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Encyclopedia > Hydrazine
Hydrazine
Hydrazine Hydrazine Hydrazine
General
Systematic name Hydrazine
Other names
Molecular formula N2H4
Molar mass 32.05 g/mol
Appearance Colourless liquid
CAS number [302-01-2]
Properties
Density and phase 1.01 g/mL (liquid)
Solubility in water miscible
Other solvents miscible with
polar organic solvents
Melting point 1 °C (274 K)
Boiling point 114 °C (387 K)
Viscosity 0.9 cP at 25°C
Thermochemistry
ΔfH0gas 95.35 kJ/mol
ΔfH0liquid 50.63 kJ/mol
ΔfH0solid 37.63 kJ/mol
S0gas, 1 bar 238.66 J/mol·K
S0liquid, 1 bar 121.52 J/mol·K
S0solid  ? J/mol·K
Structure
Molecular shape pyramidal at N
Dipole moment 1.85 D
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards Toxic,
causes burns
LD50 25 mg/kg
NFPA 704
3
3
3
 
Flash point 37.78°C (closed cup)
R/S statement R: 45-10-23/24/25-34-43-50/53
S: 53-45-60-61
RTECS number MU7175000
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Refractive index n20/D 1.47
Related compounds
Related hydrides hydrogen peroxide
Related compounds ammonia
monomethylhydrazine
dimethylhydrazine
phenylhydrazine
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25°C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. It is widely used in chemical synthesis and is a component in some rocket fuels. With an ammonia-like odor, hydrazine has a liquid range and density similar to water. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x763, 18 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hydrazine ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x997, 177 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hydrazine ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x1028, 212 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hydrazine ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress. ... The poise (P; IPA: ) is the unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimetre gram second system of units. ... The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states (the most stable form of the element at 1 atmosphere... The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states (the most stable form of the element at 1 atmosphere... The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states (the most stable form of the element at 1 atmosphere... In chemistry, the standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance, under conditions of standard temperature and pressure. ... four sp³ orbitals three sp² orbitals In chemistry, hybridisation or hybridization (see also spelling differences) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... Risk and Safety Statements, also known as R/S statements, R/S numbers, R/S phrases, and R/S sentences, is a system of hazard codes and phrases for labeling dangerous chemicals and compounds. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR Spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the IR region of the EM spectrum. ... Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR Spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of nuclei. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is a volatile hydrazine with the chemical formula CH3N2H3. ... Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) (1,1-Dimethylhydrazine) is a hypergolic rocket fuel ingredient, often used in combination with the oxidiser, nitrogen tetroxide. ... Phenylhydrazine is the chemical compound with the formula C6H5NHNH2. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Rocket fuel is a propellant that reacts with an oxidizing agent to produce thrust in a rocket. ...

Contents

Molecular structure and properties

Conceptually, hydrazine arises via coupling a pair of ammonia molecules by removal of one H per molecule. Each H2N-N subunit is pyramidal. The N-N distance is 1.45 Å, and the molecule adopts a gauche conformation[1]. The rotational barrier is twice that of ethane. These structural properties resemble that of gaseous hydrogen peroxide, which adopts a "skewed" anticlinal conformation, and also experiences a strong rotational barrier. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... In chemistry a staggered conformation is a chemical conformation that exists in any open chain single chemical bond connecting two sp3 hybridised atoms as a conformational energy minimum. ... Alkane stereochemistry concerns the stereochemistry of linear alkanes and the linear alkane conformers. ... Ethane is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H6. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... Alkane stereochemistry concerns the stereochemistry of linear alkanes and the linear alkane conformers. ...


It has basic properties comparable to ammonia but 15-times weaker. Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ...

N2H4 + H+ → [N2H5]+ K = 8.5 x 10-7

(for ammonia K = 1.78 x 10-5) It can be diprotonated only with difficulty:[2]

[N2H5]+ + H+ → [N2H6]2+ K = 8.4 x 10-16

Synthesis

Theodor Curtius synthesized free hydrazine for the first time in 1889 via a circuitous route.[3] Geheimrat Professor Dr. Julius Wilhelm Theodor Curtius was professor of Chemistry on Heidelberg University and others. ...


