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Encyclopedia > Hydrogen car
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hydrogen vehicle. (Discuss)

A hydrogen car is an automobile which uses hydrogen as its primary source of power for locomotion. The hydrogen can be obtained from decomposition of methane or from water and electricity using electrolysis. A primary benefit of using pure hydrogen as a power source is that it uses oxygen from the air to produce only water vapor as exhaust, moving the source of atmospheric pollution from many cars back to a single power plant, where it can be more easily dealt with. (The hydrogen car has absolutely nothing to do with fusion of hydrogen.) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hydrogen car. ... An automobile is a wheeled vehicle that carries its own motor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... // Mechanical power In physics, power (symbol: P) is the amount of work W done per unit of time t. ... The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, is a gas with a chemical formula of CH4. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... Water (from the Old English word wæter; c. ... Vapor (US English) or vapour (British English) is the gaseous state of matter. ... The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ...


Hydrogen is not a pre-existing source of energy like fossil fuels, but a carrier, much like a battery. It is renewable in a realistic time scale, unlike fossil fuels which can take millions of years to replenish. (Some dispute this. See Abiogenic petroleum origin.) The largest apparent advantages are that it could be produced and consumed continuously as well as cleanly using solar, wind and nuclear power for electrolysis. However, hydrogen production methods currently utilizing hydrocarbons would actually be more pollutive than direct consumption of the fossil fuels. To reduce pollution and reliance on fossil fuels, sustainable methods of hydrogen production would have to be invested in. Coal rail cars in Ashtabula, Ohio Fossil fuels, also known as mineral fuels, are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... Four double-A (AA) batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... The theory of abiogenic petroleum origin states that petroleum (or crude oil) is primarily created from non-biological sources of hydrocarbons located deep in the crust of the Earth. ... The Sun (occasionally referred to as Sol) is the star at the centre of our solar system. ... Wind is the quasi-horizontal movement of air (as opposed to an air current) caused by a horizontal pressure gradient force. ... The word nuclear means of or belonging to the nucleus of something. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is a cleaning solution consisting only of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ...


Some hydrogen cars currently exist, and a significant amount of research is underway to make the technology more viable. The common internal combustion engine, usually fueled with gasoline (petrol) or diesel liquids, can be converted to run on gaseous hydrogen. However, the most efficient use of hydrogen involves the use of fuel cells and electric motors instead of a traditional engine. Hydrogen reacts with oxygen inside the fuel cells, which produces electricity to power the motors. One primary area of research is hydrogen storage, to try to increase the range of hydrogen vehicles while reducing the weight, energy consumption, and complexity of the storage systems. Two primary methods of storage are metal hydrides and compression. A colorized automobile engine An internal combustion engine is a sexy engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (from petroleum) that is used in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel, and perfected by Charles F. Kettering. ... A liquid will assume the shape of its container. ... Gas (actually, as), the GNU assembler, is the default GCC back-end. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... Electric motors of various sizes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ...


High speed cars, buses, submarines, and space rockets already run on hydrogen, in various forms. The Fuel Cell Car Kit is a working toy model car that runs on solar power, using a reversible fuel cell to store energy in the form of hydrogen and oxygen gas. It can then convert the fuel back into water to release the solar energy. They are available online [1]. TheBus, established by Mayor Frank Fasi, is Honolulus only public transit system. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... A Redstone rocket, part of the Mercury program A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust gas from within a rocket engine. ...

Contents


Hydrogen fuel cell

While fuel cells are potentially highly efficient, and working prototypes were made by Roger E. Billings in the late 1960s, three major obstacles exist in the development of a fuel cell-powered hydrogen car. The first problem is that hydrogen has a very low density. Even when the fuel is stored as a liquid in a cryogenic tank or in a pressurized tank as a gas, the amount of energy that can be stored in the space available is limited, and hydrogen cars therefore have limited range compared to their conventional counterparts. Some research has been done into using special crystalline materials to store hydrogen at greater densities and with better safety margins. Roger E. Billings grew up in Provo, Utah and was born in 1948. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same, and is often confused with cryobiology, the study of the effect of low temperatures on organisms, or the study of cryopreservation. ... Quartz crystal A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Categories: Stub | Core issues in ethics | Firearm components | Safety | American football ...


