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Encyclopedia > Hydroelectricity

Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. It is a renewable source of energy, produces no waste, and does not produce carbon dioxide (CO2) which contributes to greenhouse gases. Hydroelectricity now supplies about 715,000 MWe or 19% of world electricity (16% in 2003), accounting for over 63% of the total electricity from renewables in 2005.[1] Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower or hydraulic power is the force or energy of moving water. ... MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ...


Although large hydroelectric installations generate most of the world's hydroelectricity, small hydro schemes are particularly popular in China, which has over 50% of world small hydro capacity.[1] Micro hydro in North-West Vietnam Small hydro is the application of hydroelectric power on a commercial scale serving a small community or medium sized industry. ...

Renewable energy sources worldwide in 2005 (2004 for items marked * or **). Off-grid electric and ground source heat pumps not included. Source: REN21[1]

Some jurisdictions do not consider large hydro projects to be a sustainable energy source due to human and environmental impacts[2]. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (882x705, 18 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Renewable energy World energy resources and consumption ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (882x705, 18 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Renewable energy World energy resources and consumption ...

Renewable energy
Wind Turbine
Biofuels
Biomass
Geothermal
Hydro power
Solar power
Tidal power
Wave power
Wind power

Contents

Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power (from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and therme, meaning heat) is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface or the collection of absorbed heat in the atmosphere and oceans. ... Ultraviolet image of the Sun. ... Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that exploits the movement of water caused by tidal currents or the rise and fall in sea levels due to the tides. ... Wave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work - including electricity generation, desalination, and the pumping of water (into reservoirs). ... An example of a wind turbine. ...

Electricity generation

Hydroelectric dam in cross section
Hydroelectric dam in cross section

Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. In this case the energy extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. To obtain very high head, water for a hydraulic turbine may be run through a large pipe called a penstock. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Kaplan turbine and electrical generator cut-away view. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ... World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ... Potential energy can be thought of as energy stored within a physical system. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ... In fluid dynamics, head refers to the constant right hand side in the incompressible steady version of Bernoullis equation. ... Potential energy can be thought of as energy stored within a physical system. ... Penstocks at the Grand Coulee Dams third powerhouse. ...


Pumped storage hydroelectricity produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped storage schemes currently provide the only commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily load factor of the generation system. Hydroelectric plants with no reservoir capacity are called run-of-the-river plants, since it is not then possible to store water. A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of water due to tides; such sources are highly predictable, and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs, can also be dispatchable to generate power during high demand periods. Diagram of the TVA pumped storage facility at Racoon Mountain Pumped storage hydroelectricity is a method of storing and producing electricity to supply high peak demands. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ... Ffestiniog pumped storage power station upper reservoir Grid energy storage lets energy producers send excess electricity over the electricity transmission grid to temporary electricity storage sites that become energy producers when electricity demand is greater. ... Load Factor (LF) – The percentage of seats filled. ... Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity is a type of hydroelectric generation whereby the natural flow and elevation drop of a river are used to generate electricity. ... Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that exploits the movement of water caused by tidal currents or the rise and fall in sea levels due to the tides. ...


Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot waterwheels. The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ...


A simple formula for approximating electric power production at a hydroelectric plant is: P = hrk, where P is Power in watts, h is height in meters, r is flow rate in cubic meters per second, and k is a conversion factor of 7500 watts (assuming an efficiency factor of about 76.5 percent and acceleration due to gravity of 9.81 m/s2, and fresh water with a density of 1000 kg per cubic metre. Efficiency is often higher with larger modern turbines and may be lower with very old or small installations due to proportionately higher friction losses). Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...


Annual electric energy production depends on the available water supply. In some installations the water flow rate can vary by a factor of 10:1 over the course of a year.


