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Encyclopedia > Hydrocarbon
A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. Methane is part of a homologous series known as alkanes, which are forms of hydrocarbons that comprise single bonds.

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. With relation to chemical terminology, aromatic hydrocarbons or arenes, alkanes, alkenes and alkyne-based compounds composed entirely of carbon or hydrogen are referred to as "pure" hydrocarbons, whereas other hydrocarbons with bonded compounds or impurities of sulphur or nitrogen, are referred to as "impure", and remain somewhat erroneously referred to as hydrocarbons. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1088x1100, 178 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Methane ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1088x1100, 178 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Methane ... armchair conformational isomerism of Cyclohexane. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... In chemistry, a homologous series is a series of organic compounds with a similar general formula, possessing similar chemical properties due to the presence of the same functional group, and shows a gradation in physical properties as a result of increase in molecular size and mass (see relative molecular mass). ... An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes, also known as paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... The structural formula of 2-butyne, a simple alkyne-containing molecule Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. ...


Hydrocarbons are referred to as consisting of a "backbone" or "skeleton" composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen and other bonded compounds, and lack a functional group that generally facilitates combustion without adverse effects. For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ...


The majority of hydrocarbons found naturally occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains.[1][2] Catenation is the ability of a chemical element to form covalent bonds with itself, resulting in ring, chain and cage molecules. ...

Contents

Types of hydrocarbons

The classifications for hydrocarbons defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry are as follows: The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ...

  1. Saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) are the most simple of the hydrocarbon species and are composed entirely of single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen; they are the basis of petroleum fuels and are either found as linear or branched species of unlimited number. The general formula for saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n+2 (assuming non-cyclic structures).
  2. Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms. Those with one double bond are called alkenes, with the formula CnH2n (assuming non-cyclic structures). Those containing triple bonds are called alkynes, with general formula CnH2n-2.
  3. Cycloalkanes are hydrocarbons containing one or more carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are attached. The general formula for a saturated hydrocarbon containing one ring is CnH2n
  4. Aromatic hydrocarbons, also known as arenes, are hydrocarbons that have at least one aromatic ring.

Hydrocarbons can be gases (e.g. methane and propane), liquids (e.g. hexane and benzene), waxes or low melting solids (e.g. paraffin wax and naphthalene) or polymers (e.g. polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene). Unsaturated hydrocarbon is the name of a type of organic molecule in organic chemistry, that contains a chain of carbons. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... The structural formula of 2-butyne, a simple alkyne-containing molecule Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. ... Cycloalkanes are chemical compounds with a single ring of carbons to which hydrogens are attached according to the formula CnH2n. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... Arene or Ar means several things: Another term for aromatic hydrocarbon In Greek mythology, Arene was the wife of Aphareus and mother of Idas and Lynceus. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH), or arene is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... -1... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... liquids are things you use when your constapated. ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... A solid is a state of matter, characterized by a definite volume and a definite shape (i. ... Paraffin is a common name for a group of high molecular weight alkane hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2, where n is greater than about 20. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point 79 - 87 °C Autoignition temperature 525 °C Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Naphthalene (not to be confused with naphtha) (also known as naphthalin, naphthaline, moth ball, tar... A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ...


General properties

Because of differences in molecular structure, the empirical formula remains different between hydrocarbons; in linear, or "straight-run" alkanes, alkenes and alkynes, the amount of bonded hydrogen lessens in alkenes and alkynes due to the "self-bonding" or catenation of carbon preventing entire saturation of the hydrocarbon by the formation of double or triple bonds.


This inherent ability of hydrocarbons to bond to themselves is referred to as catenation, and allows hydrocarbon to form more complex molecules, such as cyclohexane, and in rarer cases, arenes such as benzene. This ability comes from the fact that bond character between carbon atoms is entirely non-polar, in that the distribution of electrons between the two elements is somewhat even due to the same electronegativity values of the elements (~0.30), and does not result in the formation of an electrophile. Catenation is the ability of a chemical element to form covalent bonds with itself, resulting in ring, chain and cage molecules. ... Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12. ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ...


Generally, with catenation comes the loss of the total amount of bonded hydrocarbons and an increase in the amount of energy required for bond cleavage due to strain exerted upon the molecule; in molecules such as cyclohexane, this is referred to as ring strain, and occurs due to the "destabilized" spatial electron configuration of the atom. Ring strain is an organic chemistry term that describes the destabilization of a cyclic molecule—such as a cycloalkane—due to the non-favorable high energy spatial orientations of its atoms. ...