Instead of storing molecular hydrogen on-board, some have advocated using hydrogen reformers to extract the hydrogen from more traditional fuels including methane, gasoline, and ethanol. Many environmentalists are irked by this idea, as it promotes continued dependence on fossil fuels (at least in the case of gasoline). However, given an efficient reforming process, vehicles using reformed gasoline or ethanol to power fuel cells would still be more efficient than vehicles running internal combustion engines. Molecular hydrogen, H2, is a molecule formed from two atoms of hydrogen. ... A hydrogen reformer is a device that extracts the hydrogen contained in other fuels. ... The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, is a gas with a chemical formula of CH4. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Environmentalist is a term used to describe an advocate of environmentalism. ... Coal rail cars in Ashtabula, Ohio Fossil fuels, also known as mineral fuels, are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ...


The second major problem that used to plague hydrogen fuel cells involves the high cost of making reliable fuel cells that would provide electric power in a hydrogen car. Scientists are also working hard to figure out how to produce inexpensive fuel cells that are also robust enough to survive the bumps and vibrations that all automobiles have to handle. Most fuel cell designs are fragile and can't survive in such environments. Also, many designs require rare substances such as platinum as a catalyst in order to work properly, and the catalyst can be contaminated by impurities in the hydrogen supply. However, within the past few years, a nickel-tin catalyst has been developed which drastically lowers the cost of a hydrogen fuel cell car to make it an economically viable car. See Oscillator (disambiguation) for particular types of oscillation and oscillators. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Atomic mass 195. ... A catalyst (Greek: καταλύτης, catalytēs) is a substance that accelerates the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction without itself being transformed or consumed by the reaction (see also catalysis). ...


The third "problem" is due to the fact that while hydrogen can be used as an energy carrier, it is not an energy source. It still must be produced from fossil fuels, or from some other energy source, with a net loss of energy (since the conversion from energy to hydrogen storage and back to energy is not 100% efficient). But Hydrogen is nearly twice as efficient than traditional combustion engines, which only have an efficiency of 15-25%. Hydrogen has a thermodynamic efficiency of 50-60%. The percentage will never be 100% because of the second law of thermodynamics. The US Energy Department has already announced plan to produce hydrogen directly from nuclear power plants. One of the main ideas of Generation IV nuclear power plant is to produce at the same time electricity and hydrogen. Since all energy sources have drawbacks, a shift into hydrogen powered vehicles will require difficult political decisions on how to produce this energy. Recently, alternative methods of creating hydrogen directly from sunlight and water through a metallic catalyst have been announced. This may provide a cheap, direct conversion of solar energy into hydrogen, a very clean solution. [2] Coal rail cars in Ashtabula, Ohio Fossil fuels, also known as mineral fuels, are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... The second law of thermodynamics states that all work processes tend towards a greater entropy (disorder/lower energy density) over time. ...


An existing conventional car cannot easily be converted to run from hydrogen, due to a number of inherent differences in the technologies. Other renewable energy sources, like biodiesel, are more practical for existing automobile conversions, but come with their own host of problems. Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water, biological processes, and geothermal heat flows. ... Biodiesel sample Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based diesel fuel made from renewable resources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. ...


Despite these problems, United States President George W. Bush is optimistic that these problems could be overcome with research. In his State of the Union address, he announced the U.S. government's hydrogen fuel initiative, which complements the President's existing Freedom CAR initiative for safe and cheap hydrogen fuel cell vehicles--even though some scientists around the US explain that his plan requires taking hydrogen from fossils, natural gas, and coal rather than renewable sources [3]. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the current President of the United States and former Governor of the State of Texas. ... Alternative meanings in State of the Union (disambiguation) The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). ...


