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Encyclopedia > Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
Molecular model of hydrogen chloride
IUPAC name Hydrochloric acid
Other names Muriatic acid, Spirit of salt
Identifiers
CAS number [7647-01-0]
RTECS number MW4025000
Properties
Molecular formula HCl in water (H2O)
Molar mass 36.46 g/mol (HCl)
Appearance Clear colorless to
light-yellow liquid
Melting point

−26 °C (247 K)
38% solution. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1017, 203 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hydrochloric acid Achlorhydria ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

110 °C (383 K),
20.2% solution;
48 °C (321 K),
38% solution. Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water Miscible.
Acidity (pKa) −8.0
Viscosity 1.9 mPa·s at 25 °C,
31.5% solution
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards Corrosive
NFPA 704
 
3
1
 
R-phrases R34, R37
S-phrases S26, S36, S45
Flash point Non-flammable.
Related compounds
Other anions HF, HBr, HI
Related acids Hydrobromic acid
Hydrofluoric acid
Hydroiodic acid
Sulfuric acid
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). It is a strong acid, and the major component of gastric acid. It is also widely used in industry. Hydrochloric acid must be handled with appropriate safety precautions because it is a highly corrosive liquid. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The acid dissociation constant (Ka), also known as the acidity constant or the acid-ionization constant, is a specific equilibrium constant for the reaction of an acid with its conjugate base in aqueous solution [1]. // When an acid dissolves in water, it partly dissociates forming hydronium ions and its conjugate... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... The pascal second (symbol Pa·s) is the SI unit of dynamic viscosity. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on Hydrochloric acid. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point nonflammable Related Compounds Other anions Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Related compounds Hydrogen fluoride fluorosilicic acid Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into hydrogen bromide. ... Hydroiodic acid (sometimes also spelled hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (Concentrated solution is usually 48 - 57% HI). ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into hydrogen bromide. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point nonflammable Related Compounds Other anions Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Related compounds Hydrogen fluoride fluorosilicic acid Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Hydroiodic acid (sometimes also spelled hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (Concentrated solution is usually 48 - 57% HI). ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on Hydrochloric acid. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on Hydrochloric acid. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on Hydrochloric acid. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on Hydrochloric acid. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated) or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit A... Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... Corrosion is the destructive reaction of a metal with another material, e. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ...


Hydrochloric acid, or Muriatic acid by its historical but still occasionally-used name, has been an important and frequently-used chemical from early history, and was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan around the year 800. It was used throughout the Middle Ages by alchemists in the quest for the philosopher's stone, and later by several European scientists including Glauber, Priestley, and Davy in order to help establish modern chemical knowledge. Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Philosophers stone (disambiguation). ... This article is about the profession. ... Johann Rudolf Glauber (1604 - March 10, 1670), a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist. ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet, FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ...


From the Industrial Revolution, it became a very important industrial chemical for many applications, including the large-scale production of organic compounds, such as vinyl chloride for PVC plastic, and MDI/TDI for polyurethane, and smaller-scale applications, such as production of gelatin and other ingredients in food, and leather processing. About 20 million metric tonnes of HCl gas are produced annually. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, most often abbreviated as MDI, is an aromatic diisocyanate. ... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... For the art collective, see Gelitin. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... For people named Leather, see Leather (surname). ...

Contents

History

Hydrochloric acid was first discovered around 800 AD by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), by mixing common salt with vitriol (sulfuric acid). Jabir discovered many important chemicals, and recorded his findings in over twenty books, which carried his chemical knowledge of hydrochloric acid and other basic chemicals for hundreds of years. Jabir's invention of the gold-dissolving aqua regia, consisting of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, was of great interest to alchemists searching for the philosopher's stone. Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sulfuric acid. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Freshly prepared aqua regia is colorless, but it turns orange within seconds. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... For other uses, see Philosophers stone (disambiguation). ...

