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Encyclopedia > Hydroelectric plants
Hydroelectric dam in cross section
Hydroelectric dam in cross section
The upper reservoir and dam of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales.The power station at the lower reservoir has four water turbines which can generate 360 megawatts of electricity within 60 seconds of the need arising. The water of the upper reservoir (Llyn Stylan) can just be glimpsed on the right.
The upper reservoir and dam of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales.The power station at the lower reservoir has four water turbines which can generate 360 megawatts of electricity within 60 seconds of the need arising. The water of the upper reservoir (Llyn Stylan) can just be glimpsed on the right.

Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower. Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. Less common variations make use of water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as tidal power. Hydroelectricity is a renewable energy source. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Kaplan turbine and electrical generator cut-away view. ... An electrical generator is a device that produces electrical energy from a mechanical energy source. ... Image File history File links Hydroelectric_dam. ... Image File history File links Hydroelectric_dam. ... Image File history File links Stwlan. ... Image File history File links Stwlan. ... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom, England and Wales and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... Electric power is the amount of work done by an electric current in a unit time. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... Kaplan turbine and electrical generator cut-away view. ... An electrical generator is a device that produces electrical energy from a mechanical energy source. ... Kinetic energy (SI unit: the joule) is energy that a body possesses as a result of its motion. ... Tidal power is a means of electricity generation achieved by capturing the energy contained in moving water mass due to tides. ... Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water (hydropower), biological processes, and geothermal heat flows. ...


The energy extracted from water depends not only on the volume but on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is directly proportional to the head. To obtain very high head, water for a hydraulic turbine may be run through a large pipe called a penstock. In fluid dynamics, head refers to the constant right hand side in the incompressible steady version of Bernoullis equation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about proportionality, the mathematical relation. ... Penstocks at the Grand Coulee Dams third powerhouse. ...


While many supply public electricity networks, some projects were created for private commercial purposes. For example, aluminium processing requires substantial amounts of electricity, and in Britain's Scottish Highlands there are examples at Kinlochleven and Lochaber, designed and constructed during the early years of the 20th century. Similarly, the 'van Blommestein' lake, dam and power station were constructed in Suriname to provide electricity for the Alcoa aluminium industry. In many parts of Canada (the provinces of British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador) hydroelectricity is used so extensively that the word "hydro" is used to refer to any electricity delivered by a power utility. The government-run power utilities in these provinces are called BC Hydro, Manitoba Hydro, Hydro One (formerly "Ontario Hydro"), Hydro-Québec and Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro respectively. Hydro-Québec is the world's largest hydroelectric generating company, with a total installed capacity (2005) of 31,512 MW. General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass 26. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Kinlochleven is a village in Scotland and lies at the eastern end of Loch Leven, a sea loch cutting into the western Scottish Highlands. ... Lochaber (Scottish Gaelic, Loch Abar) refers to a large area of the central and western Scottish Highlands. ... The backbone of Surinames economy is the export of alumina and small amounts of aluminum produced from bauxite mined in the country. ... Alcoa (NYSE: AA) is the world’s leading producer of alumina, primary and fabricated aluminium, with operations in 43 countries. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages none stated in law; English is de facto Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 5th 944,735... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Official languages English (French is an official language of the Manitoban legislature and courts) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1,076,395 km... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Capital Quebec City Largest city Montréal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 2nd 1,542,056 km² 1,183,128 km² 176... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Official languages None Capital St. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... BC Hydro is a public utility that is the major provider of electricity in British Columbia, Canada. ... Founded in 1961, Manitoba Hydro is the electric power and natural gas utility in the province of Manitoba, Canada. ... Hydro One Incorporated delivers electricity across the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Hydro-Québec is a crown corporation that provides hydroelectric power for Quebec, Canada and the north-eastern parts of the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Importance

Hydroelectric power supplies 20% of world electricity. Norway produces virtually all of its electricity from hydro, while Iceland produces 83% of its requirements (2004), Austria produces 67 % of all electricity generated in the country from hydro (over 70 % of its requirements). Canada is the world's largest producer of hydro power and produces over 70% of its electricity from hydroelectric sources. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Apart from a few countries with an abundance of it, hydro capacity is normally applied to peak-load demand, because it can be readily stored during off-peak hours (in fact, pumped-storage hydroelectric reservoirs are sometimes used to store electricity produced by thermal plants for use during peak hours). It is not a major option for the future in the developed countries because most major sites in these countries having potential for harnessing gravity in this way are either being exploited already or are unavailable for other reasons such as environmental considerations. Pumped storage hydroelectricity is a method of storing and producing electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. ...