Industrial hydroelectric plants

While many hydroelectric projects supply public electricity networks, some are created to serve specific industrial enterprises. Dedicated hydroelectric projects are often built to provide the substantial amounts of electricity needed for aluminium electrolytic plants, for example. In the Scottish Highlands there are examples at Kinlochleven and Lochaber, constructed during the early years of the 20th century. In Suriname, the Brokopondo Reservoir was constructed to provide electricity for the Alcoa aluminium industry. New Zealand's Manapouri Power Station was constructed to supply electricity to the aluminium smelter at Tiwai Point. As of 2007 the Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Project in Iceland remains controversial.[3] Aluminum redirects here. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Kinlochleven is a village in Scotland and lies at the eastern end of Loch Leven, a sea loch cutting into the western Scottish Highlands. ... Lochaber (Scottish Gaelic, Loch Abar) refers to a large area of the central and western Scottish Highlands. ... A map of Suriname showing the location of the Brokopondo Reservoir and its Dutch name. ... This article is about the company. ... The Manapouri Power Station machine hall, February 2005 Switchyard and water intake of Manapouri Power Station, February 2005 Manapouri Power Station is an underground hydroelectric power station owned and operated by Meridian Energy Limited, the largest hydroelectric power station in New Zealand. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Historic smelter in Florence, Colorado In extractive metallurgy, a smelter is a factory for producing metal by the reduction of ore. ... Comalco (now called Rio Tinto Aluminium) is the worlds eighth largest aluminium company. ... Building site Building site The Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Project involves damming two rivers in eastern Iceland (the Jökulsá í Fljótsdal - source to the famous Milky Lake of Lagarfljót, and the Jökulsá á Dal (aka Jókulsá á Bru)) to produce hydroelectricity to power a new aluminium smelting plant...


Small-scale hydro-electric plants

Main article: Small hydro

Small hydro plants are those producing up to 10 megawatts, although projects up to 30 megawatts in North America are considered small hydro and have the same regulations. A small hydro plant may be connected to a distribution grid or may provide power only to an isolated community or a single home. Small hydro projects generally do not require the protracted economic, engineering and enviromental studies associated with large projects, and often can be completed much more quickly. A small hydro development may be installed along with a project for flood control, irrigation or other purposes, providing extra revenue for project costs. In areas that formerly used waterwheels for milling and other purposes, often the site can be redeveloped for electric power production, possibly eliminating the new environmental impact of any demolition operation. Small hydro can be further divided into mini-hydro, units around 1 MW in size, and micro hydro with units as large as 100 kW down to a couple of kW rating. Micro hydro in North-West Vietnam Small hydro is the application of hydroelectric power on a commercial scale serving a small community or medium sized industry. ...


Small hydro units in the range 1 MW to about 30 MW are often available from multiple manufacturers using standardized "water to wire" packages; a single contractor can provide all the major mechanical and electrical equipment (turbine, generator, controls, switchgear), selecting from several standard designs to fit the site conditions. Micro hydro projects use a diverse range of equipment; in the smaller sizes industrial centrifugal pumps can be used as turbines, with comparitively low purchase cost compared to purpose-built turbines.


Advantages

The upper reservoir and dam of the Ffestiniog pumped storage scheme. 360 megawatts of electricity can be generated within 60 seconds of the need arising.
The upper reservoir and dam of the Ffestiniog pumped storage scheme. 360 megawatts of electricity can be generated within 60 seconds of the need arising.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The upper reservoir and dam. ...

Economics

The major advantage of hydroelectricity is elimination of the cost of fuel. The cost of operating a hydroelectric plant is nearly immune to increases in the cost of fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal. Fuel is not required and so it need not be imported. Hydroelectric plants tend to have longer economic lives than fuel-fired generation, with some plants now in service having been built 50 to 100 years ago. Operating labor cost is usually low since plants are automated and have few personnel on site during normal operation. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Where a dam serves multiple purposes, a hydroelectric plant may be added with relatively low construction cost, providing a useful revenue stream to offset the costs of dam operation. It has been calculated that the sale of electricity from the Three Gorges Dam will cover the construction costs after 5 to 8 years of full generation.[4] The Three Gorges Dam (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Chinese hydroelectric river dam that spans the Yangtze River in Sandouping, Yichang, Hubei, China. ...


Greenhouse gas emissions

Since hydroelectric dams do not burn fossil fuels, they do not directly produce carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas). While some carbon dioxide is produced during manufacture and construction of the project, this is a tiny fraction of the operating emissions of equivalent fossil-fuel electricity generation. Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Related activities

Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes often provide facilities for water sports, and become tourist attractions in themselves. In some countries, farming fish in the reservoirs is common. Multi-use dams installed for irrigation can support the fish farm with relatively constant water supply. Large hydro dams can control floods, which would otherwise affect people living downstream of the project. When dams create large reservoirs and eliminate rapids, boats may be used to improve transportation. There are a large number of sports that involve water. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ...