Hydrazine is produced in the Olin Raschig process from sodium hypochlorite and ammonia, a process announced in 1907. This method relies on the reaction of chloramine with ammonia.[4] The Olin Raschig process is an industrial process used to produce hydrazine. ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. A solution of sodium hypochlorite is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent; indeed, often it is simply called bleach, though other chemicals are sometimes given that name as well. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... Chloramine (monochloramine) is chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl. ...


In the Atofina-PCUK cycle, hydrazine is produced in several steps from acetone, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. Acetone and ammonia first react to give the imine followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to the oxaziridine, a three-membered ring containing carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, followed by ammonolysis to the hydrazone, a process that couples two nitrogen atoms. This hydrazone reacts with one more equivalent of acetone, and the resulting azine is hydrolyzed to give hydrazine, regenerating acetone. Unlike the Raschig process, this process does not produce salt. The PCUK stands for Produits Chimiques Ugine Kuhlmann, a french chemical manufacturer. [5] The Atofina-PCUK cycle is an industrially important process for the creation of hydrazine. ... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... The general structure of an imine An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... Benzophenone hydrazone, an example hydrazone In chemistry, a hydrazone is a compound with the structure R2C=NNR2, differing from a ketone or aldehyde by the replacement of the double bonded oxygen with the =NNR2 functional group. ...


Hydrazine can also be produced via the so-called ketazine and peroxide processes. The Ketazine process is used commercially to produce hydrazine it is a variation of the Raschig process, in which ammonia is oxidized by chlorine or chloramine in the presence of aliphatic ketones, usually acetone. ... The Peroxide process produces hydrazine, it is a variant of the Raschig process in which hydrogen peroxide is used to oxidize ammonia in the presence of a ketone. ...


Hydrazine derivatives

Many substituted hydrazines are known, and several occur naturally. Some examples:

Gyromitrin is a chemical present in most members of the False Morel genus of mushrooms. ... Binomial name (J.E.Lange) Imbach Agaricus bisporus, known as table mushroom, cultivated mushroom or button mushroom, is an edible basidiomycete fungus which naturally occurs in grasslands, fields and meadows across Europe and North America, though has spread much more widely and is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms... Gyromitrin is a chemical present in most members of the False Morel genus of mushrooms. ... Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is a volatile hydrazine with the chemical formula CH3N2H2. ... Iproniazid is a monamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that was developed as the first anti-depressant (Also first psychiatric drug). ... Hydralazine hydrochloride (1 -hydrazinophthalazine monohydrochloride; Apresoline®) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure. ... Phenelzine (brand name Nardil) is an antidepressant drug that belongs to the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) class of drugs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) (1,1-Dimethylhydrazine) is a hypergolic rocket fuel ingredient, often used in combination with the oxidiser nitrogen tetroxide. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... Chemical structure of 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (or Bradys reagent) is a chemical compound that can be used in a chemical test to detect whether an organic compound has a ketone or aldehyde functional group. ... A ketone is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group linked to two other carbon atoms or a compound that contains this functional group. ... An aldehyde is either a functional group consisting of a terminal carbonyl group, or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Phenylhydrazine is the chemical compound with the formula C6H5NHNH2. ...

Uses in chemistry

Hydrazines are part of many organic syntheses, often those of practical significance in pharmaceuticals, such as antituberculants, as well as in textile dyes and in photography. Organic Syntheses is a scientific journal that Since 1921 has provided the chemistry community with annual collections of detailed and checked procedures for the organic synthesis of organic compounds. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Hydrazone formation

Illustrative of the condensation of hydrazine with a simple carbonyl is its reaction with acetone to give the azine. This azine reacts further with hydrazine to afford the hydrazone:[6] The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively sour odour. ...