Advantages and disadvantages

House flooded since 1955, revealed following prolonged dry weather
House flooded since 1955, revealed following prolonged dry weather
Hydroelectric Reservoir Vianden, Luxembourg (tower)
Hydroelectric Reservoir Vianden, Luxembourg (tower)
Hydroelectric Reservoir Vianden, Luxembourg
Hydroelectric Reservoir Vianden, Luxembourg

The chief advantage of hydro systems is elimination of the cost of fuel. Hydroelectric plants are immune to price increases for fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal, and do not require imported fuel. Hydroelectric plants tend to have longer lives than fuel-fired generation, with some plants now in service having been built 50 to 100 years ago. Labor cost also tends to be low since plants are generally heavily automated and have few personnel on site during normal operation. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 161 KB) Summary Photograph of Upper Glendevon Reservoir, Fife, Scotland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 161 KB) Summary Photograph of Upper Glendevon Reservoir, Fife, Scotland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1712x2288, 763 KB) Licensing by: Vdegroot File links The following pages link to this file: Hydroelectricity Vianden Reservoir (water) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1712x2288, 763 KB) Licensing by: Vdegroot File links The following pages link to this file: Hydroelectricity Vianden Reservoir (water) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Vianden, view from the castle Castle of Vianden Vianden (Luxemburgish: Veianen) is a small city in north-eastern Luxembourg with approx. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 775 KB) Licensing by: Vdegroot File links The following pages link to this file: Hydroelectricity Vianden Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 775 KB) Licensing by: Vdegroot File links The following pages link to this file: Hydroelectricity Vianden Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Vianden, view from the castle Castle of Vianden Vianden (Luxemburgish: Veianen) is a small city in north-eastern Luxembourg with approx. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold, is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Many stoves use natural gas. ... Coal (previously referred to as pitcoal or seacoal) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ...


Pumped storage plants currently provide the most significant means of storage of energy on a scale useful for a utility, allowing low-value generation in off-peak times (which occurs because fossil-fuel plants cannot be entirely shut down on a daily basis) to be used to store water that can be released during high load daily peaks. Operation of pumped-storage plants improves the daily load factor of the generation system. Pumped storage hydroelectricity is a method of storing and producing electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. ... Load Factor (LF) – The percentage of seats filled. ...


Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes often provide excellent leisure facilities for water sports, and become tourist attractions in themselves. Multi-use dams installed for irrigation, flood control, or recreation, may have a hydroelectric plant added with relatively low construction cost, providing a useful revenue stream to offset the cost of dam operation. There are a large number of sports that involve water. ...


In practice, the utilization of stored water is sometimes complicated by demand for irrigation which may occur out of phase with peak electricity demand. Times of drought can cause severe problems, since water replenishment rates may not keep up with desired usage rates. Minimum discharge requirements represent an efficiency loss for the station if it is uneconomic to install a small turbine unit for that flow. High-altitude aerial view of irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara (, ) Irrigation (in agriculture) is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. ...


Concerns have been raised by environmentalists that large hydroelectric projects might be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems. For instance, studies have shown that dams along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America have reduced salmon populations by preventing access to spawning grounds upstream, even though most dams in salmon habitat have fish ladders installed. Salmon smolt are also harmed on their migration to sea when they must pass through turbines. This has led to some areas barging smolt downstream during parts of the year. Turbine and power-plant designs that are easier on aquatic life are an active area of research. Bold textHello ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a combination of all the living and non-living elements of an area. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow up to 58 long and 125 pounds. ... Frog spawn Spawning is the production or depositing of eggs in large numbers by aquatic animals. ... Pool-and-weir fish ladder at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River Fishways, most commonly referred to as fish ladders but also known as fish passes, are structures placed on or around man-made barriers (such as dams and weirs) to assist the natural migration of diadromous fishes. ... A young salmon at the stage intermediate between the parr and the grilse, when it becomes covered with silvery scales and first migrates from fresh water to the sea. ... Kaplan turbine and electrical generator cut-away view. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ...


Generation of hydroelectric power can also have an impact on the downstream river environment. First, water exiting a turbine usually contains very little suspended sediment, which can lead to scouring of river beds and loss of riverbanks. Second, since turbines are often opened intermittently, rapid or even daily fluctuations in river flow are observed. In the Grand Canyon, the daily cyclic flow variation caused by Glen Canyon Dam was found to be contributing to erosion of sand bars. Dissolved oxygen content of the water may change from preceding conditions. Finally, water exiting from turbines is typically much colder than the pre-dam water, which can change aquatic faunal populations, including endangered species. For other Grand Canyons see Grand Canyon (disambiguation). ... Glen Canyon Dam on 19 June 2005. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... The endangered Sea Otter An endangered species is a population of organisms (frequently but not always a taxonomic species) which is either (a) so few in number or (b) threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters that it is at risk of becoming extinct. ...