Disadvantages

Recreational users must exercise extreme care when near hydroelectric dams, power plant intakes and spillways.
Recreational users must exercise extreme care when near hydroelectric dams, power plant intakes and spillways.[5]
Warning on embankment about sudden water release
Warning on embankment about sudden water release

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1680 KB) A group of warnings at OShaughnessy Dam near Dublin, Ohio. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1680 KB) A group of warnings at OShaughnessy Dam near Dublin, Ohio. ... Spillway of Llyn Brianne dam in Wales A Spillway is a structure used to provide for the controlled release of flood flows from a dam or levee into a downstream area, typically being the river that has been dammed. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Environmental damage

Hydroelectric projects can be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems both upstream and downstream of the plant site. For instance, studies have shown that dams along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America have reduced salmon populations by preventing access to spawning grounds upstream, even though most dams in salmon habitat have fish ladders installed. Salmon spawn are also harmed on their migration to sea when they must pass through turbines. This has led to some areas transporting smolt downstream by barge during parts of the year. In some cases dams have been demolished (for example the Marmot Dam demolished in 2007 [6]. ), because of impact on fish. Turbine and power-plant designs that are easier on aquatic life are an active area of research. Mitigation measures such as fish ladders may be required at new projects or as a condition of re-licensing of existing projects. For other uses, see Ecological Systems Theory. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the worlds largest body of water. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Frog spawn Spawning is the production or depositing of eggs in large numbers by aquatic animals. ... Pool-and-weir fish ladder at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River Fishways, most commonly referred to as fish ladders but also known as fish passes, are structures placed on or around man-made barriers (such as dams and weirs) to assist the natural migration of diadromous fishes. ... Frog spawn Spawning is the production or depositing of large quantites of eggs in water. ... Kaplan turbine and electrical generator cut-away view. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... The Bull Run Hydroelectric Project is a Portland General Electric development in the Sandy River basin in the U.S. state of Oregon. ...


Generation of hydroelectric power changes the downstream river environment. Water exiting a turbine usually contains very little suspended sediment, which can lead to scouring of river beds and loss of riverbanks. Since turbine gates are often opened intermittently, rapid or even daily fluctuations in river flow are observed. For example, in the Grand Canyon, the daily cyclic flow variation caused by Glen Canyon Dam was found to be contributing to erosion of sand bars. Dissolved oxygen content of the water may change from pre-construction conditions. Depending on the location, water exiting from turbines is typically much warmer than the pre-dam water, which can change aquatic faunal populations, including endangered species, and prevent natural freezing processes from occurring. Some hydroelectric projects also use canals to divert a river at a shallower gradient to increase the head of the scheme. In some cases, the entire river may be diverted leaving a dry riverbed. Examples include the Tekapo and Pukaki Rivers. This article is about the canyon in the southwestern United States. ... Glen Canyon Dam on 19 June 2005. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... The Tekapo River flows through the Mackenzie Basin, Canterbury, in New Zealands South Island. ... The Bukaki River flows through the Mackenzie Basin, Canterbury, in New Zealands South Island. ...


A further concern is the impact of major schemes on birds. Since damming and redirecting the waters of the Platte River in Nebraska for agricultural and energy use, many native and migratory birds such as the Piping Plover and Sandhill Crane have become increasingly endangered. For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... The Platte River, showing the North Platte and South Platte The Platte River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 310 mi. ...


Greenhouse gas emissions

Bonnington hydroelectric power station, River Clyde, Scotland.
Bonnington hydroelectric power station, River Clyde, Scotland.
The pipes supplying water from the River Clyde to Bonnington hydroelectric power station, Scotland.
The pipes supplying water from the River Clyde to Bonnington hydroelectric power station, Scotland.