Jabir ibn Hayyan, medieval manuscript drawing
Jabir ibn Hayyan, medieval manuscript drawing

In the Middle Ages, hydrochloric acid was known to European alchemists as spirits of salt or acidum salis. It is still known as "Spirits of Salt" when sold for domestic cleaning purposes in the United Kingdom today. Gaseous HCl was called marine acid air. The old (pre-systematic) name muriatic acid has the same origin (muriatic means "pertaining to brine or salt"), and this name is still sometimes used. Notable production was recorded by Basilius Valentinus, the alchemist-canon of the Benedictine priory Sankt Peter in Erfurt, Germany in the fifteenth century. In the seventeenth century, Johann Rudolf Glauber from Karlstadt am Main, Germany used sodium chloride salt and sulfuric acid for the preparation of sodium sulfate in the Mannheim process, releasing hydrogen chloride gas. Joseph Priestley of Leeds, England prepared pure hydrogen chloride in 1772, and in 1818 Humphry Davy of Penzance, England proved that the chemical composition included hydrogen and chlorine. Download high resolution version (575x707, 204 KB)alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan, from a 15th c. ... Download high resolution version (575x707, 204 KB)alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan, from a 15th c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... There are millions of possible objects that can be described in science, too many to create common names for every one. ... 18th century illustration to 3rd key, in Duodecim Claves Basilius Valentinus, also known under his Anglisized name of Basil Valentine was a 15th-century alchemist. ... Canons, Bruges A Canon of the Seminary, Sint Niklaas, Flanders. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... A priory is an ecclesiastical circumscription run by a prior. ... The cathedral Mariendom at night. ... Johann Rudolf Glauber (1604 - March 10, 1670), a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist. ... Karlstadt am Main, a town on the Main river in Bavaria, Germany, is the capital of the Landkreis Main-Spessart (Main-Spessart district). ... Sodium sulfate is an important compound of sodium. ... The Mannheim process is an important method for the manufacture of hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate from sodium chloride (salt) and sulfuric acid in which case the Na2SO4 is known as salt cake: 2 NaCl + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2 HCl Categories: | ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ... Leeds is a city in the county of West Yorkshire, in the north of England. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet, FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... Penzances old docks with Abbey Slip and St Marys Church behind Penzance is a port in Cornwall, England, facing east onto the English Channel. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...


During the Industrial Revolution in Europe, demand for alkaline substances such as soda ash increased, and the new industrial soda process by Nicolas Leblanc (Issoundun, France) enabled cheap large-scale production. In the Leblanc process, salt is converted to soda ash, using sulfuric acid, limestone, and coal, releasing hydrogen chloride as a by-product. Until the Alkali Act of 1863, excess HCl was vented to the air. After the passage of the act, soda ash producers were obliged to absorb the waste gas in water, producing hydrochloric acid on an industrial scale. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Sodium carbonate or soda ash, Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Nicolas Leblanc (December 6, 1742 – January 16, 1806) was a French chemist and surgeon who discovered how to manufacture soda from common salt. ... Issoudun is a commune of the Indre département in France. ... The Leblanc process was the industrial process for the production of soda ash (sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century. ... Under the British Alkali Act 1863, an Alkali Inspector and four sub-inspectors were appointed to curb the discharge into the air of hydrochloric gas from chlor-alkali works. ...


When early in the twentieth century the Leblanc process was effectively replaced by the Solvay process without the hydrochloric acid by-product, hydrochloric acid was already fully settled as an important chemical in numerous applications. The commercial interest initiated other production methods which are still used today, as described below. Today, most hydrochloric acid is made by absorbing hydrogen chloride from industrial organic compounds production. Chemistry The Solvay process calcium carbonate: CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO The solid sodium bicarbonate is then filtered out and converted to sodium carbonate by heating it, recovering some carbon dioxide in the process: 2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 Meanwhile, ammonia is recovered from the ammonium chloride byproduct by treating the ammonium... R-phrases , S-phrases , , Flash point Non-flammable. ...


Hydrochloric acid is listed as a Table II precursor under the 1988 Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances because of its use in the production of heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine.[1] United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Place signed Vienna Date signed December 20, 1988[1] Date entered into force November 11, 1990[2] Parties 170[3] The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is one of three... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ...


Chemistry

Acid titration

Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a monoprotic acid, which means it can dissociate (i.e., ionize) only once to give up one H+ ion (a single proton). In aqueous hydrochloric acid, the H+ joins a water molecule to form a hydronium ion, H3O+: Image File history File links Titration. ... Image File history File links Titration. ... An acid (often represented by the generic formula AH) is typically a water-soluble, sour-tasting chemical compound. ... Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which complexes, molecules, or salts separate or split into smaller molecules, ions, or radicals, usually in a reversible manner. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+ derived from protonation of water. ...

HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl

The other ion formed is Cl, the chloride ion. Hydrochloric acid can therefore be used to prepare salts called chlorides, such as sodium chloride. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid, since it is fully dissociated in water. The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit A...


Monoprotic acids have one acid dissociation constant, Ka, which indicates the level of dissociation in water. For a strong acid like HCl, the Ka is large. Theoretical attempts to assign a Ka to HCl have been made.[2] When chloride salts such as NaCl are added to aqueous HCl they have practically no effect on pH, indicating that Cl is an exceedingly weak conjugate base and that HCl is fully dissociated in aqueous solution. For intermediate to strong solutions of hydrochloric acid, the assumption that H+ molarity (a unit of concentration) equals HCl molarity is excellent, agreeing to four significant digits. The acid dissociation constant (Ka), also known as the acidity constant or the acid-ionization constant, is a specific equilibrium constant for the reaction of an acid with its conjugate base in aqueous solution [1]. // When an acid dissolves in water, it partly dissociates forming hydronium ions and its conjugate... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... In the field of chemistry, in the Brønsted-Lowry (protonic) theory of acids and bases, a conjugate base is the basic member, X-, of a pair of compounds that differ only by the presence or absence of a proton at a certain position. ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ...


Of the seven common strong acids in chemistry, all of them inorganic, hydrochloric acid is the monoprotic acid least likely to undergo an interfering oxidation-reduction reaction. It is one of the least hazardous strong acids to handle; despite its acidity, it produces the less reactive and non-toxic chloride ion. Intermediate strength hydrochloric acid solutions are quite stable, maintaining their concentrations over time. These attributes, plus the fact that it is available as a pure reagent, mean that hydrochloric acid makes an excellent acidifying reagent and acid titrant (for determining the amount of an unknown quantity of base in titration). Strong acid titrants are useful because they give more distinct endpoints in a titration, making the titration more precise. Hydrochloric acid is frequently used in chemical analysis and to digest samples for analysis. Concentrated hydrochloric acid will dissolve some metals to form oxidized metal chlorides and hydrogen gas. It will produce metal chlorides from basic compounds such as calcium carbonate or copper(II) oxide. It is also used as a simple acid catalyst for some chemical reactions. Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... A reactant or reagent is a substance consumed during a chemical reaction. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... This article is about volumetric titration. ... Analytical chemistry is the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide (CuO) is the higher oxide of copper. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ...


Physical properties

The physical properties of hydrochloric acid, such as boiling and melting points, density, and pH depend on the concentration or molarity of HCl in the acid solution. They can range from those of water at 0% HCl to values for fuming hydrochloric acid at over 40% HCl. A physical property is any aspect of an object or substance that can be measured or perceived without changing its identity. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ...

Conc. (w/w)
c : kg HCl/kg 
Conc. (w/v)
c : kg HCl/m3
Conc.
Baumé
Density
ρ : kg/l
Molarity
M
 pH 
Viscosity
η : mPa·s
Specific
heat

s : kJ/(kg·K)
Vapor
pressure

PHCl : Pa
Boiling
point

b.p.
Melting
point

m.p.
10% 104.80 6.6 1.048 2.87 M -0.5 1.16 3.47 0.527 103 °C -18 °C
20% 219.60 13 1.098 6.02 M -0.8 1.37 2.99 27.3 108 °C -59 °C
30% 344.70 19 1.149 9.45 M -1.0 1.70 2.60 1,410 90 °C -52 °C
32% 370.88 20 1.159 10.17 M -1.0 1.80 2.55 3,130 84 °C -43 °C
34% 397.46 21 1.169 10.90 M -1.0 1.90 2.50 6,733 71 °C -36 °C
36% 424.44 22 1.179 11.64 M -1.1 1.99 2.46 14,100 61 °C -30 °C
38% 451.82 23 1.189 12.39 M -1.1 2.10 2.43 28,000 48 °C -26 °C
The reference temperature and pressure for the above table are 20 °C and 1 atmosphere (101 kPa).