2 (CH3)2CO + N2H4 → 2 H2O + [(CH3)2C=N]2
[(CH3)2C=N]2 + N2H4 → 2 (CH3)2C=NNH2

The acetone azine is an intermediate in the Atofina-PCUK synthesis. Direct alkylation of hydrazines with alkyl halides in the presence of base affords alkyl-substituted hydrazines, but the reaction is typically inefficient due to poor control on level of substitution (same as in ordinary amines). The reduction of hydrazones to hydrazines present a clean way to produce 1,1-dialkylated hydrazines. Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. ... The haloalkanes (also known as Halogenoalkanes) are a group of chemical compounds, consisting of alkanes, such as methane or ethane, with one or more halogens linked, such as chlorine or fluorine, making them a type of organic halide. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Benzophenone hydrazone, an example hydrazone In chemistry, a hydrazone is a compound with the structure R2C=NNR2, differing from a ketone or aldehyde by the replacement of the double bonded oxygen with the =NNR2 functional group. ...


In a related reaction 2-cyanopyridines react with hydrazine to form amide hydrazides which can be converted using 1,2-diketones into triazines. Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ... A triazine is one of three organic chemicals, isomeric with each other, whose empirical formula is C3H3N3. ...


Wolff-Kishner reduction

Hydrazine is used in the Wolff-Kishner reduction, a reaction that transforms the carbonyl group of a ketone or aldehyde into a methylene (or methyl) group via a hydrazone intermediate. The production of the highly stable dinitrogen from the hydrazine derivative helps to drive the reaction. The Wolff-Kishner reduction is a chemical reaction that fully reduces a ketone (or aldehyde) to an alkane. ... Carbonyl group In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e. ... Ketone group A ketone(key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... An aldehyde. ... In chemistry, methylene is a divalent functional group CH2 derived formally from methane. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... Benzophenone hydrazone, an example hydrazone In chemistry, a hydrazone is a compound with the structure R2C=NNR2, differing from a ketone or aldehyde by the replacement of the double bonded oxygen with the =NNR2 functional group. ... Dinitrogen, N2, is the most common form of the element nitrogen in normal conditions. ...


Heterocyclic chemistry

Being bifunctional, with two amines, hydrazine is a key building block for the preparation of many heterocyclic compounds via condensation with a range of difunctional electrophiles. With 2,4-pentanedione, it condenses to give the dimethylpyrazole.[7] In the Einhorn-Brunner reaction hydrazines react with amides to give triazoles. In chemistry, an electrophile (literally electron-lover) is a reagent attracted to electrons that participates in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair in order to bond to a nucleophile. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 34 °C Autoignition temperature 340 °C Explosive limits 2. ... Pyrazole refers both to the class of simple aromatic ring organic compounds of the heterocyclic series characterized by a 5-membered ring structure composed of three carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms in adjacent positions and to the unsubstituted parent compound. ... The Einhorn-Brunner reaction is the chemical reaction of imides with alkyl hydrazines to form a mixture of isomeric 1,2,4-triazoles. ... Triazole refers to either one of a pair of isomeric chemical compounds with molecular formula C2H3N3, having a five-membered ring of two carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms. ...


Sulfonation

Being a good nucleophile, N2H4 is susceptible to attack by sulfonyl halides and acyl halides.[8] The tosylhydrazine also forms hydrazones upon treatment with carbonyls. The tosylate group with a generic R group attached A tosyl group (abbreviated Ts or Tos) combines the toluene and sulfonyl functional groups. ...


Deprotection of phthalimides

Hydrazine is used to cleave N-alkylated phthalimide derivatives. This scission reaction allows phthalimide anion to be used as amine precursor.[9]


Reducing agent

Hydrazine is a convenient reductant because the by-products are typically nitrogen gas and water. Thus, it is used as an antioxidant, an oxygen scavenger, and a corrosion inhibitor in water boilers and heating systems. It is also used to reduce metal salts and oxides to the pure metals in electroless nickel plating and plutonium extraction from nuclear reactor waste. Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... A scavenger is a substance added to a mixture in order to remove or inactivate impurities or unwanted reaction products. ... Corrosion inhibitor - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Electroless nickel plating is achieved by forming a thin layer of nickel phosphate on a solid workpiece such as metals and plastics. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ...


