trihydrate Pb(CH3COO)2·3H2O) is a white crystalline substance made by dissolving lead in acetic acid. ...

Storage

Regulations vary, but low concentrations, such as 3%, are widely available and legal to buy for medical use. Higher concentrations may be considered hazardous and are typically accompanied by a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). In high concentrations, hydrogen peroxide is an aggressive oxidizer and will corrode many materials, including human skin. In the presence of a reducing agent, high concentrations of H2O2 will react violently. An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a redox (reduction-oxidation) reaction (see electrochemistry) that reduces another species. ...


Hydrogen peroxide should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area and away from any flammable or combustible substances.[9] It should be stored in a container composed of non-reactive materials such as stainless steel or glass (other materials including some plastics and aluminium alloys may also be suitable).[10] Because it breaks down quickly when exposed to light, it should be stored in an opaque container, and pharmaceutical formulations typically come in brown bottles that filter out light.[11]


Use as propellant

H2O2 can be used either as a monopropellant (not mixed with fuel) or as the oxidizer component of a bipropellant rocket. Use as a monopropellant takes advantage of the decomposition of 70–98+% concentration hydrogen peroxide into steam and oxygen. The propellant is pumped into a reaction chamber where a catalyst, usually a silver or platinum screen, triggers decomposition, producing steam at over 600 °C which is expelled through a nozzle, generating thrust. H2O2 monopropellant produces a maximum specific impulse (Isp) of 161 s (1.6 kN·s/kg), which makes it a low-performance monopropellant. Peroxide generates much less thrust than hydrazine, but is not toxic. The Bell Rocket Belt used hydrogen peroxide monopropellant. A (usually liquid) rocket propellant that can be used by itself, without the need for a second component. ... F-1 rocket engine (The kind used by the Saturn V.) A bipropellant rocket engine is a rocket engine that uses two fluid propellants stored in separate tanks that are injected into, and undergo a strong exothermic reaction, in a rockets combustion chamber. ... Rocket Nozzle A nozzle is a mechanical device designed to control the characteristics of a fluid flow as it exits from an enclosed chamber into some medium. ... Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Laws. ... Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. ... The newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force. ... Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


As a bipropellant H2O2 is decomposed to burn a fuel as an oxidizer. Specific impulses as high as 350 s (3.5 kN·s/kg) can be achieved, depending on the fuel. Peroxide used as an oxidizer gives a somewhat lower Isp than liquid oxygen, but is dense, storable, noncryogenic and can be more easily used to drive gas turbines to give high pressures. It can also be used for regenerative cooling of rocket engines. Peroxide was used very successfully as an oxidizer in World-War-II German rockets (e.g. T-Stoff for the Me-163), and for the low-cost British Black Knight and Black Arrow launchers. T-stoff is a bipropellant rocket fuel (oxidizer) of WW2 times developed in Germany. ... The Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet was the only operational rocket fighter aircraft. ... Black Knight was a British launch vehicle to test and verify the design of a re-entry vehicle for the Blue Streak missile. ... Black Arrows engine This article is about the rocket, for the novel, see The Black Arrow Black Arrow was a British satellite carrier rocket, based on the Black Knight and Blue Streak rockets. ...


In the 1940s and 1950s the Walter turbine used hydrogen peroxide for use in submarines while submerged; it was found to be too noisy and require too much maintenance compared to diesel-electric power systems. Some torpedoes used hydrogen peroxide as oxidizer or propellant, but this was dangerous and has been discontinued by most navies. Hydrogen peroxide leaks were blamed for the sinkings of HMS Sidon and the Russian submarine Kursk. It was discovered, for example, by the Japanese Navy in torpedo trials, that the concentration of H2O2 in right-angle bends in HTP pipework can often lead to explosions in submarines and torpedoes. SAAB Underwater Systems is manufacturing the Torpedo 2000. This torpedo, used by the Swedish navy, is powered by a piston engine propelled by HTP as an oxidizer and kerosene as a fuel in a bipropellant system[12]. Hellmuth Walter (August 26, 1900 – December 16, 1980) was a German engineer who pioneered research into rocket engines and gas turbines. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric powerplant for providing locomotion. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Naval redirects here. ... HMS Sidon was launched in September 1944, one of the third group of S-class submarines built by Cammell Laird & Co Limited, Birkenhead. ... K-141 Kursk (Russian in full: Атомная подводная лодка Курск [АПЛ Курск] - nuclear submarine Kursk) was a Project 949A Антей (Antey, Antaeus; also known by its NATO reporting name of Oscar-II class) nuclear cruise missile submarine named after the Russian city Kursk, where one of the biggest battles of World War II took place (Battle of... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ...


While rarely used now as a monopropellant for large engines, small hydrogen peroxide attitude control thrusters are still in use on some satellites. They are easy to throttle, and safer to fuel and handle before launch than hydrazine thrusters. However, hydrazine is more often used in spacecraft because of its higher specific impulse and lower rate of decomposition. // In the context of spacecraft, attitude control is control of the angular position and rotation of the spacecraft, either relative to the object that it is orbiting, or relative to the celestial sphere. ... A thruster is a small propulsive device used by spacecraft and watercraft for station keeping, attitude control, or long duration low thrust acceleration. ... This article is about artificial satellites. ... Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. ...