Hydrogen internal combustion

Hydrogen internal combustion engine cars are different from hydrogen fuel cell cars. The hydrogen internal combustion car is a slightly modified version of the traditional gasoline internal combustion engine car. Hydrogen internal combustion cars burn hydrogen directly, with no other fuels and produce pure water vapor exhaust. The problem with these cars is the hydrogen fuel is used up rapidly. A full tank of hydrogen gas, in the gaseous state, would last only a few miles before the tank is empty. However, methods are being developed to reduce tank space, such as storing condensed (liquid) hydrogen or using metal hydrides in the tank. Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... A colorized automobile engine An internal combustion engine is a sexy engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... A Hydride is a chemical compound or form of a bond between hydrogen with a metal usually found in group 1 of the Periodic table, usually with a more electropositive element or group. ...


In 1807, Isaac de Rivas built the first hydrogen-fueled internal combustion vehicle. However, the design was very unsuccessful.


BMW's internal combustion hydrogen car has more power and is faster than hydrogen fuel cell electric cars. A BMW hydrogen car (H2R) broke the speed record for hydrogen cars at 300 km/h, making automotive history. Mazda has developed Wankel engines to burn hydrogen. The Wankel uses a rotary principle of operation, so the hydrogen burns in a different part of the engine from the intake. This reduces pre-detonation, a problem with hydrogen fueled piston engines. The BMW logo is a circle (known as a roundel) divided into quadrants of alternating white and light blue color. ... // Mechanical power In physics, power (symbol: P) is the amount of work W done per unit of time t. ... Mazda Millenia luxury sedan. ... Wankel Engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany The Wankel rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine, invented by German engineer Felix Wankel, which uses a rotor instead of reciprocating pistons. ... A weapons cache is detonated at the East River Range on Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion that involves a shock wave and a reaction zone behind it. ...


However the major car companies like DaimlerChrysler and General Motors Corp, are investing in the slower, weaker, but more efficient hydrogen fuel cells instead. Hydrogen fuel cells run directly on hydrogen fuel, or on hydrogen produced in the vehicle from reforming methane or gasoline (this from petroleum), or natural ethanol, while hydrogen internal-combustion cars run on hydrogen only. DaimlerChrysler AG (Xetra: DCX), NYSE: DCX, has its headquarter in Stuttgart, Germany and is a prominent automobile and truck manufacturer. ... General Motors Corporation NYSE: GM, also known as GM, is a United States-based automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Daewoo, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab, and Vauxhall. ... The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, is a gas with a chemical formula of CH4. ... Nodding donkey pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 Petroleum (from Latin petra – rock and oleum – oil), crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold, is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ...


Some claim to have devices that convert water to hydrogen gas directly in the car using the engine's output, making a car that runs on water and produces water as exhaust. Since this is a closed loop exhibiting net energy output (perpetual motion), it is widely regarded as a hoax (see water fuel cell). This article or section should include material from Parallel Path See also Perpetuum mobile as a musical term Perpetual motion machines (the Latin term perpetuum mobile is not uncommon) are a class of hypothetical machines which would produce useful energy in a way science cannot explain (yet). ... The electrolysis capacitor, as described in Meyers patents. ...


Fuel stations

Some fuel stations in Germany (among them, Aral), within the Clean Energy Partnership, are offering hydrogen. Fuel Stations are points at which vehicles operating on gasoline, diesel, natural gas, or hydrogen can stop at in order to refuel. ... The Aral corporate logo Aral is a brand of automobile fuels and gas stations, present in Germany, Luxembourg and the Czech Republic. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ...