Hydrazinium salts

Hydrazine is converted to solid salts by treatment with mineral acids. A common salt is hydrazine hydrogen sulfate, [N2H5]HSO4, which probably should be called hydrazinium sulfate. Hydrazine sulfate is used as an alternative treatment of cancer-induced cachexia. The salt of hydrazine and hydrazoic acid N5H5 were of scientific interest, because of the high nitrogen content and the explosive properties. In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... Hydrazoic acid is a colorless, volatile, and extremely explosive liquid at room temperature and pressure. ...


Other industrial uses

Hydrazine is used in many processes including: production of spandex fibers, as a polymerization catalyst, a blowing agent, in fuel cells, solder, fluxes, and photographic developers, as a chain extender in urethane polymerizations, and heat stabilizers. In addition, a semiconductor deposition technique using hydrazine has recently been demonstrated, with possible application to the manufacture of thin-film transistors used in liquid crystal displays. Hydrazine in a 70% hydrazine, 30% water solution is used to power the EPU (emergency power unit) on the F-16 fighter plane. The explosive Astrolite is made by combining hydrazine with ammonium nitrate. Example of spandex Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity (stretchability). ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... A foaming agent is a material that will decompose to release a gas under certain conditions (typically high temperature), which can be used to turn a liquid into a foam. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180-190°C (360-370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. ... In metallurgy, flux is a substance which removes passivating oxides from the surface of a metal or alloy. ... In film developing, photographic developer (or just developer) is a chemical that makes the latent image on the film or print visible. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... This article is about TFT technology. ... “LCD” redirects here. ... The Emergency Power Unit (EPU), or Emergency Power Supply Unit (EPSU) is a device for energy production in case of failure of the primary systems. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... Astrolite is the trade name of a family of explosives, invented by chemist Gerald Hurst in the 1960s during his employment with the Atlas Powder Company. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Rocket fuel

Hydrazine is also used as rocket fuel starting in World War II for the Messerschmitt Me 163, under the name B-Stoff (hydrazine hydrate) and in a mixture with methanol (M-Stoff) and hydrogen peroxide called C-Stoff. Rocket fuel is a propellant that reacts with an oxidizing agent to produce thrust in a rocket. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Me 163 Komet, designed by Alexander Martin Lippisch, was the only operational rocket-powered fighter aircraft during the Second World War. ... Hydrate is a term which means different things in inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... C-Stoff (C substance) was a reductant used in bipropellant rocket fuels developed by Helmuth Walter Werke in Germany during World War 2. ...


Hydrazine is also used as a low-power monopropellant for the maneuvering thrusters of spacecraft, and the Space Shuttle's Auxiliary Power Units. In addition, monopropellant hydrazine-fueled rocket engines are often used in terminal descent of spacecraft. A collection of such engines were used in both Viking landers as well as the Phoenix lander launched in August 2007. A (usually liquid) rocket propellant that can be used by itself, without the need for a second component. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... Viking mission profile. ... Phoenix is a robotic spacecraft on a space exploration mission to Mars under the Mars Scout Program. ...


In all hydrazine monopropellant engines the hydrazine is passed by a catalyst such as iridium metal supported by high-surface-area alumina (aluminium oxide) or carbon nanofibers,[10] or more recently molybdenum nitride on alumina,[11] which causes it to decompose into ammonia, nitrogen gas, and hydrogen gas according to the following reactions: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Aluminium oxide (or aluminum oxide) (Al2O3) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ...

  1. 3 N2H4 → 4 NH3 + N2
  2. N2H4 → N2 + 2 H2
  3. 4 NH3 + N2H4 → 3 N2 + 8 H2

These reactions are extremely exothermic (the catalyst chamber can reach 800 °C in a matter of milliseconds[10]), and they produce large volumes of hot gas from a small volume of liquid hydrazine,[11] making it an efficient thruster propellant. In thermodynamics, the word exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy in the form of heat. ...