Recently H2O2/propylene has been proposed as an approach to inexpensive Single Stage To Orbit: a fuel tank containing propylene has a bladder floating in it containing H2O2. This combination offers 15% superior Isp to O2/RP4 (a kerosene used as rocket propellant), does not need turbines or cryogenic storage or hardware, and greatly reduces the cost of the booster. The potential of this and other alternative systems is discussed in some detail at Dunn Engineering. Propylene, also known by its IUPAC name propene, is an organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6. ... A single-stage to orbit (or SSTO) launcher describes an as-yet theoretical class of spacecraft designed to place a load into orbit as a self-contained vehicle without the use of multiple stages. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same, and is often confused with cryobiology, the study of the effect of low temperatures on organisms, or the study of cryopreservation. ...


Therapeutic use

Hydrogen peroxide is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as an antimicrobial agent, an oxidizing agent and for other purposes by the US Food and Drug Administration.[13] Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) is a United States of America Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements. ... An antimicrobial is a substance that that kills or slows the growth of microbes like bacteria (antibacterial activity), fungi (antifungal activity), viruses (antiviral activity), or parasites (antiparasitic activity). ... FDA redirects here. ...


Hydrogen peroxide has been used as an antiseptic and anti-bacterial agent for many years due to its oxidizing effect. While its use has decreased in recent years with the popularity of better-smelling and more readily-available over the counter products, it is still used by many hospitals, doctors and dentists in sterilizing, cleaning and treating everything from floors to root canal procedures. An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... -1...

  • Like many oxidative antiseptics, hydrogen peroxide causes mild damage to tissue in open wounds, but it also is effective at rapidly stopping capillary bleeding (slow blood oozing from small vessels in abrasions), and is sometimes used sparingly for this purpose, as well as cleaning.
  • Hydrogen peroxide can be used as a toothpaste when mixed with correct quantities of baking soda and salt.[14]
  • Hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide are sometimes used to treat acne.[15]
  • Hydrogen peroxide is used as an emetic in veterinary practice.[16]
Alternative uses
  • Some people have tried using peroxide as a treatment for cancer. The American Cancer Society states that "there is no scientific evidence that hydrogen peroxide is a safe, effective or useful cancer treatment", and advises cancer patients to "remain in the care of qualified doctors who use proven methods of treatment and approved clinical trials of promising new treatments." [17]
  • Another controversial alternative medical procedure is inhalation of hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of about 1%. Internal use of hydrogen peroxide has a history of causing fatal blood disorders, and its recent use as a therapeutic treatment has been linked to several deaths.[18][19]

R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Autoignition temperature 80°C RTECS number DM8575000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Tube of Basiron, a water-based 5% benzoyl peroxide preparation for the treatment of acne. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... The American Cancer Society (ACS) is the nationwide community-based voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer as a major health problem by preventing cancer, saving lives, and diminishing suffering from cancer, through research, education, advocacy and service. ... Hematology (American English) or haematology (British English) is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. ...

Physical properties

Structure of hydrogen peroxide Image File history File links The shape of the hydrogen peroxide molecule in the gas and solid phase. ...


While the anti conformer would minimize steric repulsions, a 90° torsion angle would optimize mixing between the filled p-type orbital of the oxygen (one of the lone pairs) and the LUMO of the vicinal O-H bond.[20] Reflecting a compromise between the two interactions, gaseous and liquid hydrogen peroxide adopts an anticlinal "skewed" shape. This rotational conformation is a compromise between the anti conformer, which would minimize steric repulsion, and between the syn conformer that associates O-H bonds with lone pairs on the oxygen atoms. Despite the fact that the O-O bond is a single bond, the molecule has a remarkably high barrier to complete rotation of 29.45 kJ/mol (compared with 12.5 kJ/mol for the rotational barrier of ethane). The increased barrier is also attributed to repulsion between one lone pair and other lone pairs. The bond angles are affected by hydrogen bonding, which is relevant to the structural difference between gaseous and crystalline forms; indeed a wide range of values is seen in crystals containing molecular H2O2. Alkane stereochemistry concerns the stereochemistry of linear alkanes and the linear alkane conformers. ... HOMO and LUMO are acronyms for Highest Occupied Molecular Orbitals and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbitals respectively. ... The Vicinal or Buurtspoor were a system of narrow gauge tramways or local railways in Belgium, which covered the whole country and had a greater route length than the mainline railway system. ... Alkane stereochemistry concerns the stereochemistry of linear alkanes and the linear alkane conformers. ... A lone pair is an electron pair without bonding or sharing with other atoms. ... A kilojoule (abbreviation: kJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules. ... The mole (symbol: mol) is one of the seven SI base units and is commonly used in chemistry. ... This article is about a chemical compound. ... Geometry of the water molecule Molecular geometry or molecular structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule, inferred from the spectroscopic studies of the compound. ... In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ...