The reservoirs of hydroelectric power plants in tropical regions may produce substantial amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. This is due to plant material in newly flooded and re-flooded areas being inundated with water, decaying in an anaerobic environment, and forming methane, a very potent greenhouse gas. The methane is released into the atmosphere once the water is discharged from the dam and turns the turbines. According to the World Commission on Dams report, where the reservoir is large compared to the generating capacity (less than 100 watts per square metre of surface area) and no clearing of the forests in the area was undertaken prior to impoundment of the reservoir, greenhouse gas emissions from the reservoir may be higher than those of a conventional oil-fired thermal generation plant [1]. In boreal reservoirs of Canada and Northern Europe, however, greenhouse gas emissions are typically only 2 to 8% of any kind of conventional thermal generation. The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, is a gas with a chemical formula of CH4. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Boreal may refer to these: Northern from the eponymous Boreas, god of the North Wind in Greek mythology. ...


Another disadvantage of hydroelectric dams is the need to relocate the people living where the reservoirs are planned. In many cases, no amount of compensation can replace ancestral and cultural attachments to places that have spiritual value to the displaced population. Additionally, historically and culturally important sites can be flooded and lost. Such problems have arisen at the Three Gorges Dam project in China, the Clyde Dam in New Zealand and the Ilısu Dam in Southeastern Turkey. Three Gorges Dam construction site, downstream side, 26 July 2004 Three Gorges Dam, receiving, upstream side, 26 July 2004 Three Gorges Dam, ship locks for river traffic to bypass the dam, May 2004 The Three Gorges Dam (Simplified Chinese: 三峡大坝; Traditional Chinese: 三峽大壩; Pinyin: Sānxiá Dàbà) (30. ... The Clyde Dam The Clyde Dam is New Zealands largest hydroelectric dam and was built along the Clutha River, near the town of Clyde. ... Ilısu Dam is one of the 21 dams of the Southeastern Anatolia Project of Turkey. ...


Some hydroelectric projects also utilize canals, typically to divert a river at a shallower gradient to increase the head of the scheme. In some cases, the entire river may be diverted leaving a dry riverbed. Examples include the Tekapo and Pukaki Rivers. The Canal du Midi in Toulouse, France. ... The Tekapo River flows through the Mackenzie Basin, Canterbury, in New Zealands South Island. ... The Bukaki River flows through the Mackenzie Basin, Canterbury, in New Zealands South Island. ...


Hydro-electric facts

Oldest

  • Duck Reach, Launceston, Tasmania. Completed 1895. The first publicly-owned hydro-electric plant in the Southern Hemisphere. Supplied power to the city of Launceston for street lighting.

Cragside is a country house near Rothbury in Northumberland, England. ... Rothbury is a town in Northumberland, England, located on the River Coquet near the Simonside Hills and the Northumberland National Park. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages None official English de facto Capital None official London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Appleton is a city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, on the Fox River, 100 miles (161 km) northwest of Milwaukee. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Fox River is a river in Wisconsin in the United States. ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life in the 20th century. ... The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ... Duck Reach Power Station was the first publicly-owned hydro-electric plant in the Southern Hemisphere, and provided the Tasmanian city of Launceston with hydro-electric power from its construction in 1895 to its closure in 1955. ... St. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1,076,395 km... Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is a public company whose shares are wholly owned by the government of Ontario. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ...

Largest hydro-electric power stations

Itaipu Dam
Itaipu Dam

The La Grande Complex in Quebec, Canada, is the world's largest hydroelectric generating system. The eight generating stations of the complex have a total generating capacity of 16,021 MW. The Robert Bourassa station alone has a capacity of 5,616 MW. A ninth station (Eastmain-1) is currently under construction and will add 480 MW to the total. An additional project on the Rupert River, currently undergoing environmental assessments, would add two stations with a combined capacity of 888 MW. Itaipu Dam File links The following pages link to this file: Electricity generation Itaipu Hydroelectricity ... Itaipu Dam File links The following pages link to this file: Electricity generation Itaipu Hydroelectricity ... The James Bay Project (in French, projet de la Baie James) refers to the construction of a series of hydroelectric power stations on the La Grande River in northwestern Québec, Canada and the diversion of neighbouring rivers into the La Grande River watershed. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Capital Quebec City Largest city Montréal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 2nd 1,542,056 km² 1,183,128 km² 176... Robert-Bourassa is a hydroelectric generating station on the La Grande River that is part of Hydro-Québecs James Bay Project. ...