Other variants of Hydrazine that are used as rocket fuel are MonoMethylHydrazine (CH3NHNH2) also known as MMH and Unsymmetrical DiMethylHydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) known as UDMH. These are used as two component rocket fuel, often together with Dinitrogen tetroxide, N2O4. Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is a volatile hydrazine with the chemical formula CH3N2H3. ... Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) (1,1-Dimethylhydrazine) is a hypergolic rocket fuel ingredient, often used in combination with the oxidiser nitrogen tetroxide. ... Nitrogen tetroxide (or dinitrogen tetroxide) is the chemical compound N2O4. ...


Safety

Hydrazine is highly toxic and dangerously unstable, especially in the anhydrous form. Symptoms of acute (short-term) exposure to high levels of hydrazine may include irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, dizziness, headache, nausea, pulmonary edema, seizures, and coma in humans. Acute exposure can also damage the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system in humans. The liquid is corrosive and may produce dermatitis from skin contact in humans and animals. Effects to the lungs, liver, spleen, and thyroid have been reported in animals chronically (long-term) exposed to hydrazine via inhalation. Increased incidences of lung, nasal cavity, and liver tumors have been observed in rodents exposed to hydrazine. As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... Dermatitis is a blanket term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ...


References

  1. ^ Miessler, Gary L. and Tarr, Donald A. Inorganic Chemistry, Third Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall (2004). ISBN 0-13-035471-6.
  2. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  3. ^ Curtius, J. Prakt. Chem. 1889, 39, 107-39.
  4. ^ Adams, R.; Brown, B. K. "Hydrazine Sulfate" Organic Syntheses, Collected Volume 1, p.309 (1941).
  5. ^ Riegel, Emil Raymond. "Hydrazine" Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry p. 192 (1992).
  6. ^ Day, A. C.; Whiting, M. C. "Acetone Hydrazone" Organic Syntheses Collective Volume 6, page 10.
  7. ^ Wiley, R. H.; Hexner, P. E. "3,5-Dimethylpyrazole" Organic Syntheses, Collective Volume 4, page 351.
  8. ^ Friedman, L; Litle, R. L.; Reichle, W. R. "p-Toluenesulfonyl Hydrazide" Organic Syntheses Collective Volume 5, page 1055.
  9. ^ Weinshenker, N. M.; Shen, C. M.; Wong, J. Y. "Polymeric carbodiimide" Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 6, p.951 (1988); Vol. 56, p.95 (1977).
  10. ^ a b Vieira, R.; C. Pham-Huu, N. Keller and M. J. Ledoux (2002). "New carbon nanofiber/graphite felt composite for use as a catalyst support for hydrazine catalytic decomposition" (PDF). Chemical Communications (9): 954—955. DOI:10.1039/b202032g. Retrieved on 2006-08-19. 
  11. ^ a b Chen, Xiaowei; et al. (April 2002). "Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrazine over Supported Molybdenum Nitride Catalysts in a Monopropellant Thruster" (PDF) 79: 21–25. DOI:10.1023/A:1015343922044. Retrieved on 2006-08-19. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
hydrazine — FactMonster.com (261 words)
The glue or gelatin inhibits decomposition of the hydrazine.
Hydrazine is also prepared by reaction of sodium hypochlorite with urea in the presence of glue or gelatin.
Hydrazine and its derivatives are also used in the manufacture of algicides, fungicides, insecticides, and agricultural chemicals; in rubber curing and the manufacture of foam rubber and plastics; in soldering fluxes; and as a corrosion inhibitor in boiler feedwater.
Hydrazine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1043 words)
Hydrazines are part of many organic syntheses, often those of practical significance in pharmaceuticals, such as antituberculants, as well as in textile dyes and photography.
Hydrazine is used in the Wolff-Kishner reduction, a reaction that transforms the carbonyl group of a ketone or aldehyde into a methylene (or methyl) group via a hydrazone intermediate.
Hydrazine is used in many processes including: production of spandex fibers, as a polymerization catalyst, a blowing agent, in fuel cells, solder, fluxes, and photographic developers, as a chain extender in urethane polymerizations, and heat stabilizers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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