The reservoirs of power plants in tropical regions may produce substantial amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. This is due to plant material in flooded areas decaying in an anaerobic environment, and forming methane, a very potent greenhouse gas. According to the World Commission on Dams report, where the reservoir is large compared to the generating capacity (less than 100 watts per square metre of surface area) and no clearing of the forests in the area was undertaken prior to impoundment of the reservoir, greenhouse gas emissions from the reservoir may be higher than those of a conventional oil-fired thermal generation plant.[7] These emissions represent carbon already in the biosphere, not fossil deposits that had been sequestered from the carbon cycle. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 563 pixelsFull resolution (2201 × 1548 pixels, file size: 742 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 563 pixelsFull resolution (2201 × 1548 pixels, file size: 742 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other rivers, see Clyde River (disambiguation) , The River Clyde (Gaelic: Abhainn Chluaidh, pronounced ) is a major river in Scotland. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixels, file size: 1. ... For other rivers, see Clyde River (disambiguation) , The River Clyde (Gaelic: Abhainn Chluaidh, pronounced ) is a major river in Scotland. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


In boreal reservoirs of Canada and Northern Europe, however, greenhouse gas emissions are typically only 2 to 8% of any kind of conventional fossil-fuel thermal generation. A new class of underwater logging operation that targets drowned forests can mitigate the effect of forest decay.[8] Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ...


Discussions to exclude hydropower facilities from obtaining carbon credits under the Clean Development Mechanism are starting to take place, most recently at the UN Climate Change Conference 2007 in Bali, Indonesia.[9] CDM directs here. ...


Population relocation

Another disadvantage of hydroelectric dams is the need to relocate the people living where the reservoirs are planned. In many cases, no amount of compensation can replace ancestral and cultural attachments to places that have spiritual value to the displaced population. Additionally, historically and culturally important sites can be flooded and lost. Such problems have arisen at the Three Gorges Dam project in China, the Clyde Dam in New Zealand and the Ilısu Dam in Southeastern Turkey. The Three Gorges Dam (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Chinese hydroelectric river dam that spans the Yangtze River in Sandouping, Yichang, Hubei, China. ... , The Clyde Dam is New Zealands third largest hydroelectric dam, and is built on the Clutha River, near the town of Clyde. ... The Ilısu Dam is in the predominantly Kurdish[1] southeast of Turkey. ...


Dam failures

Failures of large dams, while rare, are potentially serious — the Banqiao Dam failure in Southern China resulted in the deaths of 171,000 people and left millions homeless. Dams may be subject to enemy bombardment during wartime, sabotage and terrorism. Smaller dams and micro hydro facilities are less vulnerable to these threats. The creation of a dam in a geologically inappropriate location may cause disasters like the one of the Vajont Dam in Italy, where almost 2000 people died, in 1963. The Banqiao Reservoir Dam (Chinese: ; pinyin: BÇŽnqiáo Shuǐkù Dàbà) and Shimantan Reservoir Dam (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shímàntān Shuǐkù Dàbà) are among 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture of Chinas Henan Province that failed catastrophically in 1975 during Typhoon Nina. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... Micro Hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. ... Vajont Dam is a dam completed in 1961 under Mount Toc, 100 km north of Venice, Italy. ...


Comparison with other methods of power generation

The hydroelectric power station of Aswan Dam, Egypt
The hydroelectric power station of Aswan Dam, Egypt
Hydroelectric Reservoir Vianden, Luxembourg
Hydroelectric Reservoir Vianden, Luxembourg

Hydroelectricity eliminates the flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion, including pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, dust, and mercury in the coal. Hydroelectricity also avoids the hazards of coal mining and the indirect health effects of coal emissions. Compared to nuclear power, hydroelectricity generates no nuclear waste, has none of the dangers associated with uranium mining, nor nuclear leaks. Unlike uranium, hydroelectricity is also a renewable energy source. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 567 KB) Summary The hydroelectric power station of Aswan dam. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 567 KB) Summary The hydroelectric power station of Aswan dam. ... Map showing reservoir The hydroelectric power station of Aswan Dam Aswan is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 775 KB) Licensing by: Vdegroot File links The following pages link to this file: Hydroelectricity Vianden Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 775 KB) Licensing by: Vdegroot File links The following pages link to this file: Hydroelectricity Vianden Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Vianden, view from the castle Castle of Vianden Vianden (Luxemburgish: Veianen) is a small city in north-eastern Luxembourg with approx. ... The combustion product gas resulting from the burning of fossil fuels (or any other combustible fuel) is called flue gas. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... This article is about the element. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming in the United States of America. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... The Ranger Uranium Mine in Australia. ... This article is about radiation accidents in general. ...