Itaipú Brazil/Paraguay 1984/1991 12,666 MW 93.4 TW-hours
Guri Venezuela 1986 10,200 MW 46 TW-hours
Grand Coulee United States 1942/1980 6,809 MW 22.6 TW-hours
Sayano Shushenskaya Russia 1983 6,400 MW
Robert-Bourassa Canada 1981 5,616 MW
Churchill Falls Canada 1971 5,429 MW 35 TW-hours
Iron Gates Romania/Serbia 1970 2,280 MW 11.3 TW-hours

These are ranked by maximum power. Itaipu Dam Itaipu (Guarani: Itaipu, Portuguese: Itaipu, Spanish: Itaipú; pronounced ) is a dam of the Paraná River that includes a hydroelectric power plant, located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. ... The Guri Dam is one of the biggest in the world. ... THis is a bad resoures people can say what ever theuy wnat Grand Coulee Dam Grand Coulee Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam on the Columbia River in Washington, built by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser. ... The Yenisei (Енисе́й) is the greatest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean, slightly shorter but with 1. ... Robert-Bourassa is a hydroelectric generating station on the La Grande River that is part of Hydro-Québecs James Bay Project. ... Churchill Falls, Labrador, Canada Churchill Falls are spectacular waterfalls, 245 ft (75 m) high, on the Churchill River in Labrador, Canada. ... The Iron Gate upstream The Iron Gate (Romanian: Porţile de Fier, Serbian: Gvozdena Vrata, Hungarian: Vaskapu, German: Eisernes Tor) is a gorge on the Danube River. ...


In progress

Three Gorges Dam construction site, downstream side, 26 July 2004 Three Gorges Dam, receiving, upstream side, 26 July 2004 Three Gorges Dam, ship locks for river traffic to bypass the dam, May 2004 The Three Gorges Dam (Simplified Chinese: 三峡大坝; Traditional Chinese: 三峽大壩; Pinyin: Sānxiá Dàbà) (30. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Countries with the most hydro-electric capacity

  • Canada, 341,312 GWh (66,954 MW installed)
  • USA, 319,484 GWh (79,511 MW installed)
  • Brazil, 285,603 GWh (57,517 MW installed)
  • China, 204,300 GWh (65,000 MW installed)
  • Russia, 173,500 GWh (44,700 MW installed)
  • Norway, 121,824 GWh (27,528 MW installed)
  • Japan, 84,500 GWh (27,229 MW installed)
  • India, 82,237 GWh (22,083 MW installed)
  • France, 77,500 GWh (25,335 MW installed)

These are 1999 figures and include pumped-storage hydroelectricity schemes. Pumped storage hydroelectricity is a method of storing and producing electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. ...


References

  1. New Scientist report on greenhouse gas production by hydroelectric dams.
  2. International Water Power and Dam Construction Venezuela country profile
  3. International Water Power and Dam Construction Canada country profile
  4. Tremblay, Varfalvy, Roehm and Garneau. 2005. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Fluxes and Processes, Springer, 732 p.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Hydroelectric_power

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This list identifies articles and categories that relate to energy. ... Wave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work - including electricity generation, desalination, and the pumping of water (into reservoirs). ... Tidal power is a means of electricity generation achieved by capturing the energy contained in moving water mass due to tides. ... The List of reservoirs and dams is a link page for any reservoir or dam in the world. ... TVA logo The Tennessee Valley Authority is a New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley. ... Micro hydro in North-West Vietnam Small hydro is the application of hydroelectric power on a commercial scale serving a small community or medium sized industry. ... Pumped storage hydroelectricity is a method of storing and producing electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. ... Assembly of an Enercon E-70 wind turbine Modern technology uses large amounts of electrical power. ... Sir William George Armstrong William George Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong (November 26, 1810 – December 27, 1900) was an English industrialist, the effective founder of the Armstrong Whitworth manufacturing empire. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Halfbakery: Hydroelectric Plant (550 words)
By selective breeding of salt water tolerant plants it should be possible to get a species which prefers to grow its two kinds of specialised roots in differently polarised water channels.
As it grows to maturity, the plant contributes to the current flowing through the channels to maintain say a standard 12 volt potential.
Basically the plant acts as a photovoltaic cell using sunlight to pump electrons from one root to the other.
Hydroelectric plant - definition of Hydroelectric plant in Encyclopedia (728 words)
Hydroelectricity, hydroelectric-power, or hydropower is a form of hydropower that uses the energy released as a result of water falling, or flowing downhill or by wave-differences, under the influence of gravity to produce electricity.
Hydroelectric power is usually generated at dams or other places where water descends from a height like coasts with a high tides difference.
Hydroelectricity is a renewable energy source, since the water that flows in rivers has come from precipitation such as rain or snow and waves in the sea, or even ocean, are moon related.
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