Hydrochloric acid as the binary (two-component) mixture of HCl and H2O has a constant-boiling azeotrope at 20.2% HCl and 108.6 °C (227 °F). There are four constant-crystallization eutectic points for hydrochloric acid, between the crystal form of HCl·H2O (68% HCl), HCl·2H2O (51% HCl), HCl·3H2O (41% HCl), HCl·6H2O (25% HCl), and ice (0% HCl). There is also a metastable eutectic point at 24.8% between ice and the HCl·3H2O crystallization For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... A hydrometer scale developed by French pharmacist Antoine Baumé to measure density of various liquids. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... Frost crystallization on a shrub. ... A eutectic or eutectic mixture is a mixture of two or more elements which has a lower melting point than any of its constituents. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... This article is about water ice. ...


Production

Main article: hydrogen chloride

Hydrochloric acid is prepared by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. Hydrogen chloride can be generated in many ways, and thus several different precursors to hydrochloric acid exist. The large-scale production of hydrochloric acid is almost always integrated with other industrial scale chemicals production. R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ...


Industrial market

Hydrochloric acid is produced in solutions up to 38% HCl (concentrated grade). Higher concentrations up to just over 40% are chemically possible, but the evaporation rate is then so high that storage and handling need extra precautions, such as pressure and low temperature. Bulk industrial-grade is therefore 30% to 34%, optimized for effective transport and limited product loss by HCl vapors. Solutions for household purposes in the US, mostly cleaning, are typically 10% to 12%, with strong recommendations to dilute before use. In the United Kingdom where it is sold as "Spirits of Salt" for domestic cleaning, the potency is the same as the US industrial grade. For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... Vaporization redirects here. ... Look up storage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical use. ...


Major producers worldwide include Dow Chemical at 2 million metric tonnes annually (2 Mt/year), calculated as HCl gas, and FMC, Georgia Gulf Corporation, Tosoh Corporation, Akzo Nobel, and Tessenderlo at 0.5 to 1.5 Mt/year each. Total world production, for comparison purposes expressed as HCl, is estimated at 20 Mt/year, with 3 Mt/year from direct synthesis, and the rest as secondary product from organic and similar syntheses. By far, most of all hydrochloric acid is consumed captively by the producer. The open world market size is estimated at 5 Mt/year. The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW TYO: 4850) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan. ... Formosa Plastics Corporation (Ch: 台灣塑膠公司) is a Taiwanese company that primarily produces polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins and other intermediate plastic products. ... The Georgia Gulf Corporation, often abbreviated as GGC, is a major manufacturer and marketer of chlorovinyls and aromatics. ... Tosoh Corporation ) (TYO: 4042 ) is a multinational company based in Tokyo, Japan. ... Akzo Nobel is a multinational company, active in the fields of healthcare products, coatings and chemicals. ... Tessenderlo is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg. ...


Applications

Hydrochloric acid is a common laboratory reagent.
Hydrochloric acid is a common laboratory reagent.

Hydrochloric acid is a strong inorganic acid that is used in many industrial processes. The application often determines the required product quality. A bottle of hydrochloric acid. ... A bottle of hydrochloric acid. ...


Regeneration of ion exchangers

An important application of high-quality hydrochloric acid is the regeneration of ion exchange resins. Cation exchange is widely used to remove ions such as Na+ and Ca2+ from aqueous solutions, producing demineralized water. Ion exchange resin beads An ion exchange resin is an insoluble matrix (or support structure) normally in the form of small (1-2 mm diameter) beads, usually white or yellowish, fabricated from an organic polymer substrate. ... Ion exchange is defined as an exchange of ions between two electrolytes. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...

Na+ is replaced by H3O+
Ca2+ is replaced by 2 H3O+

Ion exchangers and demineralized water are used in all chemical industries, drinking water production, and many food industries. Tap water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested through drinking by humans. ...


pH Control and neutralization

A very common application of hydrochloric acid is to regulate the basicity (pH) of solutions. The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...

OH + HCl → H2O + Cl

In industry demanding purity (food, pharmaceutical, drinking water), high-quality hydrochloric acid is used to control the pH of process water streams. In less-demanding industry, technical-quality hydrochloric acid suffices for neutralizing waste streams and swimming pool treatment. Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a... For the 2003 film, see Swimming Pool (film). ...


