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Encyclopedia > Hydraulics
Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.
Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.

Hydraulics is a topic of science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. Hydraulics is part of the more general discipline of fluid power. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. Hydraulic topics range through most science and engineering disciplines, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluid control circuitry, pumps, turbines, hydropower, computational fluid dynamics, flow measurement, river channel behavior and erosion. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1699x2637, 1990 KB) This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1699x2637, 1990 KB) This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. ... 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Fluid power is the technology that deals with the generation, control, and transmission of pressurized fluids. ... This box:      Fluid mechanics is the study of how fluids move and the forces on them. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Look up flow in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... Fluidics is science and technology of the application of a fluid or compressible medium to transmit energy and signals. ... This article is about a mechanical device. ... Kaplan turbine and electrical generator cut-away view. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ... A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry. ...


The word "hydraulics" originates from the Greek word ὑδραυλικός (hydraulikos) which in turn originates from ὕδραυλος meaning water organ which in turn comes from ὕδωρ (water) and αὐλός (pipe). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ...

Contents

History

The earliest masters of this science were Ctesibius (flourished c. 270 BC) and Heron of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) in the Greek-Hellenized West. In ancient China there was Sunshu Ao (6th century BC), Ximen Bao (5th century BC), Du Shi (circa 31 AD), Zhang Heng (78 - 139 AD), and Ma Jun (200 - 265 AD), while medieval China had Su Song (1020 - 1101 AD) and Shen Kuo (1030 - 1031 - 1095). The ancient engineers focused on sacral and novelty uses of hydraulics, rather than practical applications. In ancient Sri Lanka, the Sinhalese used hydraulics in many applications, in the ancient kingdoms of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa. The discovery of the principle of the valve tower, or valve pit, for regulating the escape of water is credited to Sinhalese ingenuity more than 2,000 years ago. By the first century A.D, several large-scale imigration works had been completed. Macro- and micro-hydraulics to provide for domestic horticultural and agricultural needs, surface drainage and erosion control, ornamental and recreational water courses and retaining structures and also cooling systems were in place in Sigiriya, Sri Lanka. Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius (Greek Κτησίβιος) (flourished 285–222 BC) was a Greek[1] inventor and mathematician in Alexandria. ... Heros aeolipile Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (c. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Sunshu Ao (孫叔敖) was an ancient Chinese court minister serving the administration of Duke Zhuang of Chu during the reign of King Ding of Zhou (606 BC-586 BC), during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. ... Ximen Bao (西門豹) was an ancient Chinese government minister and court advisor to Marquis Wen of Wei (文侯) (445 BC-396 BC) during the Warring States (481 BC-221 BC) period of China. ... Du Shi (Wade-Giles: Tu Shih, active 1st century AD) was a governmental Prefect of Nanyang in 31 AD and a mechanical engineer of the Eastern Han Dynasty in ancient China. ... For other uses, see Zhang Heng (disambiguation). ... South Pointing Chariot (replica) Ma Jun (馬鈞, Wade-Giles: Ma Chün; 200 - 265), styled Deheng (徳衡), was a Chinese mechanical engineer and government official during the Three Kingdoms era of China. ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095) was a polymathic Chinese scientist and statesman of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). ... Language(s) Sinhala Religion(s) Theravada Buddhism, Christianity, small groups of atheists, agnostics, Muslims, others Related ethnic groups Indo-Aryans, Dravidians, Veddahs, Bengalis The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... Anuradhapura, ( in Sinhala), is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, world famous for its well preserved ruins of the Great Sri Lankan Civilization. ... The second most ancient of Sri Lankas kingdoms, Polonnaruwa was first declared the capital city by King Vijayabahu I, who defeated the Chola invaders in 1070 CE to reunite the country once more under a local leader. ... // These water valves are operated by handles. ... Sigiriya is an archeological site in Central Sri Lanka. ...


In 1619 Benedetto Castelli (1576 - 1578–1643), a student of Galileo Galilei, published the book Della Misura dell'Acque Correnti or "On the Measurement of Running Waters", one of the foundations of modern hydrodynamics. He served as a chief consultant to the Pope on hydraulic projects, i.e., management of rivers in the Papal States, beginning in 1626.[1] Benedetto Castelli, born Antonio Castelli (Brescia, 1578 – Rome, 1643), took the name Benedetto upon entering the Benedictine Order in 1595. ... Galileo redirects here. ...


Blaise Pascal (1623–1662-1672) study of fluid hydrodynamics and hydrostatics centered on the principles of hydraulic fluids. His inventions include the hydraulic press, which multiplied a smaller force acting on a smaller area into the application of a larger force totaled over a larger area, transmitted through the same pressure (or same change of pressure) at both locations. Pascal's law or principle states that for an incompressible fluid at rest, the difference in pressure is proportional to the difference in height and this difference remains the same whether or not the overall pressure of the fluid is changed by applying an external force. This implies that by increasing the pressure at any point in a confined fluid, there is an equal increase at every other point in the container, i.e., any change in pressure applied at any point of the fluid is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluids. Blaise Pascal (pronounced ), (June 20 [[1624 // ]] – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Hydraulic force increase. ... In the physical sciences, Pascals law or Pascals principle states that for all points at the same absolute height in a connected body of an incompressible fluid at rest, the fluid pressure is the same, even if additional pressure is applied on the fluid at some place. ...


See also

Hydraulic force increase. ... Excavator. ... A hydraulic or hydrostatic drivesystem or hydraulic power transmission is a drive- or transmission system that makes use of a hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive machinery. ... Hydraulic fluids are a large group of mineral oils, water-based or water used as the medium in hydraulic systems. ... Rotary Power is an engineering company based in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, and designs and manufacturers hydraulic motors and pumps. ...

References

  1. ^ Benedetto Castelli (1576-1578-1643), The Galileo Project

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
School science/Hydraulics demonstration

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