See also

A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical future economy in which the primary form of stored energy for mobile applications and load balancing is hydrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1 (IA), 1 , s Density, Hardness 0. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1 (IA), 1 , s Density, Hardness 0. ... An electric vehicle is a vehicle whose motion is provided by electric motors. ... The future of the car is a controversial topic, with some advocates arguing that the car has no future, and others that the car will in the future supplant most other forms of transport. ... Honda Insight, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle 2004 Toyota Prius, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle A hybrid vehicle uses multiple energy sources or propulsion systems to provide motive power. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hydrogen car. ... Proposed hydrogen highways are chains of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other infrastructure which allow hydrogen powered cars to travel long distances. ... Liquid fuels are those combustible or energy-generating molecules which can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, which in turn usually produces kinetic energy, and which also must take the shape of their container. ... LH2 is an acronym used in the aerospace industry, which stands for Liquid Hydrogen. ... LH2 is an acronym used in the aerospace industry, which stands for liquid hydrogen. ... The soft energy path is an energy use and development strategy delineated and promoted by some energy experts and activists, such as Amory Lovins and Tom Bender. ... Older children can use personal rapid transit without adult help. ... Biodiesel sample Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based diesel fuel made from renewable resources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. ... The use of alcohol as a fuel for internal combustion engines, either alone or in combination with other fuels, has been given much attention mostly because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuels. ... Liquified petroleum gas (also called liquefied petroleum gas, liquid petroleum gas, LPG, LP gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing fluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... The Hype about Hydrogen, Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate is a book by Joseph J. Romm. ...

External links

  • Alternative Fuel Vehicle Training From the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium.
  • Hydrogen Cars.
  • How Hydrogen Can Save America Wired magazine .
  • German Clean Energy Partnership information about Hydrogen.
  • Aral information about hydrogen.
  • Hypercar Concept
  • Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Investor News
  • Australia to trial hydrogen-powered buses
  • HDW has signed contracts for 16 fuel cell submarines
  • Key Initiatives in the President's State of the Union Message
  • President Bush delivers speech promoting hydrogen use
  • Is BMW Building a Hydrogen Bombshell?
  • BMW Sets 9 RECORDS WITH HYDROGEN COMBUSTION ENGINE
  • Running on Empty - The End of Suburbia and the future slums of Irvine, review of the documentary film The End of Suburbia
  • Our Transportation Energy Future - contrasts the "hydrogen economy" with biofuels
  • NOVA scienceNOW - A 14 minute video of the NOVA broadcast about hydrogen fuel cell cars that aired on PBS, July 26, 2005. Hosted by Robert Krulwich with guests, Ray and Tom Magliozzi, the Car Talk brothers.

Documentary film is a broad category of cinematic expression united by the intent to remain factual or non-fictional. ... The End of Suburbia: Oil Depletion and the Collapse of The American Dream is a 2004 documentary film concerning peak oil and its implications on the suburban lifestyle. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... PBS re-directs here; for alternate uses see PBS (disambiguation) PBS logo The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Robert Krulwich is a respected television journalist whose specialty is explaining complex topics in depth. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

"Free energy" concepts

  • The Free-Energy Device Handbook
  • OS-Crack Thermal Gas Cracker from Oxford Scientific - A real hydrogen cracker for splitting molecular hydrogen into atoms (for comparison with free energy claims)
  • Hydrogen generator subsystem - thermo-catalytic cracker - Research on hydrogen crackers?

  Results from FactBites:
 
"Pure POWER" (1307 words)
Diagrams of the Hydrogen Car and the Hydrogen Fuel Cell.
The hydrogen fuel is fed into one end of the cell, where it comes in contact with a platinum plate.
Hydrogen can also come in liquid and solid forms that require less space and do not leak as readily, but each has drawbacks in the ease of handling and cost of refueling.
Army to Test Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle (381 words)
Hydrogen fuel cells produce less sound and heat than a conventional internal combustion engine.
Many obstacles exist for a hydrogen future, including a system of fueling stations, but nearly every automaker is developing hydrogen-powered vehicles.
The technology is backed by a five-year, $1.2 billion hydrogen initiative announced by President Bush in his 2003 State of the Union address.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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