Compared to wind farms, hydroelectricity power plants have a more predictable load factor. If the project has a storage reservoir, it can be dispatched to generate power when needed. Hydroelectric plants can be easily regulated to follow variations in power demand. A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines in the same location. ...


Unlike fossil-fueled combustion turbines, construction of a hydroelectric plant requires a long lead-time for site studies, hydrological studies, and environmental impact assessment. Hydrological data up to 50 years or more is usually required to determine the best sites and operating regimes for a large hydroelectric plant. Unlike plants operated by fuel, such as fossil or nuclear energy, the number of sites that can be economically developed for hydroelectric production is limited; in many areas the most cost effective sites have already been exploited. New hydro sites tend to be far from population centers and require extensive transmission lines. Hydroelectric generation depends on rainfall in the watershed, and may be significantly reduced in years of low rainfall or snowmelt. Long-term energy yield may be affected by climate change. Utilities that primarily use hydroelectric power may spend additional capital to build extra capacity to ensure sufficient power is available in low water years.


In parts of Canada (the provinces of British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador) hydroelectricity is used so extensively that the word "hydro" is often used to refer to any electricity delivered by a power utility. The government-run power utilities in these provinces are called BC Hydro, Manitoba Hydro, Hydro One (formerly "Ontario Hydro"), Hydro-Québec and Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro respectively. Hydro-Québec is the world's largest hydroelectric generating company, with a total installed capacity (2005) of 31,512 MW. Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Founded in 1961, Manitoba Hydro is the electric power and natural gas utility in the province of Manitoba, and is the 4th largest electrical utility in Canada. ... Hydro One Incorporated delivers electricity across the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Hydro-Québec is a crown corporation that provides hydroelectric power for Quebec, Canada and the north-eastern parts of the United States. ... Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro is a provincial Crown corporation that provides hydroelectric power for Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ...


Countries with the most hydro-electric capacity

The ranking of hydro-electric capacity is either by actual annual energy production or by installed capacity power rating. A hydro-electric plant rarely operates at its full power rating over a full year; the ratio between annual average power and installed capacity rating is the load factor. The installed capacity is the sum of all generator nameplate power ratings. Sources came from BP Annual Report 2006 [10] List of the largest hydoelectric power stations This is a list of the largest hydroelectric power stations. ...

Country Annual Hydroelectric
Energy Production(TWh)
Installed Capacity (GW) Load Factor
People's Republic of China(2007) [11] 486.7 145.26 0.37
Canada 350.3 88.974 0.59
Brazil 349.9 69.080 0.56
USA 291.2 79.511 0.42
Russia 157.1 45.000 0.42
Norway 119.8 27.528 0.49
India 112.4 33.600 0.43
Japan 95.0 27.229 0.37
Sweden 61.8 - -
France 61.5 25.335 0.25

In 2005, Venezuela's hydroelectric power plants produced nearby 74 TWh[12]. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


Old hydro-electric power stations

Northern hemisphere

  • Niagara Falls, New York. For many years the largest hydroelectric power station in the world. Operation began locally in 1895 and power was transmitted to Buffalo, New York, in 1896.
  • It is believed that the oldest Hydro Power site in the United States is located on Claverack Creek, in Stottville, New York. The turbine, a Morgan Smith, was constructed in 1869 and installed 2 years later. It is one of the earliest water wheel installations in the United States to generate electricity. It is owned today by Edison Hydro.[citation needed]
  • The oldest continuously-operated commercial hydroelectric plant in the United States is built on the Hudson River at Mechanicville, New York. The seven 750 kW units at this station initially supplied power at a frequency of 38 Hz, but later were increased in speed to 40 Hz. It went into commercial service July 22,1898. It is now being restored to its original condition and remains in commercial operation. [13]
  • The oldest continuously-operated hydroelectric generator in Canada is located in St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada. Part of the construction of the Milltown Cotton Mill, this rope-driven generator originally powered the electric lights for the mill when it opened in 1882, and in 1888 started providing power to homes in the town. NB Power now owns and operates this as part of the Milltown Dam hydroelectric station.