Chemical properties

H2O2 is one of the most powerful oxidizers known -- stronger than chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and potassium permanganate. Also, through catalysis, H2O2 can be converted into hydroxyl radicals (.OH) with reactivity second only to fluorine. General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2. ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ...

Oxidant Oxidation potential, V
Fluorine 3.0
Hydroxyl radical 2.8
Ozone 2.1
Hydrogen peroxide 1.8
Potassium permanganate 1.7
Chlorine dioxide 1.5
Chlorine 1.4

Hydrogen peroxide can decompose spontaneously into water and oxygen. It usually acts as an oxidizing agent, but there are many reactions where it acts as a reducing agent, releasing oxygen as a by-product. An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ... Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ...


It also readily forms both inorganic and organic peroxides. A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ...


Decomposition

Hydrogen peroxide always decomposes (disproportionates) exothermically into water and oxygen gas spontaneously: In chemistry, an exothermic reaction is one that releases heat. ... This article is about the properties of water. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... A spontaneous process in chemical reaction terms is one which occurs with the system releasing free energy in some form (often, but not always, heat) and moving to a lower energy, hence more thermodynamically stable, state. ...

2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2

This process is very favorable thermodynamically. It has a ΔHo of −98.2 kJ·mol−1 and a ΔGo of −119.2 kJ·mol−1 and a ΔS of 70.5 J·mol−1·K−1. The rate of decomposition is dependent on the temperature and concentration of the peroxide, as well as the pH and the presence of impurities and stabilizers. Hydrogen peroxide is incompatible with many substances that catalyse its decomposition, including most of the transition metals and their compounds. Common catalysts include manganese dioxide, and silver. The same reaction is catalysed by the enzyme catalase, found in the liver, whose main function in the body is the removal of toxic byproducts of metabolism and the reduction of oxidative stress. The decomposition occurs more rapidly in alkali, so acid is often added as a stabilizer. The standard enthalpy change of reaction (denoted H0 or HO)is the enthalpy change that occurs in a system when 1 equivalent of matter is transformed by a chemical reaction under standard conditions. ... A kilojoule (abbreviation: kJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules. ... The mole (symbol: mol) is one of the seven SI base units and is commonly used in chemistry. ... In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential which measures the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis (in Greek meaning to annul) is the acceleration of the rate of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself unchanged chemically by the overall reaction. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... Manganese(IV) oxide is the chemical compound MnO2, commonly called manganese dioxide. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Human glyoxalase I. Two zinc ions that are needed for the enzyme to catalyze its reaction are shown as purple spheres, and an enzyme inhibitor called S-hexylglutathione is shown as a space-filling model, filling the two active sites. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and a biological systems ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ...


The liberation of oxygen and energy in the decomposition has dangerous side effects. Spilling high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide on a flammable substance can cause an immediate fire, which is further fueled by the oxygen released by the decomposing hydrogen peroxide. High-strength peroxide (also called high-test peroxide, or HTP) must be stored in a suitable,[citation needed] vented container to prevent the buildup of oxygen gas, which would otherwise lead to the eventual rupture of the container.


In the presence of certain catalysts, such as Fe2+ or Ti3+, the decomposition may take a different path, with free radicals such as HO· (hydroxyl) and HOO· being formed. A combination of H2O2 and Fe2+ is known as Fenton's reagent. // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... Fentons reagent is a solution of hydrogen peroxide and an iron catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters. ...


A common concentration for hydrogen peroxide is "20 volume", which means that when 1 volume of hydrogen peroxide is decomposed, it produces 20 volumes of oxygen. A 20 "volume" concentration of hydrogen peroxide is equivalent to 1.67 mol/dm3 (Molar solution) or about 6%. Molar solution is used when referring to the molarity of a solution, which expresses its concentration. ...


Hydrogen peroxide available at drug stores is three percent solution. In such small concentrations, it is less stable, and decomposes faster. It is usually stabilized with acetanilide, a substance which has toxic side effects in significant amounts. | Water solubility | 0. ...


Redox reactions

In aqueous solution, hydrogen peroxide can oxidize or reduce a variety of inorganic ions. When it acts as a reducing agent, oxygen gas is also produced. In acid solution Fe2+ is oxidized to Fe3+, This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ...

2 Fe2+(aq) + H2O2 + 2 H+(aq) → 2 Fe3+(aq) + 2H2O(l)

and sulfite (SO32−) is oxidized to sulfate (SO42−). However, potassium permanganate is reduced to Mn2+ by acidic H2O2. Under alkaline conditions, however, some of these reactions reverse; for example, Mn2+ is oxidized to Mn4+ (as MnO2). For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+ derived from protonation of water. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Sulfites (also sulphite) are compounds that contain the sulfite ion SO32−. They are often used as preservatives in wines (to prevent spoilage and oxidation), dried fruits, and dried potato products. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Manganese(IV) oxide is the chemical compound MnO2, more usually called manganese dioxide. ...