In simple chemistry, as per valence bond theory, the carbon atom must follow the "4-hydrogen rule", which states that the maximum number of atoms available to bond with carbon is equal to the number of electrons that are attracted into the outer shell of carbon. In terms of shells, carbon consists of an incomplete outer shell, which comprises 4 electrons, and thus has 4 electrons available for covalent or dative bonding. In chemistry, valence bond theory explains the nature of a chemical bond in a molecule in terms of atomic valencies. ...


According thermodynamics studies hydrocarbons are stable in great depths within the earth. Hydrocarbons also have great abundance in the universe. In Titan (a Saturn moon) there are lakes and seas of liquid methane and ethane confirmed by Cassini-Huygens Mission.[citation needed]


Simple hydrocarbons and their variations

Number of
carbon atoms
Alkane Alkene Alkyne Cycloalkane Alkadiene
1 Methane
2 Ethane Ethene Ethyne
3 Propane Propene Propyne Cyclopropane Allene
4 Butane
Isobutane
Butene Butyne Cyclobutane
Methylcyclopropane
Butadiene
5 Pentane
Isopentane
Neopentane
Pentene Pentyne Cyclopentane Pentadiene
Isoprene
6 Hexane Hexene Hexyne Cyclohexane Hexadiene
7 Heptane Heptene Heptyne Cycloheptane
Methylcyclohexane
Heptadiene
8 Octane Octene Octyne Cyclooctane Octadiene
9 Nonane Nonene Nonyne Cyclononane Nonadiene
10 Decane Decene Decyne Cyclodecane Decadiene

Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes, also known as paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... The structural formula of 2-butyne, a simple alkyne-containing molecule Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. ... cyclobutane Cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes) are chemical compounds with one or more carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are attached according to the formula CnH2n. ... Dienes are hydrocarbons which contain two double bonds. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... This article is about a chemical compound. ... Ethylene or ethene is the simplest alkene hydrocarbon, consisting of two carbon atoms and four hydrogens. ... Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is a hydrocarbon belonging to the group of alkynes. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Propylene, also known as propene, is a colorless flammable gas with chemical formula C3H6 having a garlic odor. ... Methylacetylene (propyne) is an alkyne with the chemical formula CH3C≡CH. It is a component of MAPP gas, which is commonly used in gas welding. ... Molecule structure formula of cyclopropane Cyclopropane is a cycloalkane molecule with the molecular formula C3H6 consisting of three carbon atoms linked to each other to form a ring, with each carbon atom bearing two hydrogen atoms. ... Propan-1,2-diene is the simplest allene. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... Butane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C4H10. ... Butylene, also known as butene, is the name of the three isomeric hydrocarbon gases with chemical formula C4H8. ... Butyne may refer to either of two isomeric organic chemical compounds: 1-Butyne (ethylacetylene) 2-Butyne (dimethylacetylene) Category: ... Cyclobutane, C4H8, with a molecular mass of 56. ... Methylcyclopropane Methylcyclopropane (C4H8) is the alkyl cycloalkane compound of methane and cyclopropane. ... Butadiene can refer to either one of two hydrocarbon chemical compounds which are alkenes that are isomers of each other. ... Pentane (also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve) is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3CH3. ... Pentane also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3CH3. ... Pentane also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3CH3. ... Pentene is a hydrocarbon with chemical formula C5H10 containing a single double bond within its molecular structure. ... Cyclopentane is a highly flammable alicyclic hydrocarbon with chemical formula C5H10 and CAS number 287-92-3, consisting of a ring of five carbon atoms each bonded with two hydrogen atoms above and below the plane. ... Piperylene is a volatile, flammable hydrocarbon consisting of a five carbon chain with two double bonds. ... Isoprene is a common synonym for the chemical compound 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene. ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... Hexene is a higher olefin, or alkene with a formula C6H12. ... Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , Flash point −4 °C Autoignition temperature 285 °C Explosive limits 1. ... Heptene is a higher olefin, or alkene with the formula C7H14. ... Cycloheptane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C7H14. ... synonyms : hexahydrotoluene; cyclohexylmethane; toluene hexahydride molecular formula : C7H14 CAS number : 108-87-2 Methylcyclohexane is a colourless liquid with a faint benzene-like odour Methylcyclohexane is used in organic synthesis and as a solvent for celluloseethers. ... For other uses, see Octane (disambiguation). ... Octene is a higher olefin, or alkene, with the formula C8H16. ... Octane is an alkane with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)6CH3. ... Nonane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)7CH3. ... Intermediate compound in production of Nonylphenol. ... Decane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)8CH3. ... Decene is an alkene with the formula C10H20. ...