Pickling of steel

Pickling is an essential step in metal surface treatment, to remove rust or iron oxide scale from iron or steel before subsequent processing, such as extrusion, rolling, galvanizing, and other techniques. Technical-quality HCl at typically 18% concentration is the most commonly-used pickling agent for the pickling of carbon steel grades. For other uses, see Pickling (disambiguation). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Extruded aluminium; slots allow bars to be joined with special connectors. ... Rolling is a fabricating process in which the metal, plastic, paper, glass, etc. ... Galvanization or galvanisation refers to any of several electrochemical processes named after the Italian scientist Luigi Galvani. ... Carbon steel,is very fun 2 play with also called plain carbon steel, is a metal alloy, a combination of two elements, iron and carbon, where other elements are present in quantities too small to affect the properties. ...

Fe2O3 + Fe + 6 HCl → 3 FeCl2 + 3 H2O

The spent acid has long been re-used as ferrous chloride solutions, but high heavy-metal levels in the pickling liquor has decreased this practice. The chemical compound iron(II) chloride, also called ferrous chloride, is an inorganic metal salt. ... The chemical compound iron(II) chloride, also called ferrous chloride, is an inorganic metal salt. ... For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ...


In recent years, the steel pickling industry has, however, developed hydrochloric acid regeneration processes, such as the spray roaster or the fluidized bed HCl regeneration process, which allow the recovery of HCl from spent pickling liquor. The most common regeneration process is the pyrohydrolysis process, applying the following formula: Hydrochloric acid regeneration or HCl regeneration refers to a chemical process for the reclamation of bound and unbound HCl from metal chloride solutions as hydrochloric acid. ...

4 FeCl2 + 4 H2O + O2 → 8 HCl+ 2 Fe2O3

By recuperation of the spent acid, a closed acid loop is established. The ferric oxide by product of the regeneration process is a valuable by-product, used in a variety of secondary industries.


HCl is not a common pickling agent for stainless steel grades. The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ...


Production of inorganic compounds

Numerous products can be produced with hydrochloric acid in normal acid-base reactions, resulting in inorganic compounds. These include water treatment chemicals such as iron(III) chloride and polyaluminium chloride (PAC). Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , Related Compounds Other anions Iron(III) fluoride Iron(III) bromide Other cations Iron(II) chloride Manganese(II) chloride Cobalt(II) chloride Ruthenium(III) chloride Related coagulants Iron(II) sulfate Polyaluminium chloride Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25... Aluminium chlorohydrate is a group of salts having the general formula AlnCl(3n-m)(OH)m. ...

Fe2O3 + 6 HCl → 2 FeCl3 + 3 H2O

Both iron(III) chloride and PAC are used as flocculation and coagulation agents in wastewater treatment, drinking water production, and paper production. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Tap water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested through drinking by humans. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ...


Other inorganic compounds produced with hydrochloric acid include road application salt calcium chloride, nickel(II) chloride for electroplating, and zinc chloride for the galvanizing industry and battery production. R-phrases S-phrases , , Related Compounds Other anions calcium fluoride calcium bromide calcium iodide Other cations magnesium chloride strontium chloride Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate The chemical compound nickel(II) chloride (often called just nickel chloride) is an inorganic salt of formula NiCl2. ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... Zinc chloride (ZnCl2) is a colorless or white compound of zinc and chlorine that is extremely hygroscopic. ... Galvanization, named after the Italian scientist Luigi Galvani, was originally the administration of electric shocks (in the 19th century also termed Faradism, after Michael Faraday). ... A battery is of one or more electrochemical cells, which store chemical energy and make it available in an electrical form. ...


Production of organic compounds

The largest hydrochloric acid consumption is in the production of organic compounds such as vinyl chloride for PVC, and MDI and TDI for polyurethane. This is often captive use, consuming locally-produced hydrochloric acid that never actually reaches the open market. Other organic compounds produced with hydrochloric acid include bisphenol A for polycarbonate, activated carbon, and ascorbic acid, as well as numerous pharmaceutical products. An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates and carbon oxides. ... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ... Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, most often abbreviated as MDI, is an aromatic diisocyanate. ... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... This article needs to be wikified. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... Activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a general term which covers carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ... This article deals with the molecular aspects of ascorbic acid. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ...


Other applications

Hydrochloric acid is a fundamental chemical, and as such it is used for a large number of small-scale applications, such as leather processing, household cleaning, and building construction. In addition, a way of stimulating oil production is by injecting hydrochloric acid into the rock formation of an oil well, dissolving a portion of the rock, and creating a large-pore structure. Oil-well acidizing is a common process in the North Sea oil production industry. For people named Leather, see Leather (surname). ... Cleanliness is the absence of dirt, including dust, stains and a bad smell. ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... An oil well is seen in Texas. ... // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ...