Another example of hydrogen peroxide acting as a reducing agent is the reaction with sodium hypochlorite, this is a convenient method for preparing oxygen in the laboratory. Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...

NaOCl + H2O2 → O2 + NaCl + H2O

Hydrogen peroxide is frequently used as an oxidizing agent in organic chemistry. One application is for the oxidation of thioethers to sulfoxides.[citation needed] For example, methyl phenyl sulfide was oxidised to methyl phenyl sulfoxide in 99% yield in methanol in 18 hours (or 20 minutes using a TiCl3 catalyst):[citation needed] ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... A thioether (similar to sulfide) is a functional group in organic chemistry that has the structure R1-S-R2 as shown on right. ... A sulfoxide is a chemical compound containing a sulfinyl functional group with a sulfur oxygen double bond attached to two carbon atoms. ... Titanium(III) chloride, TiCl3, is a red-violet salt that decomposes at 425 °C. Categories: | ...

Ph-S-CH3 + H2O2 → Ph-S(O)-CH3 + H2O

Alkaline hydrogen peroxide is used for epoxidation of electron-deficient alkenes such as acrylic acids, and also for oxidation of alkylboranes to alcohols, the second step of hydroboration-oxidation. An epoxide is a cyclic ether with only three ring atoms. ... Acrylic acid or prop-2-enoic acid is a chemical compound with the formula C3H4O2 and structure (which is sometimes abbreviated as CH2=CHCOOH). ... Organoborane or organoboron compounds are chemical compounds comprised of boron and carbon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A hydroboration-oxidation reaction is an organic chemistry reaction used to add a hydroxyl group (OH-) and a hydrogen cation (H+) to an alkene via anti-Markovnikov addition. ...


Formation of peroxide compounds

Hydrogen peroxide is a weak acid, and it can form hydroperoxide or peroxide salts or derivatives of many metals. Organic peroxides are organic molecules containing the peroxide functional group ROOR If the R is hydrogen, the compound is called organic hydroperoxide. ... A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ... This article is about common table salt. ...


For example, on addition to an aqueous solution of chromic acid (CrO3) or acidic solutions of dichromate salts, it will form an unstable blue peroxide CrO(O2)2. In aqueous solution it rapidly decomposes to form oxygen gas and chromium salts. In chemistry, chromic acid is a chromium (Cr) compound, yet to be isolated, with the formula H2CrO4. ...


It can also produce peroxoanions by reaction with anions; for example, reaction with borax leads to sodium perborate, a bleach used in laundry detergents: An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... Borax from Persian burah. ... Sodium perborate (PBS), also called perboric acid or metaborate peroxyhydrate, is a white, odorless, water-soluble chemical compound with chemical formula NaBO3. ...

Na2B4O7 + 4 H2O2 + 2 NaOH → 2 Na2B2O4(OH)4 + H2O

H2O2 converts carboxylic acids (RCOOH) into peroxy acids (RCOOOH), which are themselves used as oxidizing agents. Hydrogen peroxide reacts with acetone to form acetone peroxide, and it interacts with ozone to form hydrogen trioxide, also known as trioxidane. Reaction with urea produces carbamide peroxide, used for whitening teeth. An acid-base adduct with triphenylphosphine oxide is a useful "carrier" for H2O2 in some reactions. Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... For other uses, see Acetone (disambiguation). ... Acetone peroxide Ball-and-stick model of the acetone peroxide trimer (TATP) Acetone peroxide (triacetone triperoxide, peroxyacetone, TATP, TCAP) is an organic peroxide and a primary high explosive. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Trioxidane. ... Trioxidane is dihydrogen trioxide, H2O3, an analogue of hydrogen peroxide having a chain of three oxygen atoms instead of two. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known by the International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) carbamide, as established by the World Health Organization. ... Carbamide peroxide is an oxidising agent, consisting of hydrogen peroxide compounded with urea. ... Triphenylphosphine oxide usually appears as white crystals. ...


Alkalinity

Hydrogen peroxide is a much weaker base than water, but it can still form adducts with very strong acids. The superacid HF/SbF5 forms unstable compounds containing the [H3O2]+ ion. Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... A superacid is an acid with an acidity greater than that of 100% sulfuric acid. ... Fluoroantimonic acid HSbF6 is a mixture of hydrogen fluoride and antimony pentafluoride in various ratios. ...


Manufacture

Hydrogen peroxide is manufactured today almost exclusively by the autoxidation of 2-ethyl-9,10-dihydroxyanthracene (C16H14O2) to 2-ethylanthraquinone (C16H12O2) and hydrogen peroxide using oxygen from the air. This is known as the Riedl-Pfleiderer process. Autoxidation is any oxidation that occurs in open air or in presence of oxygen and/or UV radiation and forms peroxides and hydroperoxides. ...