Appleton is a city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, on the Fox River, 100 miles (161 km) north of Milwaukee. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Fox River is a river in Wisconsin in the United States. ... Edison redirects here. ... The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ... Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant is a hydroelectric power plant in Niagara Falls, New York. ... St. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is a public company whose shares are wholly owned by the Government of Ontario. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... Stottville is a hamlet (and census-designated place) located in Columbia County, New York. ... Mechanicville is a city in Saratoga County, New York, USA. The population was 5,019 at the 2000 census. ... The waveform of 230 volt, 50 Hz compared with 110 V, 60 Hz. ... St. ... NB Power (French: Energie NB), formerly known as New Brunswick Power Corporation is a provincially owned Crown Corporation. ...

Southern hemisphere

  • Duck Reach, Launceston, Tasmania. Completed 1895. The first publicly owned hydro-electric plant in the Southern Hemisphere. Supplied power to the city of Launceston for street lighting.

Duck Reach Power Station was the first publicly-owned hydro-electric plant in the Southern Hemisphere, and provided the Tasmanian city of Launceston with hydro-electric power from its construction in 1895 to its closure in 1955. ...

Major schemes under construction

Name Maximum Capacity Country Construction started Scheduled completion Comments
Three Gorges Dam 22,500 MW China December 14 1994 2009 Largest power plant in the world. First power in July 2003, with 12,600 MW installed by October 2007.
Xiluodu Dam 12,600 MW China December 26 2005 2015 Construction once stopped due to lack of environmental impact study.
Longtan Dam 6,300 MW China July 1 2001 December 2009
Xiangjiaba Dam 6,000 MW China November 26 2006 2015
Nuozhadu Dam 5,850 MW China 2006 2017
Jinping 2 Hydropower Station 4,800 MW China January 30 2007 2014 To build this dam, 23 families and 129 local residents need to be moved. It works with Jinping 1 Hydropower Station as a group.
Laxiwa Dam 4,200 MW China April 18 2006 2010
Xiaowan Dam 4,200 MW China January 1 2002 December 2012
Jinping 1 Hydropower Station 3,600 MW China November 11 2005 2014
Pubugou Dam 3,300 MW China March 30 2004 2010
Goupitan Dam 3,000 MW China November 8 2003 2011
Boguchan Dam 3,000 MW Russia 1980 2012
Chapetón 3,000 MW Argentina
Jinanqiao Dam 2,400 MW China December 2006 2010
Guandi Dam 2,400 MW China Novermber 11 2007 2012
Tocoma (Manuel Piar) 2,160 MW Venezuela 2004 2014 This new power plant would be the last development in the Low Caroni Basin totalizing six power plant in the same river, including the 10,000MW Guri Dam.
Bureya Dam 2,010 MW Russia 1978 2009
Ahai Dam 2,000 MW China July 27 2006
Lower Subansiri Dam 2,000 MW India 2005 2009

The Three Gorges Dam (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Chinese hydroelectric river dam that spans the Yangtze River in Sandouping, Yichang, Hubei, China. ... The Longtan dam is a large dam on the Hongshui River, a tributary of the Pearl River. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Bureya Dam (Bureyskaya) is a hydroelectric dam on the Bureya River in the Russian Far East. ...

Proposed Major Hydro-electric Project

Name Maximum Capacity Country Construction starts Scheduled completion Comments
Red Sea dam 50,000 MW Middle East Unknown Unknown Still in planning, would be largest dam in the world
Baihetan Dam 12,000 MW China 2009 2015 Still in planning
Wudongde Dam 7,000 MW China 2009 2015 Still in planning
Maji Dam 4,200 MW China 2008 2013
Songta Dam 4,200 MW China 2008 2013
Liangjiaren Dam 4,000 MW China 2009 2015 Still in planning
Jirau Dam 3,300 MW Brazil 2007 2012
Pati Dam 3,300 MW Argentina
Santo Antônio Dam 3,150 MW Brazil 2007 2012
Guanyinyan Dam 3,000 MW China 2009 2015 Still in planning
Lianghekou Dam 3,000 MW China 2009 2015
Lower Churchill 2,800 MW Canada 2009 2014
Liyuan Dam 2,400 MW China 2008
Dagangshan Dam 2,300 MW China 2009 2015
Changheba Dam 2,200 MW China 2009 2015
Ludila Dam 2,100 MW China 2009 2015