Many chemical reactions involving hydrochloric acid are applied in the production of food, food ingredients, and food additives. Typical products include aspartame, fructose, citric acid, lysine, hydrolyzed (vegetable) protein as food enhancer, and in gelatin production. Food-grade (extra-pure) hydrochloric acid can be applied when needed for the final product. An ingredient is one of the things that goes into a mixture when something is made, especially in cooking or in following a formula. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Aspartame (or APM) (pronounced or ) is the name for an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener, aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; i. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For the art collective, see Gelitin. ...


Presence in living organisms

Physiology and pathology

Hydrochloric acid constitutes the majority of gastric acid, the human digestive fluid. In a complex process and at a large energy burden, it is secreted by parietal cells (also known as oxyntic cells). These cells contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted into the lumen of the stomach. They are part of the fundic glands (also known as oxyntic glands) in the stomach. Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ... Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ... Human parietal cells - stomach Parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) are the stomach epithelium cells which secrete gastric acid and intrinsic factor. ... Lumen can mean: Lumen (unit), the SI unit of luminous flux Lumen (anatomy), the cavity or channel within a tubular structure Thylakoid lumen, the inner membrane space of the chloroplast 141 Lumen, an asteroid discovered by the French astronomer Paul Henry in 1875 Lumen (band), an American post-rock band... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ...


Safety mechanisms that prevent the damage of the epithelium of digestive tract by hydrochloric acid are the following: This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ...

  • Negative regulators of its release
  • A thick mucus layer covering the epithelium
  • Sodium bicarbonate secreted by gastric epithelial cells and pancreas
  • The structure of epithelium (tight junctions)
  • Adequate blood supply
  • Prostaglandins (many different effects: they stimulate mucus and bicarbonate secretion, maintain epithelial barrier integrity, enable adequate blood supply, stimulate the healing of the damaged mucous membrane)

When, due to different reasons, these mechanisms fail, heartburn or peptic ulcers can develop. Drugs called proton pump inhibitors prevent the body from making excess acid in the stomach, while antacids neutralize existing acid. Mucus cells. ... Flash point Non-flammable. ... Diagram of Tight junction. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... A benign gastric ulcer (from the antrum) of a gastrectomy specimen. ... Proton pump inhibitors (or PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production. ... A bottle of antacid tablets An antacid is any substance, generally a base, which counteracts stomach acidity. ...


In some instances, the stomach does not produce enough hydrochloric acid. These pathologic states are denoted by the terms hypochlorhydria and achlorhydria. They have the potential to lead to gastroenteritis. Achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria is decreased production of gastric acid by the stomach. ... Achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria is decreased production of gastric acid by the stomach. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ...


Chemical weapons

Phosgene (COCl2) was a common chemical warfare agent used in World War I. The main effect of phosgene results from the dissolution of the gas in the mucous membranes deep in the lung, where it is converted by hydrolysis into carbonic acid and the corrosive hydrochloric acid. The latter disrupts the alveolar-capillary membranes so that the lung becomes filled with fluid (pulmonary edema). Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... Alveolus redirects here. ... Blood flows from digestive system heart to arteries, which narrow into arterioles, and then narrow further still into capillaries. ... A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating tissue which acts as a barrier within or around a cell. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ...


Hydrochloric acid is also partly responsible for the harmful or blistering effects of mustard gas. In the presence of water, such as on the moist surface of the eyes or lungs, mustard gas breaks down forming hydrochloric acid. Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Safety

Dangerous goods labels
Dangerous goods label for hydrochloric acid: corrosive Dangerous goods label for hydrochloric acid: corrosive  

Hydrochloric acid in high concentrations forms acidic mists. Both the mist and the solution have a corrosive effect on human tissue, with the potential to damage respiratory organs, eyes, skin, and intestines. Upon mixing hydrochloric acid with common oxidizing chemicals, such as bleach (NaClO) or permanganate (KMnO4), the toxic gas chlorine is produced. To minimize the risks while working with hydrochloric acid, appropriate precautions should be taken, including wearing rubber or PVC gloves, protective eye goggles, and chemical-resistant clothing. A dangerous good is any solid, liquid, or gas that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Hazard_C.svg Summary Description: The hazard symbol for corrosive substances according to directive 67/548/EWG by the European Chemicals Bureau. ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent. ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...