Hydrogen peroxide production with the Riedl-Pfleiderer process process

In this reaction, the hydroxy groups on the middle ring of anthracene are deprotonated and are turned into ketones, while two double bonds are lost from the middle ring and are replaced as C=O double bonds in the ketone groups. The anthraquinone derivative is then extracted out and reduced back to the dihydroxy compound using hydrogen gas in the presence of a metal catalyst. The overall equation for the process is deceptively simple: In chemistry, anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of three benzene rings derived from coal-tar. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... Anthraquinone (9,10-dioxoanthracene) is an aromatic organic compound whose structure is shown to the right. ... Liquid-liquid extraction, also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds based on their solution preferences for two different immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ...

H2 + O2 → H2O2

However the economics of the process depend on effective recycling of the quinone and extraction solvents, and of the hydrogenation catalyst. Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ...


Formerly inorganic processes were used, employing the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid or acidic ammonium bisulfate (NH4HSO4), followed by hydrolysis of the peroxydisulfate ((SO4)2)2− which is formed. In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Chemically named NH4HSO4, ammonium bisulfate is a white, crystalline solid when it is completely pure. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ...


In 1994, world production of H2O2 was around 1.9 million tonnes and grew to 2.2 million in 2006,[4] most of which was at a concentration of 70% or less[citation needed]. In that year bulk 30% H2O2 sold for around US $0.54 per kg, equivalent to US $1.50 per kg (US $0.68 per lb) on a "100% basis[citation needed]". This article is about the metric tonne. ... Kg redirects here. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Concentration

Hydrogen peroxide works best as a propellant in extremely high concentrations-- roughly over 70%. Although any concentration of peroxide will generate some hot gas (oxygen plus some steam), at concentrations above approximately 67%, the heat of decomposing hydrogen peroxide becomes large enough to completely vaporize all the liquid at standard temperature. This represents a safety and utilization turning point, since decomposition of any concentration above this amount is capable of transforming the liquid entirely to heated gas (the higher the concentration, the hotter the resulting gas). This very hot steam/oxygen mixture can then be used to generate maximal thrust, power, or work, but it also makes explosive decomposition of the material far more hazardous.


Normal propellant grade concentrations therefore vary from 70 to 98%, with common grades of 70, 85, 90, and 98%. Many of these grades and variations are described in detail in the United States propellant specification number MIL-P-16005 Revision F, which is currently available. The available suppliers of high concentration propellant grade hydrogen peroxide are generally one of the large commercial companies which make other grades of hydrogen peroxide; including Solvay Interox, FMC, Degussa and Peroxide Propulsion. Other companies which have made propellant grade hydrogen peroxide in the recent past include Air Liquide and DuPont. DuPont recently sold its hydrogen peroxide manufacturing business to Degussa. Solvay may refer to the Solvay process Ernest Solvay, its inventor Solvay, [1] - a Belgian pharmaceuticals, chemicals and plastics company Solvay Conference the Solvay Business School Solvay, New York This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Fraser Milner Casgrain LLP (FMC) is major full-service Toronto-based Canadian law firm. ... Degussa Logo Degussa AG is a multinational chemistry corporation based in Düsseldorf, Germany. ... This article is about the international industrial gas company. ... This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ...


Propellant grade hydrogen peroxide is available to qualified buyers. Typically this chemical is only sold to commercial companies or government institutions which have the ability to properly handle and utilize the material. Non-professionals have purchased 70% or lower concentration hydrogen peroxide (the remaining 30% is water with traces of impurities and stabilizing materials, such as tin salts, phosphates, nitrates, and other chemical additives), and increased its concentration themselves. Many amateurs try distillation, but this is extremely dangerous with hydrogen peroxide; peroxide vapor can ignite or detonate depending on specific combinations of temperature and pressure. In general any boiling mass of high concentration hydrogen peroxide at ambient pressure will produce vapor phase hydrogen peroxide which can detonate. This hazard is mitigated, but not entirely eliminated with vacuum distillation. Other approaches for concentrating hydrogen peroxide are sparging and fractional crystallization. Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in solubility. ...


High concentration hydrogen peroxide is readily available in 70, 90, and 98% concentrations in sizes of 1 gallon, 30 gallon, and bulk tanker truck volumes. Propellant grade hydrogen peroxide is being used on current military systems and is in numerous defense and aerospace research and development programs. Many privately funded rocket companies are using hydrogen peroxide, notably Blue Origin, and some amateur groups have expressed interest in manufacturing their own peroxide, for their use and for sale in small quantities to others. Blue Origin is a privately-funded aerospace company initially focused on sub-orbital spaceflight founded in 2000. ...


Hazards

Hydrogen peroxide, either in pure or diluted form, can pose several risks:

  • Above roughly 70% concentrations, hydrogen peroxide can give off vapor that can detonate above 70 °C (158 °F) at normal atmospheric pressure.[21] This can then cause a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) of the remaining liquid. Distillation of hydrogen peroxide at normal pressures is thus highly dangerous.
  • Hydrogen peroxide vapors can form sensitive contact explosives with hydrocarbons such as greases. Hazardous reactions ranging from ignition to explosion have been reported with alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids (particularly acetic acid), amines and phosphorus.[citation needed] The saying is "peroxides kill chemists".[citation needed]
  • Hydrogen peroxide, if spilled on clothing (or other flammable materials), will preferentially evaporate water until the concentration reaches sufficient strength, at which point the material may spontaneously ignite.[22][citation needed]
  • Concentrated hydrogen peroxide (>50%) is corrosive, and even domestic-strength solutions can cause irritation to the eyes, mucous membranes and skin.[23] Swallowing hydrogen peroxide solutions is particularly dangerous, as decomposition in the stomach releases large quantities of gas (10 times the volume of a 3% solution) leading to internal bleeding. Inhaling over 10% can cause severe pulmonary irritation.[citation needed]
  • Low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, on the order of 3% or less, will chemically bleach many types of clothing to a pinkish hue. Caution should be exercised when using common products that may contain hydrogen peroxide, such as facial cleaner or contact lens solution, which easily splatter upon other surfaces.
  • When drunk in large quantities, hydrogen peroxide can cause unhealthy amounts of diarrhea. Chemically, the extra oxygen element interacts strongly with the small intestine's helpful lactobacteria thereby causing hydroephasiasis in these bacteria.[24] The resulting diarrhea can have serious health consequences if ingestion of the hydrogen peroxide solution is not terminated.

A BLEVE erupting from a tanker. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ...

Historical Incidents

  • Several people were injured after a hydrogen peroxide spill on board Northwest Airlines flight 957 from Orlando to Memphis on October 28, 1998.[25]
  • During the Second World War, Doctors in Nazi concentration camps experimented with the use of hydrogen peroxide injections in the killing of human subjects.[26]
  • Hydrogen peroxide was one of the ingredients in the bombs which failed to explode in the 21 July 2005 London bombings.[27]

A material safety data sheet will contain more information on the risks of working with this chemical. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Wikinews has news related to: Four small explosions strike Londons transport system On 21 July 2005, four attempted bomb attacks disrupted part of Londons public transport system two weeks after the 7 July 2005 London bombings. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ...


References

  • J. Drabowicz et al., in The Syntheses of Sulphones, Sulphoxides and Cyclic Sulphides, p112-116, G. Capozzi et al., eds., John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1994. ISBN 0-471-93970-6.
  • N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997. A great description of properties & chemistry of H2O2.
  • J. March, Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4th ed., p. 723, Wiley, New York, 1992.
  • W. T. Hess, Hydrogen Peroxide, in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th edition, Wiley, New York, Vol. 13, 961-995 (1995).
  1. ^ L. J. Thenard (1818). "". Annales de chimie et de physique 8: 308. 
  2. ^ C. W. Jones, J. H. Clark. Applications of Hydrogen Peroxide and Deriatives. Royal Society of Chemistry, 1999.
  3. ^ Richard Wolffenstein (1894). "Concentration und Destillation von Wasserstoffsuperoxyd". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 27 (3): 3307–3312. doi:10.1002/cber.189402703127. 
  4. ^ a b Ronald Hage, Achim Lienke (2005). "Applications of Transition-Metal Catalysts to Textile and Wood-Pulp Bleaching". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 45 (2): 206–222. doi:10.1002/anie.200500525. 
  5. ^ The Society Of Chemical Industry article (Google cached article) re: new hydrogen peroxide/methyl alcohol catalyst[1]
  6. ^ Great-lakes.org
  7. ^ fws.gov
  8. ^ Chemist Paul Krebaum claims to have originated the formula for use on skunked pets at Skunk Remedy
  9. ^ Hydrogen Peroxide MSDS
  10. ^ Ozonelab Peroxide compatibility
  11. ^ The Many Uses of Hydrogen Peroxide-Truth! Fiction! Unproven!. Retrieved on 2008-06-30.
  12. ^ Scott, Richard (November, 1997). "Homing Instincts". Jane's Navy Steam generated by catalytic decomposition of 80-90 % hydrogen peroxide was used for driving the turbopump turbines of the V-2 rockets, the X-15 rocketplanes, the early Centaur RL-10 engines and is still used on Soyuz for that purpose to-day. International. 
  13. ^ Sec. 184.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access (2001-04-01). Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
  14. ^ Shepherd, Steven. Brushing Up on Gum Disease. FDA Consumer. Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
  15. ^ Milani, Massimo; Bigardi, Andrea; Zavattarelli, Marco (2003). "Efficacy and safety of stabilised hydrogen peroxide cream (Crystacide) in mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris: a randomised, controlled trial versus benzoyl peroxide gel". Current Medical Research and Opinion 19 (2): 135–138(4). doi:10.1185/030079902125001523. 
  16. ^ "Drugs to Control or Stimulate Vomiting". Merck Veterinary manual. (2006). Merck & Co., Inc, 
  17. ^ "Questionable methods of cancer management: hydrogen peroxide and other 'hyperoxygenation' therapies" (1993). CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 43 (1): 47–56. doi:10.3322/canjclin.43.1.47. PMID 8422605. 
  18. ^ Cooper, Anderson. "A Prescription for Death?", CBS News, 2005-01-12. Retrieved on 2007-07-07. 
  19. ^ Mikkelson, Barbara (2006-04-30). Hydrogen Peroxide. Snopes.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
  20. ^ Dougherty, Dennis A.; Eric V. Anslyn (2005). Modern Physical Organic Chemistry. University Science, 122. ISBN 1-891389-31-9. 
  21. ^ Hydrogen peroxide. Chemie.de Information Service. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  22. ^ Armadilloaerospace material tests with HTP
  23. ^ For example, see an MSDS for a 3% peroxide solution.
  24. ^ Antibiotics, Intestinal bacteria, Stomach ulcers, Bad Breath. hps-online.com Information Service.
  25. ^ Hazardous Materials Incident Brief DCA-99-MZ-001, "Spill of undeclared shipment of hazardous materials in cargo compartment of aircraft". pub: National Transportation Safety Board. October 28, 1998; adopted May 17, 2000.
  26. ^ The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. Robert Jay Lifton. Retrieved on 1 November, 2007.
  27. ^ Four Men Found Guilty in Plot to Blow Up London’s Transit System, "FOXNews.com". (July 9, 2007)