A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

See also

Renewable energy
Wind Turbine
Biofuels
Biomass
Geothermal
Hydro power
Solar power
Tidal power
Wave power
Wind power
Energy Portal

Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power (from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and therme, meaning heat) is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface or the collection of absorbed heat in the atmosphere and oceans. ... Ultraviolet image of the Sun. ... Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that exploits the movement of water caused by tidal currents or the rise and fall in sea levels due to the tides. ... Wave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work - including electricity generation, desalination, and the pumping of water (into reservoirs). ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower or hydraulic power is the force or energy of moving water. ... Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity is a type of hydroelectric generation whereby the natural flow and elevation drop of a river are used to generate electricity. ... The List of reservoirs and dams is a link page for any reservoir or dam in the world, by continent. ... This is a list of the largest hydroelectric power stations. ... Micro hydro in North-West Vietnam Small hydro is the application of hydroelectric power on a commercial scale serving a small community or medium sized industry. ... Pumped storage hydroelectricity is a method of storing and producing electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. ... Modern technology uses large amounts of electrical power. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Renewables Global Status Report 2006 Update, REN21, published 2007, accessed 2007-05-16
  2. ^ California SB1078, California Senate Bill 1078, published 2002, accessed 2008-02-18
  3. ^ Summer of International dissent against Heavy Industry, Saving Iceland, published 2007, accessed 2007-05-17
  4. ^ Beyond Three Gorges in China
  5. ^ Stay Clear, Stay Safe, Ontario Power Generation
  6. ^ "Rain helps Sandy River run wild, free", The Oregonian, October 20, 2007. 
  7. ^ Hydroelectric power's dirty secret revealed
  8. ^ Inhabitat » “Rediscovered” Wood & The Triton Sawfish
  9. ^ Power firms accused of emissions trade cheating | Environment | The Guardian
  10. ^ Consumption TWh'!A1
  11. ^ 2007年全国电力持续快速健康发展新闻信息-中国电力企业联合会网站
  12. ^ Energy Information Administration - International Electricity Generation Data
  13. ^ The Historic Mechanicville Hydroelectric Station Part 1: The Early Days, IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, Jan/Feb. 2007
  • New Scientist report on greenhouse gas production by hydroelectric dams.
  • International Water Power and Dam Construction Venezuela country profile
  • International Water Power and Dam Construction Canada country profile
  • Tremblay, Varfalvy, Roehm and Garneau. 2005. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Fluxes and Processes, Springer, 732 p.

REN21 is the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century: a global policy network that provides a forum for international leadership on renewable energy. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Hydroelectric power
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hydroelectricity (1320 words)
Hydroelectricity is obtained from the ENERGY contained in falling water; it is a renewable, comparatively nonpolluting energy source and Canada's largest source of ELECTRIC-POWER GENERATION.
Early use of hydroelectric generation was limited by the capacity of the generating station, which was governed by the waterpower resource (streamflow and net height of fall), or by the electric-lighting load near the station.
Hydroelectric generation was not developed in Saskatchewan until the early 1960s, when the S Saskatchewan R Development provided control and regulation of the province's major river system.
Hydroelectric generator - Patent 7042113 (3246 words)
A hydroelectric generator having a fixed axle, at least one transmission axle parallel to the fixed axle, and a transmission system configured to rotate the transmission axle about the fixed axle and to apply a force to at least one driven member of a device for generating electricity.
The hydroelectric generator of claim 7, wherein the third mechanical transmission system is configured to drive a first driven member of a device for generating electricity in a first direction and a second driven member of a device for generating electricity in a second direction.
The hydroelectric generator of claim 8, further comprising a device for generating electricity, wherein a first driven member of the device for generating electricity is coupled to a coil of wire and a second driven member of the device for generating electricity is coupled to a magnet.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

amy
15th May 2010
Why dont you have a map of new Zealand of at least 4 hydro electric power stations located on the map. if you do put it on your website thank you because i am really in need!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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