The hazards of solutions of hydrochloric acid depend on the concentration. The following table lists the EU classification of hydrochloric acid solutions: Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ...

Concentration
by weight
Classification R-Phrases
10%–25% Irritant (Xi) R36/37/38
>25% Corrosive (C) R34 R37

The Environmental Protection Agency rates and regulates hydrochloric acid as a toxin.[3] For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... EPA redirects here. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ...


See also

Related chemical substances

This page aims to list articles related to chemistry. ... This page aims to list well-known inorganic compounds, including organometallic compounds, to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ... In chemistry, hydrochlorides are salts resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (mostly amines). ... Hypochlorous acid is a weak, unstable acid with chemical formula HOCl. ... The hypochlorite ion The hypochlorite ion is ClO−. A hypochlorite compound is a chemical compound containing this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +1. ... Chlorous acid, HClO2, is unstable, but chlorites such as sodium chlorite can be considered the salts of this acid. ... The chlorite ion This discusses some chlorine compounds. ... Chloric acid, HClO3, is an oxoacid of chlorine, and the formal precursor of chlorate salts. ... The chlorate ion Structure and bonding in the chlorate ion The chlorate ion ClO3−. A chlorate (compound) is a compound that contains this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +5. ... Perchloric acid has the formula HClO4 and is a colorless liquid soluble in water. ... Perchlorates are the salts derived from perchloric acid (HClO4). ...

Notes and references

Notes
  1. ^ List of precursors and chemicals frequently used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and pychotropic substances under international control (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board.
  2. ^ Dissociation constants pKa and pKb. ChemBuddy.com.
  3. ^ HCl score card. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved on 2007-09-12.

Mr. ... EPA redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References
  • (2001) "Hydrochloric Acid", Chemicals Economics Handbook. SRI International, p. 733.4000A-733.3003F. 
  • Van Dorst, W.C.A.; et al. (2004). technical product brochure Hydrochloric Acid, public document, Akzo Nobel Base Chemicals. 
  • Van Dorst, W.C.A. (1996–2002). various technical papers, not for open publication, Akzo Nobel Base Chemicals. 
  • Lide, David (1980–1981). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 61st edition, CRC Press. 
  • Aspen Technology, Aspen Properties, binary mixtures modeling software, calculations by Akzo Nobel Engineering, 2002–2003
  • Evison, D (2002). "Chemical weapons". BMJ: 324(7333):332-5. PMID 11834561.
  • Arthur, C.; M.D. Guyton, John E. Hall (2000-08-15). Textbook of Medical Physiology, 10th edition, W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-8677-X. 
  • Perry, R; Green D, Maloney J (1984). Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 6th edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN 0-07-049479-7. 

An acronym SRI may refer to one of the following: Socially Responsible Investment. ... Akzo Nobel is a multinational company, active in the fields of healthcare products, coatings and chemicals. ... Akzo Nobel is a multinational company, active in the fields of healthcare products, coatings and chemicals. ... The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group which specializes in producing technical books in a wide range of subjects. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saunders is a surname, and may refer to Al Saunders, American football coach Alvin Saunders, American politician Albert Charles Saunders, Canadian politician Arthur Frederick Saunders, British soldier Ben Saunders, British polar explorer Charles Saunders: Charles Saunders (admiral) (1713-1775), British admiral Charles Saunders (administrator) (d. ... Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook was first published in 1934 and the seventh edition was published in 1997. ... The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ...

External links

General safety information
Manufacturer information
Pollution information

Hydrochloric acid. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... April 23, 2005 Israeli-Palestinian conflict: The Association of University Teachers, the leading British academic group, has voted to boycott two Israeli universities, Haifa University and Bar-Ilan University, over their alleged involvement in illegal activity in the occupied territories. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Hydrochloric acid - Encyclopedia Article (285 words)
Hydrochloric acid is a commonly used chemical reagent and is one of the strong acids that ionize completely in aqueous solution.
Hydrochloric acid was known to alchemists as 'spirit of salt' or acidum salis.
Hydrochloric acid is manufactured by burning chlorine gas in hydrogen to make hydrogen chloride gas, and then dissolving the gas in water.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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