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External links

Logo of the GreenFacts website GreenFacts, formerly the GreenFacts Foundation, is an international non-profit organization founded in 2001 in Brussels, Belgium. ... Stomatology is an international training course in specialised medicine recognised in the European Union relating to the mouth and its diseases. ... A division of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System A Alimentary tract and metabolism A01A Stomatological preparations A01AA Caries prophylactic agents A01AA01 Sodium fluoride A01AA02 Sodium monofluorophosphate A01AA03 Olaflur A01AA04 Stannous fluoride A01AA30 Combinations A01AA51 Sodium fluoride, combinations A01AB Anti-infectives and antiseptics for local oral treatment A01AB02 Hydrogen peroxide... Caries is a progressive destruction of any kind of bone structure, including the skull, the ribs and other bones. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Sodium fluoride is an ionic compound with the formula NaF. This colourless solid is the main source of the fluoride ion in diverse applications. ... Sodium monofluorophosphate Sodium monofluorophosphate (also disodium monofluorophosphate or MFP) is a chemical with the formula Na2PO3F. Its molecular weight is 143. ... Olaflur (or amine fluoride 297) is a stomatological preparation. ... Stannous fluoride is commonly used in toothpaste to protect tooth enamel from attack by bacteria, similar to sodium fluoride. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... Chlorhexidine Gluconate is a chemical antiseptic, to combat both gram positive and gram negative microbes. ... Amphotericin B (Fungilin, Fungizone, Abelcet, AmBisome, Fungisome, Amphocil, Amphotec) is a polyene antifungal drug, often used intravenously for systemic fungal infections. ... Polynoxylin (or urea formaldehyde foam) is a stomatological preparation. ... Domiphen is a stomatological preparation. ... Oxyquinoline is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, and commonly applied topically (to the skin) or mucus membranes to cure fungal infections. ... Natamycin, also known as pimaricin, is a polyene antifungal drug. ... Hexetidine is an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent commonly used in both vetinary and human medicine. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Benzoxonium chloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Tibezonium iodide (or tibenzonium iodide) is a stomatological preparation. ... Mepartricin is a stomatological preparation. ... Metronidazole (INN) (pronounced ) is a nitroimidazole anti-infective drug used mainly in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms, particularly anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. ... Clotrimazole is a potent, specific inhibitor of p450 enzymes. ... Sodium perborate (PBS), also called perboric acid or metaborate peroxyhydrate, is a white, odorless, water-soluble chemical compound with chemical formula NaBO3. ... Chlortetracycline (Aureomycin®, Lederle) is the first tetracycline antibiotic to be discovered. ... Doxycycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. ... Minocycline hydrochloride, also known as minocycline, is a member of the broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotics, and has a broader spectrum than the other members. ... Eugenol (C10H12O2), is an allyl chain-substituted guaiacol, i. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Triamcinolone (trade names Kenalog, Aristocort, Nasacort, Tri-Nasal, Triderm, Azmacort, Trilone, Volon A, Tristoject, Fougera;) is a synthetic corticosteroid given orally, by injection, inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream. ... Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid hormones. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Adrenalone is a stomatological preparation. ... Benzydamine, available as the hydrochloride, is a locally-acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with local anaesthetic and analgesic properties providing both rapid and extended pain relief as well as a significant anti-inflammatory treatment for the painful inflammatory conditions of the mouth and throat. ... This article is about the drug. ... Amlexanox is a medication with antiallergic and anti-inflammatory effects used in the treatment of aphthous ulcers (canker sores). ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Acridine, C13H9N, is an organic compound and a nitrogen heterocycle. ... Chemical structure of Acrinol Ethacridine lactate is an aromatic organic compound based on acridine. ... Aminoacridine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Euflavine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Biguanides (ATC A10 BA) form a class of oral hypoglycemic drugs used for diabetes mellitus treatment. ... An amidine is a functional group or type of chemical compound that has two amine groups attached to the same carbon atom with one carbon-nitrogen double bond,exactly its derivate of acid,when suspended the double bond is protonized: HN=CR-NH2. ... Dibrompropamidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Chlorhexidine Gluconate is a chemical antiseptic, to combat both gram positive and gram negative microbes. ... Propamidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Hexamidine is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Polihexanide is a polymer which functions as an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a toxic, colourless crystalline solid with a sweet tarry odor. ... Hexachlorophene also known as Nabac is an antiseptic agent. ... Policresulen is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a toxic, colourless crystalline solid with a sweet tarry odor. ... -1... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dettol. ... 2-Phenylphenol, or o-phenylphenol, is an organic compound that consists of two linked benzene rings and a phenolic hydroxyl group. ... Nitrofuran is a class of theraputic antibacterial agent (it cures disease) it includes drugs such as Nitrofurazone, Furazolidone, Nitrofurantoin and Furaltadone. ... Nitrofurazone, 2-((5-nitro-2-furanyl)methylene)hydrazinecarboxamide, chemical formula C6H6N4O4, is a pale yellow crystalline compound. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) are polymers composed of repeating subunits of identical structure, called monomers, and are the most commercially important polyethers. ... Povidone-iodine (PVPI) is a water-soluble complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), with from 9. ... Diiodohydroxypropane is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Quinoline, also known as 1-azanaphthalene, 1-benzazine, or benzo[b]pyridine, is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. ... Dequalinium is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Chlorquinaldol is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Oxyquinoline is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Clioquinol is a powerful anti-infective drug available for topical (Vioform) and internal (Enterovioform) use. ... Quaternary ammonium cation. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , RTECS number BO3150000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Benzalkonium chloride (alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) is a mixture of alkylbenzyl dimethylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths. ... Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH3)3Br) is one of the components of the topical antiseptic cetrimide. ... Cetylpyridinium chloride is a cationic quaternary ammonium compound in some types of mouthwash such as Crest Pro-Health. ... Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH3)3Br) is one of the components of the topical antiseptic cetrimide. ... Benzoxonium chloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Didecyldimethylammonium chloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... This article is about the element. ... Mercuric amidochloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Phenylmercuric borate is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Mercury(II) chloride, more commonly called Mercuric Chloride (once known as corrosive sublimate (see image at right)), is the chemical compound with the formula HgCl2. ... Mercurochrome chemical formula Merbromin (marketed as Mercurochrome, Merbromine, Sodium mercurescein, Asceptichrome, Supercrome and Cinfacromin) is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes. ... Thiomersal (INN) (C9H9HgNaO2S), formerly and still commonly known in the United States as thimerosal, is an organomercury compound (approximately 49% mercury by weight) used as an antiseptic and antifungal agent. ... Mercury(II) iodide (HgI2) is a chemical compound with an appearance of red-orange crystals. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Eosin is an orange-pink dye derived from coal tar. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point 15 °C RTECS number UH8225000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Tosylchloramide sodium is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Otology is a branch of biomedicine which studies normal and pathological anatomy and physiology of the ear (hearing and vestibular sensory systems and related structures and functions) as well as its diseases, diagnosis and treatment. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ... Nitrofurazone, 2-((5-nitro-2-furanyl)methylene)hydrazinecarboxamide, chemical formula C6H6N4O4, is a pale yellow crystalline compound. ... Flash point Non-flammable. ... Clioquinol is a powerful anti-infective drug available for topical (Vioform) and internal (Enterovioform) use. ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Chlorhexidine (free base) structure Chlorhexidine Gluconate is an antiseptic used as an active ingredient in mouthwash designed to kill plaque and other oral bacteria. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Polymyxin B (also referred to as PMB) are antibiotics primary used for resistant gram negative infections. ... The rifamycins are a group of antibiotics which are synthesized either naturally by the bacterium Amycolatopsis mediterranei, or artificially. ... Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, and commonly applied topically (to the skin) or mucus membranes to cure fungal infections. ... Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Hydrocortisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug which may be given by injection or by topical application. ... Prednisolone is the active metabolite of prednisone. ... Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid hormones. ... Betamethasone dipropionate is a corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive abilities, used especially where water retention is undesirable. ... Lidocaine (INN) (IPA: ) or lignocaine (former BAN) (IPA: ) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ...

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ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Hydrogen Peroxide (946 words)
Hydrogen peroxide is unstable, decomposing readily to oxygen and water with release of heat.
In industry, hydrogen peroxide in higher concentrations is used as a bleach for textiles and paper, as a component of rocket fuels, and for producing foam rubber and organic chemicals.
Because hydrogen peroxide is used in many industries for a variety of purposes, workers in such industries may be exposed to this chemical through inhalation or contact with the skin.
hydrogen peroxide: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (3956 words)
Hydrogen peroxide adopts a "skewed" shape, due to repulsion between the lone pairs on the oxygen atoms.
Hydrogen peroxide is incompatible with many substances that catalyse its decomposition, including most of the transition metals and their compounds.
Hydrogen peroxide is manufactured today almost exclusively by the autoxidation of 2-ethyl-9,10-dihydroxyanthracene to 2-ethylanthraquinone and hydrogen peroxide using oxygen from the air.
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