Usage

Hydrocarbons are one of the Earth's most important energy resources. The predominant use of hydrocarbons is as a combustible fuel source. In engineering, energy conversion is any process of converting energy from one form to another. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ...


Mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons are now used in preference to the chlorofluorocarbons as a propellant for aerosol sprays, due to chlorofluorocarbons impact on the ozone layer. For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... Aerosol spray can Aerosol spray is a type of canister that sprays an aerosol when its button is pressed or held down. ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ...


Burning hydrocarbons

Main article: Combustion

Hydrocarbons are currently the main source of the world’s electric energy and heat sources (such as home heating) because of the energy produced when burnt. Often this energy is used directly as heat such as in home heaters, which use either oil or natural gas. The hydrocarbon is burnt and the heat is used to heat water, which is then circulated. A similar principle is used to create electric energy in power plants. This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


As methane only releases one carbon dioxide for two water molecules, it is considered the cleanest fuel.[citation needed]


Petroleum

Main article: Petroleum
Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products.

Liquid geologically-extracted hydrocarbons are referred to as petroleum (literally "rock oil") or mineral oil, while gaseous geologic hydrocarbons are referred to as natural gas. All are significant sources of fuel and raw materials as a feedstock for the production of organic chemicals and are commonly found in the Earth's subsurface using the tools of petroleum geology. Petro redirects here. ... Image File history File links ShellMartinez-refi. ... Image File history File links ShellMartinez-refi. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Petro redirects here. ... Mineral oil or liquid petrolatum is a by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... Petroleum geology is a term used to refer to the specific set of geological disciplines that are applied to the search for hydrocarbons (oil exploration). ...


The extraction of liquid hydrocarbon fuel from a number of sedimentary basins has been integral to modern energy development. Hydrocarbons are mined from tar sands, oil shale and potentially extracted from sedimentary methane hydrates. These reserves require distillation and upgrading to produce synthetic crude and petroleum. The term sedimentary basin is used to refer to any geographical feature exhibiting subsidence and consequent infilling by sedimentation. ... Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Athabasca Oil Sands Tar sands is a common term for what are more accurately called bituminous sands, but also commonly referred to as oil sands or (in Venezuela) extra heavy oil. ... Oil shale Oil shale is a general term applied to a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant traces of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) that have not been buried for sufficient time to produce conventional fossil fuels. ... Burning ice. Methane released by heating burns, water drips. ... Synthetic crude is a type of crude oil developed by upgrading bitumen (a tar like substance found in tar sands). ...


Oil reserves in sedimentary rocks are the principal source of hydrocarbons for the energy, transport and petrochemical industries. Hydrocarbons are of prime economic importance because they encompass the constituents of the major fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.) and plastics, paraffin, waxes, solvents and oils. In urban pollution, these components--along with NOx and sunlight--all contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone. Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Seasonal average concentrations of tropospheric ozone in Dobson units over the period 1979 to 2000. ...


See also

Look up Hydrocarbon in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Energy storage is the storing of some form of energy that can be drawn upon at a later time to perform some useful operation. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The theory of abiogenic petroleum origin holds that natural petroleum was formed from deep carbon deposits, perhaps dating to the formation of the Earth. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Clayden, J., Greeves, N., et al. (2000), p21
  2. ^ McMurry, J. (2000), p75-81

References

  1. McMurry, J. (2000). Organic Chemistry 5th ed. Brooks/Cole: Thomson Learning.
  2. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., et al. (2000) Organic Chemistry Oxford.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

External links

Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes, also known as paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... The structural formula of 2-butyne, a simple alkyne-containing molecule Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. ... cyclobutane Cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes) are chemical compounds with one or more carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are attached according to the formula CnH2n. ... A cycloalkene or cycloolefin is a type of alkene hydrocarbon which contains a closed ring of carbon atoms. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hydrocarbon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (826 words)
Hydrocarbons are mined from tar sands, oil shale and potentially extracted from sedimentary methane hydrates.
Hydrocarbons are of prime economic importance because they encompass the constituents of the major fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.) and plastics, paraffin, waxes, solvents and oils.
Hydrocarbons (usually coal) are burnt and the energy released in this way is used to turn water in to steam, which is used to turn a turbine that generates energy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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